|Founded||1 April 1995|
|Products||Bus, coach, rail & tram|
|Revenue||£7,755 million (2020)|
|£(152.7) million (2020)|
|£(324.6) million (2020)|
Number of employees
FirstGroup plc is a British multi-national transport group, based in Aberdeen, Scotland. The company operates transport services in the United Kingdom, and Ireland. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.
FirstGroup originated from the deregulation of bus services in the United Kingdom in 1986, whereby private companies purchased nationalised and municipal bus operators. In September 1986 the Somerset based services of the Bristol Omnibus Company that were rebranded in 1985 as Badgerline were purchased in a management buyout. As Badgerline Group, it expanded through acquisition purchasing other formerly nationalised bus companies in England and Wales.
In January 1989, Grampian Regional Transport, the bus operator in Aberdeen owned by Grampian Regional Council, was privatized in a management buyout led by its then general manager Moir Lockhead. As GRT Bus Group, it expanded through acquisition purchasing six former nationalised bus companies in England and Scotland. In April 1995, FirstBus was formed through the merger of the Badgerline and GRT Bus Groups, with fleets in England, Wales and Scotland. The former King Street Barracks site in Aberdeen was selected as the headquarters. At the time of the merger, FirstBus had 5,600 buses, 4,000 of which came from Badgerline. Badgerline's Trevor Smallwood became chairman of FirstBus, while GRT head Moir Lockhead became deputy chairman and chief executive.
FirstBus continued the policy of growth by acquisition acquiring former council owned operations and companies formerly owned by English, Welsh and Scottish nationalized operators. FirstBus went on to acquire larger urban metropolitan operators by taking advantage of the privatisation of the PTE bus operations and the privatisation of London bus services. FirstBus acquired GM Buses North in Manchester and Strathclyde Buses in Glasgow in 1996, Mainline in South Yorkshire and CentreWest in London in 1997, and Capital Citybus in London in 1998.
The company was renamed FirstGroup in December 1997 after the company moved into railways in February 1996 with the privatisation of British Rail, through a 24.5% shareholding in Great Western Holdings that won the Great Western and North Western franchises, and a 100% shareholding in First Great Eastern that ran the Great Eastern franchise from January 1997. In March 1998, FirstGroup purchased the 75.5% shares in Great Western Holdings it did not already own and rebranded the franchises First Great Western and First North Western.
In September 1998, FirstGroup made its first overseas foray when New World First Bus commenced operating bus services in Hong Kong formerly operated by China Motor Bus. FirstGroup had a 26% shareholding in the joint venture. In May 2000 FirstGroup sold its shares to joint venture partner New World Development. In September 1999, FirstGroup purchased Ryder Public Transport Services, a provider of school bus and contracted public bus transportation in the United States. In May 2000, FirstGroup began operating the London Tramlink concession under contract to Transport for London.
In August 2003, FirstGroup purchased GB Railways which owned Anglia Railways and GB Railfreight and held 80% of the shares in Hull Trains. Having not been shortlisted for the Greater Anglia franchise, this gave FirstGroup another chance to bid. However, it was unsuccessful and the franchise was awarded to National Express from April 2004, including the services operated by First Great Eastern. In November 2003, FirstGroup purchased a 90% shareholding in Irish coach operator Aircoach.
In February 2004, FirstGroup's joint venture with Keolis commenced operating the First TransPennine Express rail franchise, FirstGroup having a 55% shareholding. In April 2004, FirstGroup commenced operating the First Great Western Link franchise and in October 2004 the First ScotRail franchise. In December 2004, the remainder of First North Western passed to Northern Rail, some services having already been transferred to Arriva Trains Wales and FirstTranspennine Express.
In April 2006, FirstGroup commenced operating the First Capital Connect franchise and a renewed First Great Western franchise that had been expanded to include the Thames Trains and Wessex Trains franchises.
In February 2007, FirstGroup agreed to buy the US-based firm Laidlaw, an operator of inter-city coaches and yellow school buses across North America, for £1.9 billion (US$3.7 billion). This also gave it a controlling stake in Greyhound Lines, the largest bus operator in North America. The Greyhound name and the names of Canadian subsidiaries of Greyhound Canada were retained, and all other Laidlaw-owned services in the United States and Canada were rebranded under the First or Greyhound names, except for Voyageur Colonial and Grey Goose in Canada. In January 2009, DSBFirst, FirstGroup's joint venture with Danish State Railways commenced operating the Oresundtrain rail franchise from Helsingør and Nivå in Denmark along the Kystbanen line and over the Øresund Bridge to Malmö, Växjö, Kalmar, Karlskrona and Gothenburg in Sweden. FirstGroup had a 25% shareholding in the Danish business and 20% in the Swedish business. By March 2011 this was 30%.
In June 2009, FirstGroup made a takeover offer for fellow transport operator National Express, which was struggling with debt at the time and was struggling to hold onto its National Express East Coast rail franchise. This was rejected, National Express which said it did not "consider it appropriate" at the time to discuss a takeover. FirstGroup believed that there was "significant industrial and commercial logic" for a merger, but National Express wished to focus on its own initiatives.
In June 2010, FirstGroup sold its railfreight business First GBRf to the Eurotunnel Group for £31 million, ending the group's involvement in rail freight transport. In September 2010, former London Underground managing director Tim O'Toole, already a board member since May 2009 and chief operating officer and Deputy Chief Executive since June 2010, was announced as the successor to retiring group chief executive officer Moir Lockhead with effect from 31 March 2011.
In September 2011, FirstGroup's German bus operations were sold to Marwyn European Transport. In December 2011, DSBFirst ceased operating the Swedish part of the operation after difficulties encountered by Danish State Railways over cross subsidies.
In July 2012, First Travel Solutions provided bus and coach services for the London 2012 Olympic Games as First Games Transport. This involved the provision of venue shuttle and park and ride services, services connecting the peripheral park and ride sites on the M25 with the Olympic Park and Ebbsfleet, and a nationwide network of express coaches to the Olympic Park and the Weymouth and Portland sailing venue. The services required around 900 vehicles in total, although some were sub-contracted. In June 2013, most of the First London bus operations were sold to Go-Ahead London, Metroline and Tower Transit. In April 2015 FirstGroup was unsuccessful in bidding for the ScotRail franchise, which is now run by Abellio ScotRail. In December 2015, FirstGroup was awarded the next TransPennine Express franchise. The new franchise commenced on 1 April 2016 with a commitment to introduce new trains, routes and faster journey times.
In October 2016, First Transit commenced operating the A-train under contract to the Denton County Transportation Authority, its first rail operation in the United States. In August 2017 FirstGroup's joint venture with MTR Corporation commenced operating the South Western franchise, FirstGroup having a 70% shareholding in South Western Railway.
In May 2019, FirstGroup announced it would sell it UK bus operations. The only sales completed were parts of First Greater Manchester to the Go-Ahead Group and Rotala. In May 2020, FirstGroup announced it would retain its UK bus operations and sell its North American assets instead.
In October 2021, FirstGroup announced the sale of Greyhound Lines to FlixMobility, completing its stated strategy to focus on its leading UK public transport businesses. In October 2021, Lumo commenced operating services on the East Coast Main Line.
FirstGroup is Britain's largest bus operator, running more than 20% of all local bus services. A fleet of nearly 9,000 buses carries some 2.9 million passengers a day in more than 40 major towns and cities. FirstGroup also runs passenger rail services in the UK. Passenger rail franchises consist of Avanti West Coast, Great Western Railway, South Western Railway and TransPennine Express. It also operates Hull Trains, a non-franchised open access passenger train service. FirstGroup operates tram services on the London Tramlink network carrying approximately 24 million passengers a year on behalf of Transport for London.
FirstGroup owns and operates the Aircoach service in Dublin, linking Dublin Airport with the city centre, the south side of Dublin, Greystones and Bray as well as long-distance express services runs to Cork and Belfast.
Corporate branding and liveries
FirstGroup has always had a consistent brand and uses the First brand for most of its operations. FirstBus began to apply a standard corporate typeface to its fleet names in the late 1990s, introducing the stylized f logo depicting a road. A corporate white, pink and blue livery nicknamed "Barbie" was introduced to new buses, while further bus company acquisitions continued. Inherited bus fleets were initially left in their original colours with First fleet names, with the intention that the Barbie scheme would stand for a set service quality. Later older buses received a modified "Barbie 2" livery.
As part of its corporate branding, First subsequently removed all local branding for its bus services, buses simply carried the 'First' brand, although each company still operated independently. In 2012, the group began to introduce a new purple, white and lilac livery to its bus fleets, which also reinstated local branding. In January 2014, the company rebranded its First Somerset & Avon operations in Bridgwater and Taunton as The Buses of Somerset, using a two-tone green livery.
Hull Trains carries a predominantly blue livery, including white, pink and purple. This was also used by First Great Western until 20 September 2015, when the franchise was rebranded as Great Western Railway, with a new logo and dark green livery paying homage to the original Great Western Railway.
London Tramlink operations are painted in white, green and blue as per Transport for London requirements. In Scotland, First ScotRail operated with a blue livery with white saltire markings on the carriage ends, as mandated by the Scottish Government's transport agency Transport Scotland.
Current operating businesses
Current operating businesses include:
Bus and coach
- First Aberdeen (formerly First Grampian)
- First Aberdeen Coach Hire (formerly Grampian Executive)
- First Berkshire & The Thames Valley (formerly First Beeline)
- First Cymru
- First Eastern Counties
- First Essex (formerly First Eastern National, First Thamesway)
- First Glasgow (formerly First Kelvin and First Greater Glasgow)
- First Greater Manchester
- First Hampshire & Dorset (formerly First Southampton, First Provincial and the Dorset operations of First Southern National)
- First Leicester
- First Midland Red (sometimes referred to as First Wyvern)
- First Northern Ireland
- First Potteries (operating in Staffordshire and South Cheshire, formerly First PMT/PMT Limited)
- First Travel Solutions re-branded 2016 (Formally First Rail Support) which provides emergency and planned rail replacement transport to train operating companies using First and non-First Transport through its 24-hour control room in Simonstone, Lancashire
- First Scotland East (formerly First SMT, First Borders and First Midland Bluebird)
- First West Lothian
- First Bluebird
- First South West (formerly First Devon & Cornwall)
- First South Yorkshire (formerly First Mainline)
- First West of England (formerly First Bristol & First Somerset & Avon)
- First West Yorkshire
- First York (including the York Park & Ride)
- Avanti West Coast (70% shareholding)
- Great Western Railway (formerly First Great Western)
- Hull Trains
- London Tramlink
- South Western Railway (70% shareholding)
- TransPennine Express
Former operating companies
Bus and coach
- Greyhound Canada (intercity bus services)
- FirstGroup Rhein-Neckar sold September 2011 to Marwyn European Transport
- First Chester & The Wirral sold to Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire in January 2013
- First Northampton ceased 14 September 2013
- First London from March 1997 until September 2013, most operations sold to Go-Ahead London, Metroline and Tower Transit, remainder ceased upon expiry of contracts in September 2013
- Greyhound UK coach services between September 2009 and December 2015
- First Borders (formerly Lowland Scottish and part of the wider First Scotland East group) sold to West Coast Motors, trading as Borders Buses, on 26 March 2017.
- First Student, a school transport provider
- First Transit, a city and county public transport provider
- First Vehicle Services, which maintained vehicles for many corporations, organizations and local governments, including the other First divisions.
- First Great Eastern from January 1997 until April 2004, incorporated into Greater Anglia franchise subsequently operated by National Express as One
- First North Western from March 1997 until December 2004, operations split between Arriva Trains Wales, First TransPennine Express and Northern Rail
- First GBRf from August 2003 until sold in June 2010 to Eurotunnel Group, rebranded as GB Railfreight
- First Capital Connect from April 2006 until September 2014, succeeded by Govia Thameslink Railway
- First ScotRail from October 2004 until March 2015, succeeded by Abellio ScotRail & Caledonian Sleeper
- First TransPennine Express (55% shareholding) from February 2004 until March 2016, succeeded by TransPennine Express with FirstGroup having 100% ownership
Denmark and Sweden
- "Annual Report and Accounts 2020" (PDF). FirstGroup. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
- Companies House extract company no SC157176 FirstGroup plc
- FirstGroup plc Ord 5p Archived 8 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine London Stock Exchange
- "RESEARCH PAPER 99/59" (PDF). parliament.uk/. 8 June 1999. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "The badger is back in the West of England". Passenger Transport. 12 August 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Interview with Moir Lockhead. 11 April 2006
- "Men in lemon celebrate First's 20 years". Buses. No. 648. Ian Allan Publishing. March 2009.
- Badgerline links with GRT The Independent 5 April 1995
- Buses issue 648 March 2009
- "£75m of additional passenger benefits agreed with FirstGroup" (Press release). Department for Transport. 6 March 1998. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007.
- "Conditions met for FirstGroup takeover of Great Western" (Press release). Department for Transport. 30 March 1998. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007.
- FirstGroup Annual Report 31 March 1999 Archived 13 February 2009 at the UK Web Archive FirstGroup plc
- UK bus operator wins £55m franchise The Independent 1 April 1998
- Milestones 2000 NWS Holdings Limited
- FirstGroup to Buy Ryder Unit Archived 18 February 2013 at archive.today Europolitics 8 September 1999
- "Croydon Tramlink Light Rail Network". International Railway Journal. London. June 2000.
- GB Rail Offer Unconditional Archived 4 October 2013 at archive.today FirstGroup plc corporate news 14 August 2003
- "National Express Group Announced as Preferred Bidder for new Greater Anglia Franchise" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2009.
- Aircoach Announces 15m Euro Deal Archived 18 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine Aircoach news 7 November 2003
- SRA Announce Preferred Bidder for TransPennine Express Franchise Archived 15 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Strategic Rail Authority announcement 28 July 2003
- Keolis in the UK Archived 7 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine Keolis SA
- Preferred Bidder Announced for New Thames Trains Franchise Strategic Rail Authority announcement 4 November 2003
- FirstGroup clinches Scottish rail franchise The Daily Telegraph 12 June 2004
- Serco joint venture selected as preferred bidder for Northern Rail train operating franchise Archived 27 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Serco Group 1 July 2004
- Department for Transport Announces Winner of Thameslink/GN Franchise Department for Transport press release 13 December 2005
- Greater Western Franchise Archived 4 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Department for Transport publication 2 February 2006
- Wessex Train Company News Tessa
- "FirstGroup buys Greyhound buses". BBC News. 9 February 2007.
- FirstGroup starts operations in Scandinavia FirstGroup plc 12 January 2009
- "FirstGroup Annual Report and Accounts 2011" (PDF). FirstGroup plc. p. 92.
- "National Express turns down bid". BBC News. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- "FirstGroup plc: Disposal of rail freight business" (Press release). FirstGroup. 1 June 2010. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012.
- Rose, Michael (1 June 2010). "Eurotunnel buys GBRf from FirstGroup". Reuters.
- "First GBRf bought by Eurotunnel". Railnews. Stevenage. 1 June 2010.
- Miles, Tony (November 2010). "O'Toole takes over from Lockhead at FirstGroup". Modern Railways. London. p. 7.
- Milmo, Dan (22 September 2010). "Tim O'Toole confirmed as new FirstGroup chief executive". The Guardian.
- FirstGroup sells German bus unit BBC News 30 September 2011
- DSB CEO dismissed over accounting irregularities Railway Gazette International 1 April 2011
- Veolia takes over Öresund train services Archived 10 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine thelocal.se 28 June 2011
- Veolia takes over from troubled DSBFirst Archived 22 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Railway Gazette International 28 June 2011
- "Statement re Bus and Coach contract at London 2012 Games" (Press release). FirstGroup. 15 February 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- FirstGroup Announces Sale of Eight London Bus Depots FirstGroup 9 April 2013
- "Northern and TransPennine Express franchises awarded". Railway Gazette International. 9 December 2015.
- FirstGroup signs first US rail commuter contract FirstGroup 20 July 2016
- FirstGroup awarded its first US rail contact Railway Gazette International 21 July 2016
- FirstGroup and MTR welcome South Western rail franchise award Archived 26 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine London Stock Exchange 27 March 2017
- FirstGroup confirms sale of UK bus division to focus on US business The Guardian 30 May 2019
- "Go-Ahead agrees terms with FirstGroup to purchase Manchester bus depot". Go-Ahead Group. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
- "DBNW Expanding | Diamond Bus". www.diamondbuses.com. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
- FirstGroup issues Winter 2020 trading statement as sell-off of US operations announced Coach & Bus Week issue 1436 17 March 2020 page 11
- FirstGroup to focus operations on the UK as First Student and First Transit sold Coach & Bus Week 23 April 2021
- FirstGroup Plans to Sell First Student, First Transit for $4.6 Billion Metro 23 April 2021
- "Our history". www.firstgroupplc.com. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
- "Sale of Greyhound Lines, Inc". otp.tools.investis.com. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
- Applications for the East Coast Main Line Office of Rail & Road 12 May 2016
- "Tramlink". Transport for London. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Aircoach". FirstGroup. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- "First Variation". April 2003. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
- Makeover for First Aberdeen's Bus Fleet First Group plc press release 13 June 2012
- First introduces The Buses of Somerset Euro Transport 30 January 2014
- First drops corporate look in Somerset Archived 15 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Bus & Coach Professional 5 February 2014
- "First Great Western unveils rebranded Great Western Railway trains". BBC News. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- ScotRail 25th Anniversary Publicity Materials Archived 6 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine Transport Scotland
- "At a glance". FirstGroup. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
- "Vancouver Island Coachlines – Your Vancouver Island Transportation Solution". Retrieved 9 September 2020.
- First sells Scottish border services to West Coast Motors Coach & Bus Week 14 March 2017
- Sale of First Borders to West Coast Motors First Group 25 March 2017
- "Sale of Greyhound Lines, Inc". otp.tools.investis.com. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
- First Student About Us First Student
- First Transit About Us First Transit