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{{otheruses2|Bull Run}}
 
{| style="clear:right; float:right; background:transparent;"
 
|-
 
| {{Infobox Military Conflict
 
|conflict = First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas)
 
|image = [[Image:bullrun2.jpg|300px]]
 
|caption = Cub Run in [[Centreville, Virginia]] (view with destroyed bridge).
 
|partof = the [[American Civil War]]
 
|date = {{start-date| July 21, 1861}}
 
|place = {{placename| [[Fairfax County, Virginia|Fairfax County]] and [[Prince William County, Virginia|Prince William County]], [[Virginia]]|locality=Manassas National Battlefield Park|state=Virginia|name=First Battle of Bull Run}}
 
|no-location-property=yes
 
|result = [[Confederate States of America|Confederate]] victory
 
|combatant1 = {{flagicon|USA|1861}} [[United States]] ([[Union (American Civil War)|Union]])
 
|combatant2 = {{flagicon|CSA|1861c}} [[Confederate States of America|CSA (Confederacy)]]
 
|commander1 = [[Irvin McDowell]]
 
|commander2 = [[Joseph E. Johnston]]<br>[[P.G.T. Beauregard]]
 
|strength1 = 28&ndash;35,000 (18,000 engaged)<ref name=strength>Strength figures vary by source. Eicher, p. 87-88: 35,000 Union, 32,000 Confederate; Esposito, map 19: 35,000 Union, 29,000 Confederate; [http://www.history.army.mil/StaffRide/1st%20Bull%20Run/Organization.htm Ballard], 35,000 Union (18,000 engaged), 34,000 Confederate (18,000 engaged); Salmon, p. 20: 28,450 Union, 32,230 Confederate; Kennedy, p. 14: 35,000 Union, 33,000 Confederate; Livermore, p. 77: 28,452 Union "effectives", 32,323 Confederate engaged. Writing in ''[[The Century Magazine]]'', adjutant generals [[James Barnet Fry|James B. Fry]] [http://www.rugreview.com/cw/cwcu.htm cites] 18,572 Union men (including stragglers not on the field) and 24 guns engaged, [[Thomas Jordan]] [http://www.rugreview.com/cw/cwcc.htm cites] 18,052 Confederate men and 37 guns engaged.</ref>
 
|strength2 = 32&ndash;34,000 (18,000 engaged)<ref name=strength/>
 
|casualties1 = '''2,896''' <div style="line-height:1.3em;">(460 killed<br/>&nbsp;1,124 wounded<br/>&nbsp;1,312 captured/missing)<ref name="Eicher99">Eicher, p.99.</ref></div>
 
|casualties2 = '''1,982''' <div style="line-height:1.3em;">(387 killed<br/>&nbsp;1,582 wounded<br/>&nbsp;13 missing)<ref name="Eicher99"/></div>
 
}}
 
|-
 
| {{Campaignbox Manassas Campaign}}
 
|}
 
 
The '''First Battle of Bull Run''', also known as the '''First Battle of Manassas''' (the name used by Confederate forces and still often used in the [[Southern United States]]), was the first major land battle of the [[American Civil War]], fought on July 21, 1861, near [[Manassas, Virginia]]. Unseasoned [[Union Army]] troops under [[Brigadier general (United States)|Brig. Gen.]] [[Irvin McDowell]] advanced across [[Bull Run Creek (Virginia)|Bull Run]] against the equally unseasoned [[Confederate States Army|Confederate Army]] under Brig. Gens. [[Joseph E. Johnston]] and [[P.G.T. Beauregard]], and despite the Union's early successes, they were routed and forced to retreat back to [[Washington, D.C.]]
 
 
==Background==
 
{{Further|[[First Bull Run Confederate order of battle|Confederate order of battle]], [[First Bull Run Union order of battle|Union order of battle]]}}
 
[[Image:First Bull Run Campaign.svg|thumb|500px|Northern Virginia Theater in July 1861.
 
{{legend|#ff0000|Confederate}}
 
{{legend|#0000ff|Union}}
 
]]
 
Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell was appointed by [[President of the United States|President]] [[Abraham Lincoln]] to command the [[Army of the Potomac|Army of Northeastern Virginia]]. Once in this capacity, McDowell was harassed by impatient politicians and citizens in Washington, who wished to see a quick battlefield victory over the Confederate Army in northern [[Virginia]]. McDowell, however, was concerned about the untried nature of his army. He was reassured by President Lincoln, "You are green, it is true, but they are green also; you are all green alike."<ref>Detzer, p. 77; Williams, p. 21; McPherson, p. 336; Davis, p. 110, attributes the remark to general-in-chief [[Winfield Scott]].</ref> Against his better judgment, McDowell commenced campaigning. On July 16, 1861, the general departed Washington with the largest field army yet gathered on the [[North America]]n continent, about 35,000 men (28,452 effectives).<ref name=strength/> McDowell's plan was to move westward in three columns, make a diversionary attack on the Confederate line at [[Bull Run Creek (Virginia)|Bull Run]] with two columns, while the third column moved around the Confederates' right flank to the south, cutting the railroad to [[Richmond, Virginia|Richmond]] and threatening the rear of the rebel army. He assumed that the Confederates would be forced to abandon Manassas Junction and fall back to the [[Rappahannock River]], the next defensible line in Virginia, which would relieve some of the pressure on the U.S. capital.<ref>Davis, pp. 110-11.</ref>
 
 
The [[Confederate Army of the Potomac]] (21,883 effectives<ref name=Livermore>Livermore, p. 77.</ref>) under Beauregard was encamped near Manassas Junction, approximately 25 miles (40 km) from the United States capital. McDowell planned to attack this numerically inferior enemy army, while Union [[Major general (United States)|Maj. Gen.]] [[Robert Patterson]]'s 18,000 men engaged Johnston's force (the [[Army of the Shenandoah]] at 8,884 effectives, augmented by Maj. Gen. [[Theophilus H. Holmes]]'s [[brigade]] of 1,465<ref name=Livermore />) in the [[Shenandoah Valley]], preventing them from reinforcing Beauregard.
 
 
[[Image:First Bull Run July18.svg|thumb|500px|Situation July 18.]]
 
After two days of marching slowly in the sweltering heat, the Union army was allowed to rest in [[Centreville, Virginia|Centreville]]. McDowell reduced the size of his army to approximately 30,000 by dispatching Brig. Gen. [[Theodore Runyon]] with 5,000 troops to protect the army's rear. In the meantime, McDowell searched for a way to [[flanking maneuver|outflank]] Beauregard, who had drawn up his lines along Bull Run. On July 18, the Union commander sent a [[division (military)|division]] under Brig. Gen. [[Daniel Tyler]] to pass on the Confederate right (southeast) flank. Tyler was drawn into a [[Battle of Blackburn's Ford|skirmish at Blackburn's Ford]] over Bull Run and made no headway.
 
 
Becoming more frustrated, McDowell resolved to attack the Confederate left (northwest) flank instead. He planned to attack with Brig. Gen. [[Daniel Tyler]]'s division at the [[Stone Bridge (Manassas)|Stone Bridge]] on the [[U.S. Route 29|Warrenton Turnpike]] and send the divisions of Brig. Gens. [[David Hunter]] and [[Samuel P. Heintzelman]] over Sudley Springs Ford. From here, these divisions could march into the Confederate rear. The brigade of [[Colonel (United States)|Col.]] [[Israel B. Richardson]] (Tyler's Division) would harass the enemy at Blackburn's Ford, preventing them from thwarting the main attack. Patterson would tie down Johnston in the Shenandoah Valley so that reinforcements could not reach the area. Although McDowell had arrived at a theoretically sound plan, it had a number of flaws: it was one that required synchronized execution of troop movements and attacks, skills that had not been developed in the nascent army; it relied on actions by Patterson that he had already failed to take; finally, McDowell had delayed long enough that Johnston's Valley force was able to board trains at Piedmont Station and rush to Manassas Junction to reinforce Beauregard's men.<ref>Eicher, pp. 91-100.</ref>
 
 
On July 19&ndash;20, significant reinforcements bolstered the Confederate lines behind Bull Run. Johnston arrived with all of his army, except for the troops of Brig. Gen. [[Edmund Kirby Smith|Kirby Smith]], who were still in transit. Most of the new arrivals were posted in the vicinity of Blackburn's Ford and Beauregard's plan was to attack from there to the north toward Centreville. Johnston, the senior officer, approved the plan. If both of the armies had been able to execute their plans simultaneously, it would have resulted in a mutual counterclockwise movement as they attacked each other's left flank.<ref>Eicher, p. 92.</ref>
 
 
McDowell was getting contradictory information from his intelligence agents, and so he called for the balloon [[Enterprise (balloon)|''Enterprise'']], which was being demonstrated by Prof. [[Thaddeus S. C. Lowe]] in Washington, to perform aerial reconnaissance.
 
 
== Battle ==
 
[[Image:First Bull Run July21am.svg|thumb|500px|Situation morning, July 21.]]
 
On the morning of July 21, McDowell sent the divisions of Hunter and Heintzelman (about 12,000 men) from Centreville at 2:30 a.m., marching southwest on the Warrenton Turnpike and then turning northwest towards Sudley Springs. Tyler's division (about 8,000) marched directly towards the Stone Bridge. The inexperienced units immediately developed logistical problems. Tyler's division blocked the advance of the main flanking column on the turnpike. The latter units found the approach roads to Sudley Springs were inadequate, little more than a cart path in some places, and did not begin fording Bull Run until 9:30 a.m. Tyler's men reached the Stone Bridge around 6 a.m.<ref>Beatie, pp. 285-88; Esposito, text for Map 21; Rafuse, p. 312.</ref>
 
 
At 5:15 a.m., Richardson's brigade fired a few artillery rounds across Mitchell's Ford on the Confederate right, some of which hit Beauregard's headquarters in the [[Wilmer McLean]] house as he was eating breakfast, alerting him to the fact that his offensive battle plan had been preempted. Nevertheless, he ordered demonstration attacks north toward the Union left at Centreville. Bungled orders and poor communications prevented their execution. Although he intended for Brig. Gen. [[Richard S. Ewell]] to lead the attack, Ewell, at Union Mills Ford, was simply ordered to "hold ... in readiness to advance at a moment's notice." Brig. Gen. [[David R. Jones|D.R. Jones]] was supposed to attack in support of Ewell, but found himself moving forward alone. Holmes was also supposed to support, but received no orders at all.<ref>Eicher, p. 94; Esposito, Map 22.</ref>
 
 
[[Image:Federal cavalry Sudley Springs.jpg|thumb|left|Federal cavalry at Sudley Spring Ford.]]
 
All that stood in the path of the 20,000 Union soldiers converging on the Confederate left flank were Col. [[Nathan George Evans|Nathan "Shanks" Evans]] and his reduced brigade of 1,100 men.<ref name=Rafuse312>Rafuse, p. 312.</ref> Evans had moved some of his men to intercept the direct threat from Tyler at the bridge, but he began to suspect that the weak attacks from the Union brigade of Brig. Gen. [[Robert C. Schenck]] were merely feints. He was informed of the main Union flanking movement through Sudley Springs by Captain [[Edward Porter Alexander]], Beauregard's signal officer, observing from 8 miles southwest on Signal Hill. In the first use of [[Signal Corps in the American Civil War#Wig-wag signaling|wig-wag semaphore signaling]] in combat, Alexander sent the message "Look out for your left, your position is turned."<ref>Brown, pp. 43-45; Alexander, pp. 50-51. Alexander recalls that the signal was "You are flanked."</ref> Shanks hastily led 900 of his men from their position fronting the Stone Bridge to a new location on the slopes of Matthews Hill, a low rise to the northwest of his previous position.<ref name=Rafuse312 />
 
 
Evans soon received reinforcement from two other brigades under Brig. Gen. [[Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr.|Barnard Bee]] and Col. [[Francis S. Bartow]], bringing the force on the flank to 2,800 men.<ref name=Rafuse312 /> They successfully slowed Hunter's lead brigade (Brig. Gen. [[Ambrose E. Burnside]]) in its attempts to ford Bull Run and advance across Young's Branch, at the northern end of [[Henry House Hill]]. One of Tyler's brigade commanders, Col. [[William T. Sherman]], crossed at an unguarded ford and struck the right flank of the Confederate defenders. This surprise attack, coupled with pressure from Burnside and [[Major (United States)|Maj.]] [[George Sykes]], collapsed the Confederate line shortly after 11:30 a.m., sending them in a disorderly retreat to Henry House Hill.<ref>Rafuse, pp. 312-13; Esposito, Map 22; Eicher, pp. 94-95.</ref>
 
 
As they retreated from their Matthews Hill position, the remainder of Evans's, Bee's, and Bartow's commands received some cover from [[Captain (Confederate Army)|Capt.]] [[John D. Imboden]] and his battery of four 6-pounder guns, who held off the Union advance while the Confederates attempted to regroup on Henry House Hill. They were met by Gens. Johnston and Beauregard, who had just arrived from Johnston's headquarters at the M. Lewis Farm, "Portici".<ref>Eicher, p. 95.</ref> Fortunately for the Confederates, McDowell did not press his advantage and attempt to seize the strategic ground immediately, choosing to bombard the hill with the batteries of Capts. [[James B. Ricketts]] (Battery I, 1st U.S. Artillery) and [[Charles Griffin]] (Battery D, 5th U.S.) from Dogan's Ridge.<ref>Rafuse, p. 313; Eicher, p. 96.</ref>
 
 
Col. [[Stonewall Jackson|Thomas J. Jackson]]'s Virginia brigade came up in support of the disorganized Confederates around noon, accompanied by Col. [[Wade Hampton III|Wade Hampton]] and his [[Hampton's Legion]], and Col. [[J.E.B. Stuart]]'s cavalry. Jackson posted his five regiments on the reverse slope of the hill, where they were shielded from direct fire, and was able to assemble 13 guns for the defensive line, which he posted on the crest of the hill; as the guns fired, their recoil moved them down the reverse slope, where they could be safely reloaded.<ref>Salmon, p. 19.</ref> Meanwhile, McDowell ordered the batteries of Ricketts and Griffin to move from Dogan's Ridge to the hill for close infantry support. Their 11 guns engaged in a fierce artillery duel across 300 yards against Jackson's 13. Unlike many engagements in the Civil War, here the Confederate artillery had an advantage. The Union pieces were now within range of the Confederate smoothbores and the predominantly rifled pieces on the Union side were not effective weapons at such close ranges, with many shots fired over the head of their targets.<ref>Rafuse, p. 314.</ref>
 
 
[[Image:Henry House ruins.jpg|thumb|left|Ruins of Judith Henry's house, "Spring Hill", after the battle.]]
 
One of the casualties of the artillery fire was Judith Carter Henry, an 85-year-old widow and invalid, who was unable to leave her bedroom in the Henry House. As Ricketts began receiving rifle fire, he concluded that it was coming from the Henry House and turned his guns on the building. A shell that crashed through the bedroom wall tore off one of the widow's feet and inflicted multiple injuries, from which she died later that day.<ref>Davis, pp. 142-43.</ref>
 
 
"The Enemy are driving us," Bee exclaimed to Jackson. Jackson, a former U.S. Army officer and professor at the [[Virginia Military Institute]], is said to have replied, "Then, Sir, we will give them the bayonet."<ref>Robertson, p. 264.</ref> Bee exhorted his own troops to re-form by shouting, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Follow me."<ref>Freeman, vol. 1, p. 82; Robertson, p. 264. McPherson, p. 342, reports the quotation after "stone wall" as being "Rally around the Virginians!"</ref> There is some controversy over Bee's statement and intent, which could not be clarified because he was mortally wounded almost immediately after speaking and none of his subordinate officers wrote reports of the battle. Major Burnett Rhett, chief of staff to General Johnston, claimed that Bee was angry at Jackson's failure to come immediately to the relief of Bee's and Bartow's brigades while they were under heavy pressure. Those who subscribe to this opinion believe that Bee's statement was meant to be pejorative: "Look at Jackson standing there like a stone wall!"<ref>See, for instance, McPherson, p. 342. There are additional controversies about what Bee said and whether he said anything at all. See Freeman, vol. 1, pp. 733-34.</ref>
 
 
[[Image:First Bull Run July21 2pm.svg|thumb|400px|Attacks on Henry House Hill, noon&ndash;2 p.m.]]
 
Artillery commander Griffin decided to move two of his guns to the southern end of his line, hoping to provide [[enfilade and defilade|enfilade]] fire against the Confederates. At approximately 3 p.m., these guns were overrun by the 33rd Virginia, whose men were outfitted in blue uniforms, causing Griffin's commander, Maj. [[William Farquhar Barry|William F. Barry]], to mistake them for Union troops and to order Griffin not to fire on them. Close range volleys from the 33rd Virginia and Stuart's cavalry attack against the flank of the [[11th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment]] ([[Elmer E. Ellsworth|Ellsworth]]'s Fire [[Zouave]]s), which was supporting the battery, killed many of the gunners and scattered the infantry. Capitalizing on this success, Jackson ordered two regiments to charge Ricketts's guns and they were captured as well. As additional Federal infantry engaged, the guns changed hands several times.<ref>Eicher, pp. 96-98; Esposito, Map 23; Rafuse, pp. 314-15; McPherson, pp. 342-44.</ref>
 
 
The capture of the Union guns turned the tide of battle. Although McDowell had brought 15 regiments into the fight on the hill, outnumbering the Confederates two to one, no more than two were ever engaged simultaneously. Jackson continued to press his attacks, telling soldiers of the 4th Virginia Infantry, "Reserve your fire until they come within 50 yards! Then fire and give them the bayonet! And when you charge, yell like furies!" For the first time, Union troops heard the disturbing sound of the [[Rebel yell]]. At about 4 p.m., the last Union troops were pushed off Henry House Hill by a charge of two regiments from Col. [[Philip St. George Cocke]]'s brigade.<ref>Rafuse, p. 315; Eicher, p. 98.</ref>
 
 
[[Image:First Bull Run July21 4pm.svg|thumb|400px|Union retreat, after 4 p.m.]]
 
To the west, Chinn Ridge had been occupied by Col. [[Oliver O. Howard]]'s brigade from Heintzelman's division. Also at 4 p.m., two Confederate brigades that had just arrived from the Shenandoah Valley&mdash;Col. [[Jubal A. Early]]'s and Brig. Gen. [[Edmund Kirby Smith|Kirby Smith]]'s (commanded by Col. [[Arnold Elzey]] after Smith was wounded)&mdash;crushed Howard's brigade. Beauregard ordered his entire line forward. McDowell's force crumbled and began to retreat.<ref>Rafuse, pp. 315-16.</ref>
 
 
The retreat was relatively orderly up to the Bull Run crossings, but it was poorly managed by the Union officers. A Union wagon was overturned by artillery fire on a bridge spanning Cub Run Creek and incited panic in McDowell's force. As the soldiers streamed uncontrollably toward Centreville, discarding their arms and equipment, McDowell ordered Col. [[Dixon S. Miles]]'s division to act as a rear guard, but it was impossible to rally the army short of Washington. In the disorder that followed, hundreds of Union troops were taken prisoner. The wealthy elite of nearby Washington, including congressmen and their families, expecting an easy Union victory, had come to picnic and watch the battle. When the Union army was driven back in a running disorder, the roads back to Washington were blocked by panicked civilians attempting to flee in their carriages.<ref>McPherson, p. 344; Eicher, p. 98; Esposito, Map 24.</ref>
 
 
Beauregard and Johnston did not fully press their advantage, despite urging from [[President of the Confederate States of America|Confederate President]] [[Jefferson Davis]], who had arrived on the battlefield to see the Union soldiers retreating, since their combined army had been left highly disorganized as well. An attempt by Johnston to intercept the Union troops from his right flank, using the brigades of Brig. Gens. [[Milledge L. Bonham]] and [[James Longstreet]], was a failure. The two commanders squabbled with each other and when Bonham's men received some artillery fire from the Union rear guard, and found that Richardson's brigade blocked the road to Centreville, he called off the pursuit.<ref>Freeman, vol. 1, p. 76; Esposito, Map 24; Davis, p. 149.</ref>
 
 
==Aftermath==
 
{{Quote box
 
|align=right
 
|width=35%
 
|quote=Today will be known as BLACK MONDAY. We are utterly and disgracefully routed, beaten, whipped by secessionists.
 
|source=Union diarist [[George Templeton Strong]]<ref>Eicher, p. 100.</ref>
 
}}
 
Union casualties were 460 killed, 1,124 wounded, and 1,312 missing or captured; Confederate casualties were 387 killed, 1,582 wounded, and 13 missing.<ref>Eicher, p. 99.</ref> Among the latter was Col. [[Francis S. Bartow]], who was the first Confederate brigade commander to be killed in the Civil War. General Bee was mortally wounded and died the following day.
 
 
Union forces and civilians alike feared that Confederate forces would advance on Washington, D.C., with very little standing in their way. On July 24, Prof. Lowe ascended in ''[[Enterprise (balloon)|Enterprise]]'' to observe the Confederates moving in and about Manassas Junction and Fairfax and ascertained that there was no evidence of massing Rebel forces, but he was forced to land in enemy territory. It was overnight before he was rescued and could report to headquarters. He reported that his observations "restored confidence" to the Union commanders.
 
 
Beauregard was considered the hero of the battle and was promoted that day by President Davis to full general in the Confederate Army.<ref>Freeman, vol. 1, p. 79.</ref> Stonewall Jackson, arguably the most important tactical contributor to the victory, received no special recognition, but went on to achieve glory with his 1862 [[Valley Campaign]]. Irvin McDowell bore the brunt of the blame for the Union defeat and was soon replaced by Maj. Gen. [[George B. McClellan]], who was named general-in-chief of all the Union armies. McDowell was also present to bear significant blame for the defeat of Maj. Gen. [[John Pope (military officer)|John Pope's]] [[Army of Virginia]] by Gen. [[Robert E. Lee]]'s [[Army of Northern Virginia]] thirteen months later, at the [[Second Battle of Bull Run]]. Patterson was also removed from command.
 
 
The name of the battle has caused controversy since 1861. The Union Army frequently named battles after significant rivers and creeks that played a role in the fighting; the Confederates frequently used the names of nearby towns and farms. The [[U.S. National Park Service]] uses the Confederate-inspired name (Manassas) for its [[Manassas National Battlefield Park|national battlefield park]], but the Union name (Bull Run) also has widespread currency in popular literature.
 
 
Battlefield confusion relating to battle flags, especially the similarity of the Confederacy's "Stars and Bars" and the Union's "Stars and Stripes", led to the adoption of the [[Flags of the Confederate States of America|Confederate Battle Flag]], which eventually became the most popular symbol of the Confederacy and the [[Southern United States|South]] in general.<ref>McPherson, p. 342.</ref>
 
 
{{American Civil War |expanded=CTCBS}}
 
 
==References==
 
* [[Edward Porter Alexander|Alexander, Edward P.]], and Gallagher, Gary W. (editor), ''Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of General Edward Porter Alexander'', University of North Carolina Press, 1989, ISBN 0-8078-4722-4.
 
* Ballard, Ted, [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/StaffRide/1st%20Bull%20Run/Contents.htm ''First Battle of Bull Run: Staff Ride Guide''], U.S. Army Center for Military History.
 
* Beatie, Russel H., ''Army of the Potomac: Birth of Command, November 1860{{ndash}} September 1861'', Da Capo Press, 2002, ISBN 0-306-81141-3.
 
* Brown, J. Willard, ''The Signal Corps, U.S.A. in the War of the Rebellion'', U.S. Veteran Signal Corps Association, 1896, (reprinted by Arno Press, 1974), ISBN 0-405-06036-X.
 
* Davis, William C., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, ''First Blood: Fort Sumter to Bull Run'', Time-Life Books, 1983, ISBN 0-8094-4704-5.
 
* Detzer, David, ''Donnybrook: The Battle of Bull Run, 1861'', Harcourt Inc., 2004, ISBN 0-15-100889-2.
 
* [[David J. Eicher|Eicher, David J.]], ''The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War'', Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
 
* Esposito, Vincent J., [http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/american_civil_war/ ''West Point Atlas of American Wars''], Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
 
* [[Douglas S. Freeman|Freeman, Douglas S.]], ''Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command'' (3 volumes), Scribners, 1946, ISBN 0-684-85979-3.
 
* Livermore, Thomas L., ''Numbers and Losses in the Civil War in America 1861-65'', reprinted with errata, Morningside House, 1986, ISBN 0-527-57600-X.
 
* [[James M. McPherson|McPherson, James M.]], ''Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States)'', Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
 
* Rafuse, Ethan S., "First Battle of Bull Run", ''Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History'', Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
 
* [[James I. Robertson, Jr. | Robertson, James I., Jr.]], ''Stonewall Jackson: The Man, The Soldier, The Legend'', MacMillan Publishing, 1997, ISBN 0-02-864685-1.
 
* Salmon, John S., ''The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide'', Stackpole Books, 2001, ISBN 0-8117-2868-4.
 
* [[T. Harry Williams|Williams, T. Harry]], ''Lincoln and His Generals'', Alfred A. Knopf, 1952, ISBN 0-965-43826-0.
 
*[http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/va005.htm National Park Service battle description]
 
*[http://www.civilwarhome.com/loweor.htm Professor Thaddeus Lowe's Official Report (Part I)]
 
 
==Notes==
 
{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}
 
 
==Further reading==
 
{{Wikisource1911Enc|Bull Run}}
 
* Davis, William C., ''Battle at Bull Run'', Louisiana State Press, 1977, ISBN 0-8071-0867-7.
 
* Goldfield, David, et al., ''The American Journey: A history of the United States'', Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999, ISBN 0-13-088243-7.
 
* Hankinson, Alan, ''First Bull Run 1861: The South's First Victory'', Osprey Campaign Series #10, Osprey Publishing, 1991, ISBN 1-85532-133-5.
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Commonscat}}
 
*[http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/StaffRide/1st%20Bull%20Run/Contents.htm Battle of First Bull Run] Staff ride guide, Center of Military History, United States Army.
 
*[http://www.nps.gov/mana Manassas National Battlefield Park website]
 
*[http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/12manassas/12manassas.htm ''First Battle of Manassas: An End to Innocence,'' a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan]
 
*[http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1861/august/battle-bull-run.htm Harper's Weekly 1861 Report on the Battle of Bull Run]
 
*[http://www.civilwarhome.com/1manassa.htm Civil War Home website on First Bull Run]
 
*[http://www.historyanimated.com/BullRunh.html Animated History of The First Battle of Bull Run]
 
*[http://www.firstbullrun.com FirstBullRun.com]
 
*[http://www.archive.org/details/first_battle_bull_run_librivox ''The First Battle of Bull Run'']. General P. G. T. Beauregard. [[Librivox]] audio recording, Public Domain, 2007.
 
*[http://thomaslegion.net/manassasbullrunbattlesoffirstandsecondmanassasfirstandsecondbullrun.html First Manassas Campaign with Official Records and Reports]
 
 
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{{Stonewall}}
 
 
[[Category:Battles of the Manassas Campaign of the American Civil War|Bull Run, 1st]]
 
[[Category:Battles of the Main Eastern Theater of the American Civil War|Bull Run, 1st]]
 
[[Category:Confederate victories of the American Civil War|Bull Run, 1st]]
 
[[Category:Prince William in the American Civil War]]
 
[[Category:Fairfax County in the American Civil War]]
 
[[Category:Virginia in the American Civil War]]
 
 
[[da:Første slag ved Bull Run]]
 
[[de:Erste Schlacht am Bull Run]]
 
[[es:Primera batalla de Bull Run]]
 
[[fr:Première bataille de Bull Run]]
 
[[ko:제1차 불런 전투]]
 
[[it:Prima battaglia di Bull Run]]
 
[[he:קרב בול ראן הראשון]]
 
[[nl:Eerste Slag bij Bull Run]]
 
[[ja:第一次ブルランの戦い]]
 
[[no:Det første slaget ved Bull Run]]
 
[[pl:Pierwsza bitwa nad Bull Run]]
 
[[ru:Первое сражение при Бул-Ране]]
 
[[fi:Bull Runin taistelu]]
 
[[sv:Första slaget vid Bull Run]]
 
[[vi:Trận Bull Run thứ nhất]]
 
[[zh:第一次馬納沙斯之役]]
 

Revision as of 19:13, 3 March 2009