This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
First Lady is an unofficial title used for the wife or hostess of a non-monarchical head of state or chief executive. The term is also used to describe a woman seen to be at the top of her profession or art. Collectively, the President of the United States and his spouse are known as the First Couple and, if they have children, they are usually referred to as the First Family.
The term is sometimes used, primarily in the U.S., to refer to the spouse of other non-monarchical heads of state, even though they do not have that style in their own country. Some other countries have a title, formal or informal, that is or can be translated as first lady. The title is not normally used for the wife of a head of government who is not also head of state.
The term in the United States is also used to refer to wives of governors and, less formally, to wives of college and university presidents. It has even been used in reference to female spouses of men who were chairmen of major corporations. While there has never been a male spouse of a U.S. President, "First Gentleman" is used in the United States for the husband of a state governor. First Gentleman is the male equivalent of the title in countries where the head of state's spouse has been a man, such as the Philippines or Malta.
- 1 Origin of the term
- 2 History of use in the United States
- 3 Use in other countries
- 3.1 Armenia
- 3.2 Azerbaijan
- 3.3 Brazil
- 3.4 Cambodia
- 3.5 Colombia
- 3.6 Croatia
- 3.7 Czech Republic
- 3.8 India
- 3.9 Indonesia
- 3.10 Republic of Ireland
- 3.11 Malawi
- 3.12 Maldives
- 3.13 New Zealand
- 3.14 Nigeria
- 3.15 Peru
- 3.16 Philippines
- 3.17 Poland
- 3.18 South Korea
- 3.19 Taiwan
- 3.20 Trinidad and Tobago
- 3.21 Ukraine
- 4 Non-spousal uses
- 5 Apolitical uses
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Origin of the term
The designation First Lady seems to have originated in the United States, where one of the earliest uses in print, in 1838, was in reference to Martha Washington. Other sources indicate that, in 1849, President Zachary Taylor called Dolley Madison "first lady" at her state funeral, while reciting a eulogy written by himself; but no copy of that eulogy has been found.
History of use in the United States
In the early days of the United States, there was no generally accepted title for the wife of the president. Many early first ladies expressed their own preference for how they were addressed, including the use of such titles as Lady. One of the earliest uses of the term "first lady" was applied to Martha Washington in a profile by Mrs. C. H. Sigourney in 1838: Mrs. Sigourney, discussing how Martha Washington had not changed, even after her husband George became president, wrote that "The first lady of the nation still preserved the habits of early life. Indulging in no indolence, she left the pillow at dawn, and after breakfast, retired to her chamber for an hour for the study of the scriptures and devotion". However, the term "first lady" would not come into common use until the late 1800s.
Harriet Lane, niece of bachelor President James Buchanan, was the first woman to be called first lady while actually serving in that position. The phrase appeared in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Monthly in 1860, when he wrote, "The Lady of the White House, and by courtesy, the First Lady of the Land." Once Harriet Lane was called first lady, the term was applied retrospectively to her predecessors.
The title first gained nationwide recognition in 1877, when Mary C. Ames wrote an article in the New York City newspaper The Independent describing the inauguration of President Rutherford B. Hayes. She used the term to describe his wife, Lucy Webb Hayes.
While historically the term has generally been used to refer to the wife of a president, there were occasions when another woman, such as the President's daughter, has filled the duties of First Lady as hostess in the White House, if the President's wife was unwilling, unable, or if the President was a widower or bachelor.
The entire family of the head of state may be known familiarly as the "First Family". The spouse of the second-in-command (such as a Vice President) may be known as the "Second Lady", or Vice-First Lady. Less frequently, the family would be known as the "Second Family". The spouse of the governor of a U.S. state is commonly referred to as the First Lady or First Gentleman of that state, for example "First Lady Tonette Marie Walker of Wisconsin". The practice is less common for spouses of mayors but is nevertheless used for some, particularly in large cities; example: "First Lady Amy Rule of Chicago" or "First Lady Kris Barrett of Milwaukee." Mike Gregoire, husband of former Washington state governor Chris Gregoire, preferred to use his name instead of a common noun, calling himself "First Mike".
Use in other countries
In U.S. media the term First Lady is often applied to the wife of a head of state in another country, irrespective of whether a different appellation (or none) is used in that country. For example, in 1902, the U.S. publication Munsey's Magazine said of the wife of Canadian Governor General the Earl of Minto: "As the first lady in the land, she has done much to weld together the heterogeneous components of a colonial society which includes peoples of different races and of antagonistic religions." The term was also used by Munsey's to refer to the wife of Mexico's leader, President Porfirio Díaz: In an 1896 piece about "The Daughters of Mexico", author Jeannie Marshall said of Carmen Romero Rubio de Díaz: "She is still a young woman, though she has filled the position of 'first lady of the land' for many years, with marked success." The U.S. Spanish-language newspaper La Prensa also called her "primera dama" when writing about her activities.
The wife of the President of Brazil is called "Primeira-Dama".
The term "Lok Chumteav" is used.
The term "Primera Dama" is used.
The terms Supruga Predsjednika Republike (Wife of the President of the Republic) or Suprug Predsjednice Republike (Husband of the President of the Republic) are most commonly used in Croatia, while the terms Prva dama (First Lady) and Prvi gospodin (First gentleman) are rarely used, except by foreign sources. The current husband of the President of Croatia is Jakov Kitarović.
The wife of the Prime Minister has occasionally, in exceptionally rare cases, also been referred to as the First Lady of Croatia, however as the spouses of Prime Ministers have often maintained a low profile and have almost never been public figures, the title Supruga Predsjednika Vlade (Wife of the Prime Minister) has been used in cases when such a reference is needed. The current wife of the Prime Minister is Ana Maslać Plenković.
The term První dáma is used for wife of the President of the Czech Republic.
Current first lady is Ivana Zemanová.
The term "First Lady" is less frequently used in India. The term might be used at times to refer to the wife of the President of India in newspapers; however, the more widespread term in general use is "Wife of The President" or more informally as the President's wife/spouse/husband. The term "First Lady" is not used to refer to the wife of the Prime Minister.
The term "Ibu Negara" (Lady/Mother of the State) is used for wife of the President of Indonesia.
Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, the term "First Lady" (Irish: an Chéad Bhean) is not used in official contexts, but is often used in the media to refer to the wife of the President and, less frequently, to refer to the wife of the Taoiseach (prime minister). During the first half of Bertie Ahern's term as Taoiseach, he was separated from his wife Miriam (née Kelly) and the role of First Lady was filled by his then domestic partner, Celia Larkin.
During the administration of President Kamuzu Banda, Malawi had an "Official Hostess" who served in the same capacity as "First Lady" because the President was unmarried. Banda was never married and therefore Cecilia Kadzamira served in this capacity for the nation.
The term first lady has been used intermittently for the wife of the President of Nigeria. The spouse of the President has no official title, but receives the same style as the president, Excellency. A former president Shehu Shagari was a polygamist, and none of his wives were referred to as the first lady.
The consort of the President of the Philippines bears the gender-neutral title of First Spouse (Filipino: Unang Kabiyák), and among other duties, is host(ess) of Malacañan Palace. The title is genderless as many Philippine languages lack grammatical gender, and because there have been presidential consorts of both sexes.
When the official consort is female, she is known as "First Lady" (Unang Ginang); the title has also been applied to an immediate female relative serving in this capacity for a widowed President. There has only been one First Gentleman (Unang Ginoó) in history: José Miguel Arroyo, the husband of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, the 14th President.
The wife of the president is called "Yoeong-boo-in" (영부인/令夫人).
When the wife of the president is incapacitated, the role of First lady fell to the oldest daughter of the president during Park Chung-hee's era. Park Chung-hee's wife, Yuk Young-soo, was assassinated on August 15th 1974, and his daughter, Park Geun-hye assumed the First Lady.
Trinidad and Tobago
The wife of the current president uses the term "first lady".
In some situations, the title is bestowed upon a non-spouse. This includes terms like "First Family", "First Daughter", and "First Son".
In the past, occasionally another woman, such as the President's daughter, has filled the duties of First Lady as hostess in the White House, if the President's wife was unwilling, unable, or if the President was a widower or bachelor. Harriet Lane, niece of bachelor President James Buchanan was the first non-spouse to be called First Lady.
The title was also officially bestowed on Victoria Quirino-Delgado, the daughter of widower Elpidio Quirino (1948–53), sixth President of the Philippines. Victoria's mother, Alicia Quirino née Syquía, had been killed by occupying Japanese troops towards the end of the Second World War. While President Corazón Aquino (1986–92) was also widowed, the title was not given to her older children who would assist her in official duties. These included her son (and later President) Benigno Aquino III, who was a sort of de facto First Gentleman; his four sisters, as under their mother's presidency, now unofficially share the duties of the First Spouse. The current President, Rodrigo Duterte's marriage was annulled, and his common-law wife is not qualified to take the title as they are not married yet. Instead, he named his daughter, Davao City Mayor Sara Duterte, as First Lady.
After taking office as Puerto Rico's first female governor, Governor Sila Maria Calderón appointed her two daughters, Sila María González Calderón and María Elena González Calderón, to serve as First Ladies.
Following the leadership spill which installed Julia Gillard as the first female Prime Minister of Australia on 24 June 2010, some news media referred to her de facto partner, Tim Mathieson, as the "First Bloke".
It has become commonplace in the United States for the title of "First Lady" to be bestowed on women, as a term of endearment, who have proven themselves to be of exceptional talent or unique notoriety in non-political areas. The phrase is often, but not always, used when the person in question is either the wife or "female equivalent" of a well-known man (or men) in a similar field. For example, the term has been applied in the entertainment field to denote the "First Lady of Television" (Lucille Ball), the "First Lady of Song" (Ella Fitzgerald), the "First Lady of Country Music" (Tammy Wynette, although Loretta Lynn was also known by the title), the "First Lady of Star Trek" (actor/producer Majel Barrett), the "First Lady of American Soul" (Aretha Franklin), the "First Lady of the Grand Ole Opry" (Loretta Lynn), and the "First Lady of the American Stage" (Helen Hayes) .
The term "first lady" is also used to denote a woman who occupies the foremost social position within a particular locality, in this sense being particularly popular in Africa, where the pre-eminent female noble in some chieftaincy hierarchies, such as those of the Yoruba people, is often referred to by the title.
In recent years, the term has also been used to refer to the wife of the pastor of a church, especially in predominantly black churches.
- First Lady, Merriam-Webster Dictionary, retrieved 2014-12-30
- First Lady, Oxford Dictionaries, retrieved 2014-12-30
- Amanda Foreman, "Our First Ladies and Their Predecessors," Wall Street Journal, May 30–31, 2015, C11, http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-first-ladies-and-their-predecessors-1432830990, retrieved 2015-5-30
- First Lady, Collins English Dictionary, retrieved 2014-12-30
- Collins English Dictionary definition. Retrieved 2013-12-08
- M., Design by Paul Andres Gomez. "‘He asumido mi compromiso con la niñez de Colombia con toda la disposición de mi corazón’, afirma la Primera Dama".
- Mrs. Sigourney, "Martha Washington," St. Johnsbury (VT) Caledonian, August 7, 1838, p. 1.
- "Dolley Madison". National First Ladies Library. Retrieved 2007-04-29.
- "First Family — Definitions from Dictionary.com". dictionary.com. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
2. The family of the chief executive of a city, state, or country.
- "First Gentleman – What's in a Name?". State of Michigan. Archived from the original on 2009-04-19.
- "About Mike". Governor Chris Gregoire's official state website. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007.
- "In The Public Eye: The Governor-General of Canada," p. 684. http://www.unz.org/Pub/Munseys-1902feb-00681
- Jeannie A. Marshall, "The Daughters of Mexico"
- "Domincales," La Prensa, 19 September 1917, p. 4
- LLC, Helix Consulting. "Рита Саргсян Первая леди Армении - Президент - Президент Республики Армения [официальный сайт]".
- LLC, Helix Consulting. "Ռիտա Սարգսյան Հայաստանի Առաջին տիկին - Նախագահ - Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Նախագահ [պաշտոնական կայք]".
- Mehriban Əliyeva Archived 2015-03-30 at the Wayback Machine.
- "First Lady Sabina Higgins wears 100% Irish during historic visit - Independent.ie".
- "The Milwaukee Journal - Google News Archive Search".
- "Step forward Fionnuala -- Taoiseach's wife and his perfect partner as he runs country - Herald.ie".
- Donnelly, Larry. "Column: Why are Ireland’s first lady and family so invisible?".
- "Celia -- the greatest political wife this country never had - Independent.ie".
- "Ireland debates Larkin role — Irish Echo".
- "The UDA and the pay-off".
- "The UDA kingpin who gained a President's trust - Independent.ie".
- "BEHIND EVERY GREAT PRESIDENT...".
- "Mystery of the Banda millions". BBC News. 2000-05-17.
- "Cecilia Kadzamira-Malawi's First Lady".
- The Office of the President, statement by The President of the Republic of Maldives, 02 January 2014
- "President Yameen and First Lady meet Sri Lankan President and First Lady - Maldives High Commission - London - Maldives in the UK and Europe".
- First ladies of Pakistan, Maldives visit Bhaktapur, My Republica, Nov 28, 2014
- PM's Trade Mission 2013 Archived 2015-01-22 at the Wayback Machine.
- Hanging out with the political Wags, stuff.co.nz, 2 November 2011.
- Okon-Ekong, Nseobong (2010-10-02). "Nigeria: First Ladies - Colourful Brilliance, Gaudy Rays". Thisday. AllAfrica.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-27. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
- "Primera Dama: "Comencemos a formar una sociedad con valores" - Presidencia". Archived from the original on 2014-02-26.
- www.ideo.pl, ideo -. "Oficjalna strona Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej / Pierwsza Dama / Aktywność Pierwszej Damy".
- McDonald, Charlotte. "Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh - Visit by Taiwan’s First Lady".
- "The First Lady’s Profile – The Office of the President of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago".
- Geun Hye Park (2007). The Republic of Korea and the United States: Our Future Together. Institute for Corean-American Studies, Inc. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
- "Sila M. Calderon.".
- Bolivia's First Lady hopes for unity, BBC News, 17 February 2009
- Preston, Richard (2007-05-25). "Are you ready to think outside the box? The abuses of the English language that readers hated most have inspired a new Telegraph book, explains Richard Preston". Daily Telegraph. p. 24.
- Didion, Joan (2007-03-04). "The Year Of Hoping For Magic". New York Times. p. 1.
- Sellers, Maud (April 1894). "The City of York in the Sixteenth Century". The English Historical Review. 9 (34): 275–304. doi:10.1093/ehr/IX.XXXIV.275.; Russell, A. (1889). "Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York". 21: 494–515.
- DuBois, Joshua. First Ladies of the Church. The Daily Beast, 2013-03-20.
- Bailey, Tim. "America’s First Ladies on Twentieth-Century Issues: A Common Core Unit," History Now 35 (Spring 2013) online, curriculum unit based on primary sources
- Berkin, Berkin, ed., "America's First Ladies," History Now 35 (Spring 2013) online; popular essays by scholars
- Burns, Lisa M. (2008). First Ladies and the Fourth Estate: Press Framing of Presidential Wives. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-87580-391-3
- Caroli, Betty Boyd (2010). First ladies : from Martha Washington to Michelle Obama. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195392852.
- Horohoe, Jill, “First Ladies as Modern Celebrities: Politics and the Press in Progressive Era” (PhD dissertation, Arizona State University, 2011). DA3452884.
- Lugo-Lugo, Carmen R. and Mary K. Bloodsworth-Lugo. "Bare Biceps and American (In) Security: Post-9/11 Constructions of Safe(ty), Threat, and the First Black First Lady," Women's Studies Quarterly (2011) 39#1 pp 200–217, on media images of Michelle Obama
- Watson, Robert P. "Toward the Study of the First Lady: The State of Scholarship," Presidential Studies Quarterly (2003) 33#2 pp 423–441.