First Fitna

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First Fitna
Part of the Islamic Civil Wars
First Fitna map.png
  Region under the control of the Rashidun (Ali ibn Abi Talib)
  Region under the control of Muawiyah I
  Region under the control of Amr ibn al-As
Date 656–661
Location Arabian peninsula
Result Rebellion successful, peace treaty signed;
Muawiya I begins the Umayyad dynasty
Belligerents
Rashidun Caliphate Aisha's forces
Muawiya's forces
Commanders and leaders
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ammar ibn Yasir
Malik al-Ashtar
Aisha bint Abu Bakr
Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah
Zubair ibn al-Awam
Muawiya I
'Amr ibn al-'As[b]
  1. The Kharijites were a portion of Ali's supporters that defected and later opposed both parties.

The First Fitna or Great Fitna (Arabic: فتنة مقتل عثمانFitnat Maqtal Uthmān, The Fitna of the Killing of Uthman) was a civil war within the early Islamic state which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty. It began when the caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated by Egyptian rebels in 656 and continued through the four-year reign of Uthman's successor Ali ibn Abi Talib. It ended in 661 when Ali's heir Hasan ibn Ali concluded a treaty acknowledging the rule of Muawiyah, the first Umayyad caliph.[1]

Background[edit]

Main article: Siege of Uthman

The Islamic State expanded very quickly under Muhammad and the first three caliphs. In 639 Muawiyah I was appointed the Governor of Syria by Umar after his elder brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan (Governor of Syria) died in a plague, along with Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah (the Governor before him) and 25,000 other people.[2][3]

The rapid Muslim conquest of Syria and Egypt and the consequent Byzantine losses in manpower and territory meant that the Eastern Roman Empire found itself struggling for survival. The Sassanid Dynasty in Persia had already collapsed.

The Quran and Muhammad talked about racial equality and justice as in The Farewell Sermon.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Tribal and nationalistic differences were discouraged. However, after Muhammad's passing the old tribal differences among the Arabs started to resurface. Following the Roman–Persian Wars and the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars, deep-rooted differences between Iraq, formerly under the Persian Sassanid Empire and Syria, formerly under the Byzantine Empire, also existed. Each wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in their area.[11] Previously, the second caliph Umar was very firm on the governors and his spies kept an eye on them. If he felt that a governor or a commander was becoming attracted to wealth or did not meet the required administrative standards, he had him removed from his position.[12]

Early Muslim armies stayed in encampments away from cities because Umar feared that they might get attracted to wealth and luxury. In the process, they might get away from the worship of God and start accumulating wealth and establishing dynasties.[13][14][15][16] "Wealth and children are [but] adornment of the worldly life. But the enduring good deeds are better to your Lord for reward and better for [one's] hope." Quran 18:46[17] "O you who have believed, let not your wealth and your children divert you from remembrance of Allah. And whoever does that--then those are the losers." Quran 63:9[18] Staying in these encampments away from the cities also ensured that there was no stress on the population, and that the populations remained autonomous and kept their own judges and representatives. Some of these encampments later grew into cities themselves, like Basra and Kufa in Iraq and Fustat in Egypt.[19] Some cities also had agreements with the Muslims, such as during the Siege of Jerusalem in 637 CE.

As Uthman ibn Affan became very old, Marwan I, a relative of Muawiyah I, slipped into the vacuum and became his secretary, slowly assuming more control and relaxing some of these restrictions. Marwan I had previously been excluded from positions of responsibility. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, the son of Abu Bakr and the adopted son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muhammad bin Abi Hudhaifa, the adopted son of Uthman, had no senior positions.

The most controversial governor Uthman appointed was Waleed ibn Uqba, his half-brother, as the governor of the city of Kufa[20] In the year 30 AH (after Hijra), 650 AD, many Muslims living in the city of Kufa were angered over Waleed's actions.[21][22] Waleed ibn Uqba was then removed and replaced by Sa'id ibn al-As as the governor in Kufa, in Iraq.

Two Family tree of some of the people involved[edit]


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
`Abd Manaf ibn Qusai
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abd Shams
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Umayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abdul Mutallib
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu'l-As
 
 
 
 
Harb
 
 
 
`Abd Allah
 
Abu Talib
 
`Abbas (Abbasids)
 
Safiyyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Affan
 
Al-Hakam
 
Abu Sufyan
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
Ali ibn Abi Talib
 
`Abd Allah ibn `Abbas
 
Zubayr ibn al-Awam
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Uthman ibn Affan
 
Marwan I
 
Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan
 
Muawiyah I
 
Hasan ibn Ali
 
Hussein ibn Ali
 
 
 
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr also Abu Bakr's grandson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yazid ibn Muawiyah
 
 

[23]

Sabaites, Qurra and the Kharijities[edit]

The Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate, but there was a cost associated with it. Many desert nomads and some bandits living between current-day Iraq and Saudi Arabia also joined in, not out of commitment to Islam but to share the spoils and benefit from the change in the social order, after the defeat of the Persian Empire.[24]

The Qur'an and Muhammad talked about racial equality and justice as in the The Farewell Sermon.[4][5][25][26][27][28][29] Tribal and nationalistic differences were discouraged. But after Muhammad's passing the old tribal differences between the Arabs started to resurface.

Byzantine and Persian Sassanid Empires in 600 CE

Before Islam, the Roman-Persian Wars and the Byzantine–Sasanian wars had occurred every few years for hundreds of years between 69 BC and 629 AD. High taxes were imposed on the populations in both the Byzantine Roman and Sassanid Persian empires to finance these wars. There was also continuous bloodshed of the people during these wars. The Arab tribes in Iraq were paid by the Persian Sassanids to act as mercenaries, while the Arab tribes in Syria were paid by the Byzantines to act as their mercenaries. The Persians maintained an Arab satellite state of Lakhm and the Byzantine Empire maintained the Arab satellite state of Ghassan, which they used to fight each other.[30] The Syrians and the Iraqis had been fighting each other for centuries. Therefore, each wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in their area.[31] Later others like the Lakhm Arabs, many of whom became the Qurra, also wanted to rule Persia.

Sects started to form, among them the Sabaites named after Abdala Ben Saba[32]

At-Tabri (5:66) reported that when a man called "Abdullah ibn Saba" came to Syria, he met Adu Dharr. He said, "Adu Dharr, aren't you amazed at Muawiya saying, 'The property is the property of Allah. Doesn't everything belong to Allah?' It seems he means to cut it off from the Muslims and erase the name of the Muslims!" Adu Dharr therefore went to him and said, "What leads you to call the property of the Muslims the property of Allah?" Muawiya said, "May Allah have mercy on you, Adu Dharr! Are we not the slaves of Allah and all property is His property and all creation is His creation and all the affair is His affair?" Abu Dharr said, "Do not say that." Muawiya said, "I do not say that it does not belong to Allah, but I say, 'The property of the Muslims'" Adbullah ibn Saba came back to Abu Dharr. who them said to him, "Who are you? By Allah, I think that you are a Jew." Then Ibn Saba went to Abdullah ibn as-Samit and attempted to make his discontented. Adbullah took him to Muawiya and said, "By Allah this is one who sent Abu Dharr to you".

There is also Jewish literature from that time, regarding Adbullah ibn Saba. Much of the Jewish literature on him from that time regards him as an apostate from Judaism and asks Jews to keep away from him.[33][34][35][36]

There was also the movement towards more autonomous tribal groupings, which was particularly strong in Kufa, in Iraq; they wanted to rule their own states. Among them developed a group called the Qurra, which later became known as the Kharijities.[37][38]

The Qurra are referenced in many Hadith from the period of Muhammad, Abu Bakr and Umar in Sahih Al Bukhari (Volume 6, Book 60, Number 201 and Volume 6, Book 61, Number 509 and Volume 8, Book 75, Number 403):

The Qurra had taken part in the Battle of Yamama, but they never listened to orders and would start battles even when they were ordered not to and were heavily outnumbered. At Yamamah Khalid ibn al-Walid wrote to them and Ikrimah to just observe the forces of Musaylimah at Yamamah, and told them not to start fighting until he had arrived. Shurahbil bin Hasanah was also dispatched to assist them. However, even though they were heavily outnumbered, they disobeyed their orders and started a battle, resulting in their suffering heavy casualties. They later again disobeyed orders and started the Battle of the Camel and the Battle of Saffin, and did the same against Ali in the Battle of Nahrawan even through they were heavily outnumbered.[39]

Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 201 : Narrated by Zaid bin Thabit Al-Ansari

"...Abu Bakr sent for me after the (heavy) casualties among the warriors (of the battle) of Yamama (where a great number of qurra' were killed). 'Umar was present with Abu Bakr who said, 'Umar has come to me and said, The people have suffered heavy casualties on the day of (the battle of) Yamama, and I am afraid that there will be more casualties among the qurra' at other battle-fields ...

Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 9, Book 92, Number 386 : Narrated by Hammam

Hudhaifa said, "O the Group of Al-qurra! Follow the straight path, for then you have taken a great lead (and will be the leaders), but if you divert right or left, then you will go astray far away."

Al-Masudi calls them the "ahl al-qar wa l-ashraf". The earliest reference to these people are as Ajl al-Qura, the people of the village, those who fought with Abu Bakr against the desert tribes of Yamama during the Ridda when some of the tribes refused to pay taxes.[40][41][42] The Qurra had political and economic interests that were different from those of Ali or Muawiyah. They had served in the Ridda wars and had been granted trusteeship over some of the lands in Sawad in Iraq and were now called Ahl al Ayyam, those who had taken part in the eastern conquests.[43][44] They then became known as the Qurra and received the highest stipend of the Muslim army, the sharaf al ata, and they had the use of the best lands which they came to regard as their private domain. The Qurra received stipends varying between 2,000 and 3,000 dirhams, while the majority of the rest of the troops received only 250 to 300 dirhams. The other Ridda tribesmen in Kufa, in Iraq, resented the special position given to the Qurra. The tension between the Ridda tribesmen and the Qurra threatened the Qurra's newly acquired prestige. The Qurra therefore felt obliged to defend their position in the new but rapidly changing society. Uthman's policies of reducing their status threatened their interests.[41][45][46][47]

The Qurra were mainly based in Kufa, in Iraq.[48][49] They had not been involved in Syria. But later when Uthman declined to give them more lands in Persia[48][50] they felt that their status was being reduced and therefore started to cause trouble.[48][51] He also removed the distinction between the Ridda and pre-Ridda tribesmen which was not to their liking and lessened their prestige.[41][52][53]

The Qurra had previously been desert nomads and some were also bandits and had joined to Muslims so that they could gain lands and status and become the new aristocrats in Iraq[41] However, later when Uthman imposed restrictions on them and prevented them from becoming landlords in Iran, they rebelled.[48][54][55][56]

Some of the people with their tribal names as Qurra had been expelled from Kufa, in Iraq, for fomenting trouble and were sent to Muawiyah in Syria. Muawiyah then said to them:

"You are people from the Arabs. You have importance and are heard. You have obtained nobility by Islam. You have conquered the nations and you have won their positions and their inheritance. I have heard that you resent the Quraysh. If it had not been for the Quraysh, you would have been considered abased as you were before, However, they are still your Imams today and your shelter, so do not impede your shelter. Your Imamns are patient with you in the face of your injustice and endure the trouble that you cause. By Allah, either you will cease or Allah will try you with someone who will be hard on you. Then you will share with them in what you brough about on the populace while you were alive and after your death. "[57]

The Qurra Arabs had previously been desert nomads and bandits. One of them then spoke with great arrogance and said to Muawiyah

"How much you go on about authority and the Quraysh! The Arabs (meaning they the Qurra) were eating from the hilts of their swords while the Quraysh were nothing but merchants!" He then said "As for the shelter you mentioned, when the shelter is pierced, then come to us" meaning that they will remove the Quraysh and will rule them selves.[58]

Muawiyah then said to him "I remind you by Islam and yet you mention the Jahiliyya (meaning their days before Islam)"[59]

Muawiyah then wrote to Uthman saying: "Some people have come to me who have neither intellect nor deen (faith). Islam is burdensome to them and justice vexes them. They do not aim for Allah in anything nor do they speak by any proof. They are busy with sedition and appropriating the property of the non Muslims. Allah is the One who will test and try them. Then He will be the One to disgrace them and humiliate them. They are those who injure people."[60]

Then they were sent to Abdur r Rahman ibn Khalid ibn Walid. He said to them:

"Tools of Shaytan! You have no welcome! Shaytan has returned in sorrow and yet you are still active! May Allah disappoint Abdur Rahman if he does not discipline you until he makes you feel regret! O company of a people whom I do not know to be Arab or non Arab, you will not say to me what I heard you said to Muawiyah! I am the son of Khalid ibn al-Walid. I am the son of the one who was tested by the teeth. I am the son of the one who knocked out the Ridda!"[61] He mentioned the Ridda and not the defeat of the Byzantine or the Persian because he recognized that these people were an internal threat.[62] The Qurra had previously fought in the Ridda wars alongside Khalid ibn al-Walid but now had political and economic interests that were different from the rest of the Muslims.

Abdur r Rahman ibn Khalid ibn Walid then sent them to Uthman in Madina. In Madina they took an oath that they will not cause trouble and following the example of Muhammad, Uthman accepted their word and let them go.[63] They then split up and went to various different Muslim centers and started fomenting rebellion, particularly in Egypt.[64]

In the best selling book, Shadow of the sword, The Battle for Global Empire and the End of the Ancient World, Tom Holland writes[65] "Uthman was not content to divide up the loot of the old empires in the time-honoured manner of a bandit chieftain sharing out plunder after a successful raid. The Arabs, so it seemed to the new Amir had moved on from that. The conquerors, if they were to make best use of the defeated superpowers bureaucracies, would themselves have to accept certain disciplines: a central administration, not least, and a clear-cut chain of command. Precisely the marks of slavery, in short, that the desert Arabs had always derided."

The Qurra then felt that Abu Musa al_Ashari could look after their interests better. Sa'id ibn al-As, the governor in Kufa, in Iraq, then wrote to Uthman "I have no power at all over Kufa with Al-Ashtar and his friends who are called al-qurra, and they are idiots"[66] In 655/634 the Qurra stopped Uthans governor Sa'id ibn al-As at Jara'a, preventing him from entering Kufa and declared Abu Musa al-Ashari to be their governor. (Later the Qurra proposed Abu Musa al_Ashari as the arbitrator against the wished of Ali after the Battle of Saffin because they felt that he could also better represent their interests there and split away from Ali and became officially known as the Khawarij.)[67]

In 656, The Qurra approached Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr the son of Abu Bakr and the adopted son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and the great grandfather of Ja'far al-Sadiq and asked him why he was not a governor. They had fought under the service of his father in the Ridda wars. They also asked Uthman's adopted son, Muhammad bin Abi Hudhaifa, who Uthman had refused to appoint as a governor of any province, why he was not a governor.

There were references to these people in earlier texts too. Abū Dharr narrated that Muhammad said: Aḥmad, Muslim, and Ibn Mājah

“There will definitely be a people after me from my nation who recite the Quran yet it will not even reach beyond their throats. They will pass through the religion as an arrow passes through a target, then they will not return back to it. They are the worst of people, the worst of all creatures.” [68]

al-Bukhārī, Muslim, Abū Dāwūd, and al-Nasā`ī all recorded a Ḥadīth from Abū Sa’īd al- Khudrī ( رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ ) that he said: ‘Alī ( رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ ) sent some gold to the prophet ( صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم ) so divided and distributed it among four groups: al-Aqra’ Ibn Ḥābis al-Ḥanẓalī, al-Mujāshi’ī, ‘Uyaynah Ibn Badr al-Fazārī, and Zayd al-Ṭā`ī; a man from the Nabhān tribe and ‘Alqamah Ibn ‘Ulāthah al-‘Āmirī; then a man from the Kilāb tribe. (The Muslims of) Quraysh and the residents of Medina became upset and said, “He gives to the noble one from Najd and leaves us?” The prophet ( صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم ) said: إِنَّمَا أَتَأَلَّفُهُمْ “I am only trying to unite their hearts.” Then a man with sunken eyes, thick cheeks, a high forehead, a thick beard, and a shaven head came up and said, “Fear Allah, Muhammad!” He replied: مَنْ يُطِعْ اللَّهَ إِذَا عَصَيْتُ؟ أَيَأْمَنُنِي اللَّهُ عَلَى أَهْلِ الأَرْضِ فَلا تَأْمَنُونِي؟ “Who would obey Allah if I were disobedient (to Him)? Allah trusts me with regards to the people of the earth but you don’t trust me?” [69] After the man left, he said: إِنَّ مِنْ ضِئْضِئِ هَذَا أَوْ فِي عَقِبِ هَذَا قَوْمًا يَقْرَءُونَ الْقُرْآنَ لا يُجَاوِزُ حَنَاجِرَهُمْ يَمْرُقُونَ مِنْ الدِّينِ مُرُوقَ السَّهْمِ مِنْ الرَّمِيَّةِ يَقْتُلُونَ أَهْلَ الإِسْلامِ وَيَدَعُونَ أَهْلَ الأَوْثَانِ لَئِنْ أَنَا أَدْرَكْتُهُمْ لأَقْتُلَنَّهُمْ قَتْلَ عَادٍ “From the progeny of this man,” or he said, “From the offspring of this man, there will come a people who will recite the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats. They will go through the religion like an arrow going through a target. They will murder the people of Islam while ignoring the people of idol-worship. If I were to reach them (their time), I would destroy them like the people of ‘Ād were destroyed.”[70]

Some modern scholars like R. E. Brunnow trace the origins of the Qurra and the Kharitites back to Bedouin stock and desert tribesmen, who had become soldiers not out of commitment to Islam but to share the spoils. Brunnow held that the Kharijites were Bedouin Arabs (Beduinenaraber) or full blooded Arabs.[71]

As Muawiyah and Caliph Uthman were preparing to besiege Constantinople, in 656, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, the son of Abu Bakr and the adopted son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, and the great grandfather of Ja'far al-Sadiq, showed some Egyptians the house of Uthman ibn al-Affan. Later, the Egyptians ended up killing Uthman ibn al-Affan.[72] Muawiyah had asked Caliph Uthman ibn Affan if he could send guards to defend him, but Caliph Uthman ibn Affan refused, saying: "I do not want to spill the blood of Muslims to save my own neck."

Finding the gate of Uthman's house strongly guarded by his supporters, the Qurra climbed the back wall and sneaked inside, leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside. Hassan and Hussein were also guarding Uthman at the time.[73] The rebels entered his room and struck blows at his head.[74]

According to Encyclopedia of Islam, Muawiyah sent a relief force led by Habib ibn Maslama al-Fihri to protect Uthman, but events moved so fast that Uthman got killed before they arrived, so they turned back from the wadi I kura[75][76][77][78] According to al-Baladhuri one of the earliest books of these events, Ali was furious and slapped Hassan and Hussein saying "How did he get killed when you were at the door?"[79]

Uthman's death had a polarizing effect in the Muslim world at the time. Questions were raised not only regarding his character and policies but also the relationship between Muslims and the state, religious beliefs regarding rebellion and governance, and the qualifications of rulership in Islam.[80]

Ali was then asked by the people in Madina to become the Caliph.

When Uthman was killed, the people went to Ali and said:

"This man is killed. The public have to have a leader. No one we have found more deserving to the position than you! You are the oldest in the faith and the nearest to the prophet by relationship."

"Leave me and seek some one else. We are facing a matter which has (several) faces and colours, which neither hearts can stand nor intelligence can accept. Clouds are hovering over the sky, and faces are not discernible. You should know that if I respond to you I would lead you as I know and would not care about whatever one may say or abuse. If you leave me then I am the same as you are. It is possible I would listen to and obey whomever you make in charge of your affairs. I am better for you as a counsellor than as chief."[81]

Ali later wrote in a letter "I did not approach the people to get their oath of allegiance but they came to me with their desire to make me their Amir (ruler). I did not extend my hands towards them so that they might swear the oath of allegiance to me but they themselves extended their hands towards me".[82]

Ali then assumed the position of caliph. Ali was very religious and had worked very well in partnership with Umar as his advisor. Umar had consulted him on all the major issues. Ali had also been the chief judge in Madina. But unlike many of the other companions of Muhammad, Ali had not been involved in the camel caravan trade and had less business and administrative experience.

A few years earlier there had been tensions between Iraq, formerly under the Persian Sassanid Empire and Syria, formerly under the Byzantine Empire, during the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars. The Roman-Persian Wars and the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars had lasted for hundreds of years. The Iraqis wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in Kufa. They convinced Ali to come to Kufa and establish the capital in Kufa.[83]

Muawiyah I the governor of Syria, a relative of Uthman ibn al-Affan and Marwan I wanted the culprits arrested. Marwan I and the rebels in Ali's army manipulated everyone and created conflict.

Sunni view of Uthman[edit]

According to the Sunni account of Uthman, he was married to two of Muhammad’s daughters at separate times, earning him the name Zun-Nurayn (Dhun Nurayn) or the "Possessor of Two Lights." In this he was supposed to outrank Ali, who had married only one of Muhammad's daughters.

Sunni Muslims also consider Uthman as one of the ten Sahaba (companions) for whom Muhammad had testified that they were destined for Paradise. He was a wealthy and very noble man. When he became khalifa, he used the same method Umar did.

Uthman is regarded by Sunnis as a beacon of light who refused to participate in the civil conflict.

Before hostilities[edit]

Talhah and Zubayr asked Ali the permission for pilgrimage. He let them and they departed. The Medina people wanted to know Ali’s point of view about war against Muslims by asking his view about Muawiyah I and his opposition. So they sent Ziyad Bin Hanzalah of Tamim who was an intimate friend to Ali. He went to him and sat for a while. Then Ali said:

"Get ready, Ziyad!"
"What for?"
"To fight the Syrians."
"Better to wait and tolerate."

Then Ziyad recited a poem:

"One who doesn’t tolerate
"He will be torn by the teeth
"And will be smashed by the feet"

Unconsciously recited another poem:

"When a wake heart and a brave sword and brain
Are gathered, then you will be safe from the oppression"

Then Ziyad came out to the people waiting for his conclusion. They asked:

"What happened? What is he going to do?"

Ziyad only said:

"You people! Sword!!"

And they understood what Ali was going to do.

He went back and told the people in Medina. In Medina, Marwan manipulated people. In Iraq many people hated the Syrians following the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars. Some of Ali's supporters were also very extreme in their views and considered everyone to be their enemy. They also felt that if there was peace, they would be arrested for the killing of Uthman.[84] Many of them later became the Kharijites and eventually killed Ali.

Aisha (Aisha bint Abu Bakr) (Muhammad's widow), Talhah (Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah) and Zubayr ibn al-Awam (Abu ‘Abd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam) then went to Iraq to ask Ali to arrest Uthman ibn Affan killers, not to fight Muawiyah.[85][86]

Battle of the Camel[edit]

Main article: Battle of the Camel

Talhah, Al-Zubayr, and Muhammad's wife Aisha bint Abu Bakr gathered in Mecca and then went to Basra.

Some chieftains of the Kufa tribes contacted their tribes living in Basra.[87] A Chieftain contacted Ali to settle the matter.[88] Ali did not want to fight and he agreed.[89] He then contacted Aisha and spoke to her,[90] "Is it not wise to shed the blood of five thousand for the punishment of five hundred"[91] She agreed to settle the matter.[92] Ali then met Talha and Zubair and told them about the prophecy of Muhammad. Ali's cousin Zubair said to Ali "What a tragedy that the Muslims who had acquired the strength of a rock are going to be smashed by colliding with one another".[84] Both Talha and Zubair did not want to fight and left the field. Everyone was happy, but not the people who had killed Uthman and the supporters of Ibn Saba and the Qurra.[93] They thought that if a settlement was reached, they would not be safe.[94] The Qurra and the Sabaites launches a night attack and started burning the tents.[95] Ali was restraining his men but nobody was listening, as every one thought that the other party had committed break of trust. Confusion prevailed throughout the night.[96] The Qurra and the Sabaites attacked the Umayyads and the fighting started. Qazi K'ab of Basra advised Aysha to mount her camel tell people to stop fighting.[97] Ali's cousin Zubair, was by then making his way to Medina and he was killed in an adjoining valley by a Sabait[98] called Amr ibn Jarmouz. Amr ibn Jarmouz had followed Zubair and murdered him while he was in his prays.[99] Talhah also left. On seeing this, Marwan who was also manipulating everyone shot Talhah with a poisoned arrow[100] saying that he had disgraced his tribe, by leaving the field.[101] With the two generals Zubair and Talhah gone confusion prevailing and the Qurra, the Sabaites and the Umayyads fought.[102][103] Aisha's brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, who was Ali's commander, then approached Aisha. Ali pardoned Aisha and her brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr escorted her back to Medina.[104] Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was the son of Abu Bakr, the adopted son of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, and the great-grandfather of Ja‘far al-Sadiq. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was raised by Ali alongside Hasan and Husein. Hassan also accompanied her part of the way back to Madina. ‘Ali and Aisha were said to have become friends after the battle. Aisha then started teaching in Medina.[105]

Marwan and some of Ali's supporters who later became the Kawarij caused a lot of the trouble. Marwan was arrested but he later asked Hassan and Hussein for assistance and was released.[85] Marwan later became an Umayyad ruler, as did his son.

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was later killed by the Umayyads in Egypt. His son Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was then raised and taught by Aisha. Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr's daughter Farwah bint al-Qasim was the mother of Ja'far al-Sadiq. After this battle Marwan and Aisha did not get on.

Al-Zubayr's widow Asma' bint Abu Bakr, the daughter of Abu Bakr the first caliph, and her sons Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and Urwah ibn Zubayr continued to get on well with Ali and held the Kawarij responsible for their father's killing. Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr was the second cousin on Hussein and the grandson of Abu Bakr. Many years later Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr confronted the oppressive Umayyad rulers Yazid after Ali's son Hussein ibn Ali was betrayed by the people of Kufa and killed by Syrian Roman Army which was then under the control of Yazid I, an Umayyad ruler.[106] Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr removed the forces of Yazid from Iraq, southern Arabia, the greater part of Syria, and parts of Egypt. After a lengthy campaign, on his last hour Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr asked his mother Asma' bint Abu Bakr, the daughter of Abu Bakr the first caliph, for advice. Asma' bint Abu Bakr replied to her son, saying:[107] "You know better in your own self, that if you are upon the truth and you are calling towards the truth go forth, for people more honourable than you have been killed, and if you are not upon the truth, then what an evil son you are and you have destroyed yourself and those who are with you. If you say what you say, that you are upon the truth and you will be killed at the hands of others, then you will not truly be free for this is not the statement of someone who is free... How long will you live in this world, death is more beloved to me than this state you are on, this state of weakness". Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr left and was later also killed and crucified by the Syrian Roman Army now under the control of the Umayyads.

Battle of Siffin[edit]

Main article: Battle of Siffin
Combat between the forces of Ali and Muawiyah I during the Battle of Siffin, from the Tarikhnama.

Ali's inability to punish the murderers of Uthman and Muawiyahs refusal to pledge allegiance eventually led to Ali moving his army north to confront Muawiyah. The two armies encamped themselves at Siffin for more than one hundred days, most of the time being spent in negotiations. Neither side wanted to fight. Then on 11th Safar 37 AH, the Iraqis under Ashtar's command, the Qurra, in Ali's army, who had their own camp started the fighting in earnest which lasted three days. The loss of life was terrible. Suddenly one of the Syrians, Ibn Lahiya, out of dread of the fitna and unable to bear the spectacle rode forward with a copy of the Quran on the ears of his horse to call for judgement by the book of Allah, and the other Syrians followed suit. Everyone on both sides took up the cry, eager to avoid killing their follow Muslims - except for the conspirators. The majority of Ali's followers supported arbitration. Nasr b Muzahim, in one of the earliest source states that al-Ash ath ibn Qays, one of Ali's key supporters and a Kufan, then stood up and said:"O company of Muslims! You have seen what happened in the day which has passed. In it some of the Arabs have been annihilated. By Allah, I have reached the age which Allah willed that I reach. but I have never ever seen a day like this. Let the present convey to the absent! If we fight tomorrow, it will be the annihilation of the Arabs and the loss of what is sacred. I do not make this statement out of fear of death, but I am an aged man who fears for the women and children tomorrow if we are annihilated. O Allah, I have looked to my people and the people of my deen and not empowered anyone. There is no success except by Allah. On Him I rely and to Him I return. Opinion can be both right and wrong. When Allah decides a matter, He carries it out whether His servants like it or not. I say this and I ask Allah's forgiveness for me and you." Then, Nasr b Muzahim says people looked at Muawiya who said "He is right, by the Lord. If we meet tomorrow the Byzantines will attack our women and children and the people of Persia will attack the women and children of Iraq. Those with forebearance and intelligence see this. Tie the copies of the Quran to the ends of the spears". So the fighting stopped.[108]

Every time Ali tried to negotiate the Qurra and the Sabait started wars and launched night attacks, fearing that if there was peace, then they will be arrested.[109]

Appointment of Arbitrators[edit]

It was decided that the Syrians and the residents of Kufa, in Iraq, should nominate an arbitrator, each to decide between Ali and Muawiya. The Syrians choice fell on Amr bin al-A'as who was the rational soul and spokesman of Muawiya. 'Amr ibn al-'As was one of the generals involved in expelling the Romans from Syria and also expelled the Romans from Egypt.[110] A few years earlier 'Amr ibn al-'As with 9,000 men in Palestine had found himself confronting Heraclius' 100,000 army until Khalid crossed the Syrian desert from Iraq to assist him.[110] He was a highly skilled negotiator and had previously been used in negotiations with the Heraclius the Roman Emperor.[111] Ali wanted Malik Ashtar or Abdullah bin Abbas to be appointed as an arbitrator for the people of Kufa, Iraq, but the Qurra strongly demurred, alleging that men like these two were, indeed, responsible for the war and, therefore, ineligible for that office of trust. They nominated Abu Musa al-Ashari as their arbitrator. (During the time of Uthman, they had appointed Abu Musa al-Ashari as the Governor of Kufa and removed Uthams governor before they started fighting Uthman) Ali found it expedient to agree to this choice in order to ward off bloody dissensions in his army. According to "Asadul Ghaba", Ali had, therefore, taken care to personally explain to the arbitrators, "You are arbiters on condition that you decide according to the Book of God, and if you are not so inclined you should not deem yourselves to be arbiters."[112]

The Iraqis under Ali and the Syrians under Muawiyah were not split over their faith[113] but over when to bring the people who killed Uthman to justice. Ali also wanted to bring them to justice but the dispute was over the timing.

According to early Shia sources Ali later wrote:[113]

"The thing began in this way: We and the Syrians were facing each other while we had common faith in one Allah, in the same Prophet (s) and on the same principles and canons of religion. So far as faith in Allah and the Holy Prophet (s) was concerned we never wanted them (the Syrians) to believe in anything over and above or other than what they were believing in and they did not want us to change our faith. Both of us were united on these principles. The point of contention between us was the question of the murder of Uthman. It had created the split. They wanted to lay the murder at my door while I am actually innocent of it.

I advised them that this problem cannot be solved by excitement. Let the excitement subside, let us cool down; let us do away with sedition and revolt; let the country settle down into a peaceful atmosphere and when once a stable regime is formed and the right authority is accepted, then let this question be dealt with on the principles of equity and justice because only then the authority will have power enough to find the criminals and to bring them to justice. They refused to accept my advice and said that they wanted to decide the issue on the point of the sword.

When they thus rejected my proposal of peace and kept on sabre rattling threats, then naturally the battle, which was furious and bloody, started. When they saw defeat facing them across the battlefield, when many of them were killed, and many more wounded, then they went down on their knees and proposed the same thing, which I had proposed before the bloodshed had begun.

I accepted their proposal so that their desire might be fulfilled, my intentions of accepting the principles of truth and justice and acting according to these principles might become clear and they might have no cause to complain against me.

Now whoever adheres firmly to the promises made will be the one whose salvation will be saved by Allah and one who will try to go back upon the promises made, will fall deeper and deeper into heresy, error and loss. His eyes will be closed to realities and truth in this world and he will be punished in the next world."[114]

Encyclopedia of Islam says "According to the non Muslim view the Syrians were winning"[115] Either way, neither the Syrians nor the Iraqis wanted to fight and the battle was stopped.

When the arbitrators assembled at Daumet-ul-Jandal, which lay midway between Kufa and Syria and had for that reason been selected as the place for the announcement of the decision, a series of daily meetings were arranged for them to discuss the matters in hand. When the time arrived for taking a decision about the caliphate, Amr bin al-A'as convinced Abu Musa al-Ashari into entertaining the opinion that they should deprive both Ali and Muawiya of the caliphate, and give to the Muslims the right to elect the caliph. Abu Musa al-Ashari also decided to act accordingly. As the time for announcing the verdict approached, the people belonging to both parties assembled. Amr bin al-A'as requested Abu Musa to take the lead in announcing the decision he favoured. Abu Musa al-Ashari agreed to open the proceedings, and said, "We have devised a solution after a good deal of thought and it may put an end to all contention and separatist tendencies. It is this. Both of us remove Ali as well as Muawiya from the caliphate. The Muslims are given the right to elect a caliph as they think best."[116]

Ali refused to accept the verdict of him stepping down and for an election to be held and found himself technically in breach of his pledge to abide by the arbitration.[117][118][119] This put Ali in a weak position even amongst his own supporters.[120] The most vociferous opponents of Ali in his camp were the very same people who had forced Ali to appoint their arbitrator, the Qurra who then became known as the Kharijites.[121] Feeling that Ali could no longer look after their interests[48] Also fearing that if there was peace, they could be arrested for the murder of Uthman they broke away from Ali's force, rallying under the slogan, "arbitration belongs to God alone."[122] The Qurra then became known as the Kharijites ("those who leave"). The Kharijites then started killing other people.

When Ali moved his forces north against Muawiyah in 656, it bought a precious breathing pause for Byzantium, which Emperor Constans II (r. 641–668) used to shore up his defences and initiate a major army reform with lasting effect: the establishment of the themata, the large territorial commands into which Anatolia, the major contiguous territory remaining to the Empire, was divided. The themata would form the backbone of the Byzantine defensive system for centuries to come.[123]

After the battle of Saffin the Qurra realised that Ali could not safeguard their interests and therefore split off and formed their own Party called the Kharijites and later developed into an anarchist movement[124] and plagued successive governments even Harun the Abbasid ruler died fighting the Kharijites[125]

They also started killing Ali's supporters. They considered anyone who was not part of their group as an unbeliever.[126]

In the best selling book, Shadow of the sword, The Battle for Global Empire and the End of the Ancient World, Tom Holland writes[127] "The Kharijites argued a true believer would have trusted his fate not to diplomacy but to ongoing warfare and God will decide." Even though they them selves had put forward their representative and become a party of them selves, so that the negotiations could go in their favor and satisfy their own political and economic interests. Tom Holland says that "they then condemned Ali as an unbeliever, as the man who had strayed from the Strait Path. The fact that he was Muhammad's nephew only confirmed them in their militancy of their egalitarianism; that the true aristocracy was one of piety and not blood. Even a Companion of the Prophet, if he did not pray until he developed marks on his forehead. If he did not look pale and haggard from regular fasting, if he did not live like a lion by day and a monk by night, ranked in the opinion of the Kharijites as no better than an apostate." They then developed even more twisted views. Tom Holland writes "Other Kharijites, so it was reported, might go out and with their swords into the markets while people would stand around not realizing what was happening; they would shout "no judgment except God!" and plunge their blades into whom ever they could reach and go on killing until they them selves were killed.[128]

In 659 Ali's forces finally moved against the Kharijites and they finally met in the Battle of Nahrawan. Although Ali won the battle, the constant conflict had begun to affect his standing.[129] Tom Holland writes "Ali won a victory over them as crushing as it was to prove pyrrhic: for all he had done, in effect was to fertilise the soil of Iraq with the blood of their martyrs. Three years later, and there came the inevitable blowback: a Kharijite assassin.".[130]

The Kharijites caused so much trouble that in both the early Sunni and the early Shia books Ali said:"With regard to me, two categories of people will be ruined, namely he who loves me too much and the love takes him away from rightfulness, and he who hates me too much and the hatred takes him away from rightfulness. The best man with regard to me is he who is on the middle course. So be with him and be with the great majority of Muslims because Allah’s hand of protection is on keeping unity. You should beware of division because the one isolated from the group is a prey to Satan just as the one isolated from the flock of sheep is a prey to the wolf. Beware! Whoever calls to this course [of sectarianism], kill him, even though he may be under this headband of mine."(Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 126)

While dealing with the Iraqis, Ali found it hard to build a disciplined army and effective state institutions to exert control over his areas and as a result later spent a lot of time fighting the Kharijites. As a result, on the Eastern front, Ali found it hard to expand the state.[131]

Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. On the 19th of Ramadan, while Praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa, Ali was attacked by the Khawarij Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam. He was wounded by ibn Muljam's poison-coated sword while prostrating in the Fajr prayer.[132]

When Alī was assassinated in 661, Muawiyah, had the largest and the most organized and disciplined force in the Muslim Empire.

Scholars like Wellhausen have argued that the Kharijites when revolting against Ali used the same formula as they had previously applied against Uthman, when they revolted against Uthman.[133]

Wellhausen argues that for the Kharijite Ali's pact with Muawiyah compromised the divine right the same act which caused the insurgencies against Uthman and Muawiya as well.[134]

Scholars like Wellhausen argue that the Kharijites sprang from the Qurra and they did not start off as a marginal and clandestine sect, but were in full public eye. Wellhausen argues that:[135]

"Their origins were essentially very different from those of the Abbasid and Fatimid parties. They did not have to resort to conspiracy and widespread propaganda and were not held together by a secret complex organization. They had only principles but these were always well known to the people and attracted supporters without them seeking them".[136]

M. A. Shaban in his book Islamic History A.D. 600-750 (A.H. 132): A new Interpretation (1971) Proclaims that the Qurra were the tribesmen who had the trusteeship of the conquered lands. This means that they shared the wealth and the prestige of the new system. Their special position and prestige in the Sawad in Iraq however was threatened by Uthmans policies. This explains their participation in removing Uthman. Although the policy of Ali was lucrative to the Qurra they realized that the new Caliph's inheritance of a divided community and turmoil would make him unable to protect their newly established economic status. Thus at this stage and during the Battle of Siffin (Ali's weakest moments) the Qurra decided to secede from Ali's coalition and become a party of their own.[137] In the article entitled "The Emergence of the Kharijites: Religion and the Social Order in Early Islam" (1989) Jeffrey T Kenny has argued that the Kharijites were just one of many factions that emerged from an intricate web of changing socioeconomic policies in the newly established provinces of the Islamic Empire.[138]

M. A. Shaban in his book Islamic History A.D. 600-750 (A.H. 132): A new Interpretation (1971) writes the Qurra insisted on choosing Abu Musa al Ashari to be the Iraqi representative after the battle of Siffin despite Ali's vehement objection. Shaban writes that the same Qurra originally insisted on Abu Musa becoming the governor of Kufa and replaced Uthmans governor because Abu Musa had opposed Uthman's policy and therefore had been the choice of the qurra as governor of Kufa, when they expelled Uthmans governor Sa'id b Al-As. Shaban adds that the Qurra tried to turn the negotiations between the Syrians and the Iraqis to their own advantage and that they wished to become a third party in the dispute. Thus it is at this point that the coalition of Ali ended and that the ex-qurra emerged as the Kharijites.[139]

While Watt argues that the Kharijites were not simply dissatisfied with a particular man or family or economics, rather their dissatisfaction was with the whole social structure which was represented by both Uthman and Ali. In the old way they had freedom in the affairs of the tribe. Now they were in the "super-tribe" of Islam and could not behave as they had behaved previously. They wanted to go back to their old tribal structure where they could glory and boast about their tribe. He writes "Those who had been accustomed to tribal societies missied the security ... provided by the old system; nothing in the new system quite replaced it[140]

Peace treaty with Hassan[edit]

The Khawarij then grew stronger in Iraq and started speaking ill of Ali.[141] After the battle of the Camel, Aisha and Ali had no bitterness towards each other and got on well. On the other hand after the battle of the Camel Marwan and Aisha did not get on. During the time of Ali, Aishas brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was a commander in Ali's army had also been killed by the Syrian army in Egypt. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was the son of Abu Bakr and the adopted son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and was also raised by Uthman and he was the great grandfather of Ja'far al-Sadiq[142]

Aisha's other brother Abdul Rahman was also opposed to Marwan and his conduct"[143] Aisha had deeply regretted going to Basra.[144]

Ammar bin Yasin and Ushtur went to meet Aisha and she spoke to Ammar. "O Ammar! don't you know that the Prophet had said that it was unlawful to shed the blood of a believer unless he has become apostate and foughts you or is guilty of murder or adultery" She explained that during the battle of the Camel she was talking to Ali when the Qurra had started the battle. The talks had lasted for months. When she heard of the assassination of Ali in Kufa she Said "O God! have mercy of Ali. When anything pleased him he used to say "God and His Apostle are true" The people of Iraq made insinuations against him and exaggerated everything."[145]

Six months later in 661, in the interest of peace, Hasan ibn Ali, highly regarded for his wisdom and as a peacemaker, the fifth Rightly Guided Caliphs for the Sunnis and the Second Imam for the Shias and the grandson of Muhammad, made a peace treaty with Muawiyah. By now Hassan only ruled the area around Kufa. In the Hasan-Muawiya treaty, Hasan ibn Ali handed over power to Muawiya on the condition that he be just to the people and keep them safe and secure and after his death he does not establish a dynasty.[146][147] This brought to an end the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs for the Sunnis and Hasan ibn Ali was also the last Imam for the Shias to be a Caliph.

Narrated by Al-Hasan Al-Basri

By Allah, Al-Hasan bin Ali led large battalions like mountains against Muawiya. Amr bin Al-As said (to Muawiya), "I surely see battalions which will not turn back before killing their opponents." Muawiya who was really the best of the two men said to him, "O 'Amr! If these killed those and those killed these, who would be left with me for the jobs of the public, who would be left with me for their women, who would be left with me for their children?" Then Muawiya sent two Quraishi men from the tribe of 'Abd-i-Shams called 'Abdur Rahman bin Sumura and Abdullah bin 'Amir bin Kuraiz to Al-Hasan saying to them, "Go to this man (i.e. Al-Hasan) and negotiate peace with him and talk and appeal to him." So, they went to Al-Hasan and talked and appealed to him to accept peace. Al-Hasan said, "We, the offspring of 'Abdul Muttalib, have got wealth and people have indulged in killing and corruption (and money only will appease them)." They said to Al-Hasan, "Muawiya offers you so and so, and appeals to you and entreats you to accept peace." Al-Hasan said to them, "But who will be responsible for what you have said?" They said, "We will be responsible for it." So, what-ever Al-Hasan asked they said, "We will be responsible for it for you." So, Al-Hasan concluded a peace treaty with Muawiya. Al-Hasan (Al-Basri) said: I heard Abu Bakr saying, "I saw Allah's Apostle on the pulpit and Al-Hasan bin 'Ali was by his side. The Prophet was looking once at the people and once at Al-Hasan bin 'Ali saying, 'This son of mine is a Saiyid (i.e. a noble) and may Allah make peace between two big groups of Muslims through him."[148]

Hassan had lost many of his close friends, including Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, who he was raised with, he was also the guard, guarding Uthman the day he was killed. Hassan also had the Kharijites in Iraq to deal with. There are different groups with different economic and political interests and then on top of that the populations in the different areas were very tribal and nationalistic. Hassan skillfully managed to get Muawiyah to deal with the Kharijites. As part of the peace settlement Muawiyah agreed to pay the revenues of the Baitul-Mal public treasury in Kufa to Hassan.[149] However the people of the district refused to allow their taxes to go towards Hussain, to recompense for their refusal Muawiyah paid Hassan six million Dirhams every year.[150] Not once did al-Hassan fail to receive the payments from Muawiyah.[151]

People wanted to avoid another battle like the battle of Siffin where their strong opinions and inflexibly to compromise caused so much trouble.

Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 9, Book 92, Number 411: Narrated by Al-A'mash

I asked Abu Wail, "Did you witness the battle of Siffin between 'Ali and Muawiya?" He said, "Yes," and added, "Then I heard Sahl bin Hunaif saying, 'O people! Blame your personal opinions in your religion. No doubt, I remember myself on the day of Abi Jandal; if I had the power to refuse the order of Allah's Apostle, I would have refused it. We have never put our swords on our shoulders to get involved in a situation that might have been horrible for us, but those swords brought us to victory and peace, except this present situation.' " Abu Wail said, "I witnessed the battle of Siffin, and how nasty Siffin was!"

After the peace treaty with Muawiyah, Ibn Shawdhab is reported to have said that "Hassan hated to fight. his supporters would say to him "O Dishonour of the Believers!" So Hassan would reply to them "Dishonour is better than Hel-fire.".[152]

After the peace treaty with Hassan, in the book "The Great Arab Conquests" Hugh Kennedy writes that "The Nestorian Christian John bar Penkaye writing in the 690s, says 'the peace throughout the world was such that we have never heard, either from our fathers or from our grandparents, or seen that there had ever been any like it'"[153]

In the year 661, Muawiyah was crowned as caliph at a ceremony in Jerusalem.[154]

He came to Madina and spoke to the people, saying, "I desired the way followed by Abu Bakr and 'Umar, but I was unable to follow it, and so I have followed a course with you which contains fortune and benefits for you despite some bias, so be pleased with what comes to you from me even if it is little. When good is continuous, even if it is little, it enriches. Discontent makes life grim."[155]

He also said in as address which he delivered to the people, "O people! By Allah, it is easier to move the firm mountains than to follow Abu Bakr and 'Umar in their behaviour. But I have followed their way of conduct falling short of those before me, but none after me will equal me in it."[155]

Ali's Caliphate lasted for 4 years. After the treaty with Hassan, Muawiyah ruled for nearly 20 years most of which were spent expanding the state.[156]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Martin Hinds. "Muʿāwiya I". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. Retrieved 21 September 2014. 
  2. ^ History of the Jihad By Leonard Michael Kroll Page 123
  3. ^ Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present By Mark Weston Page 61 [1]
  4. ^ a b The Spread of Islam: The Contributing Factors By Abu al-Fazl Izzati, A. Ezzati Page 301
  5. ^ a b Islam For Dummies By Malcolm Clark Page
  6. ^ Spiritual Clarity By Jackie Wellman Page 51
  7. ^ The Koran For Dummies By Sohaib Sultan Page
  8. ^ Quran: The Surah Al-Nisa, Ch4:v2
  9. ^ Quran: Surat Al-Hujurat [49:13]
  10. ^ Quran: Surat An-Nisa' [4:1]
  11. ^ Iraq, a Complicated State: Iraq's Freedom War By Karim M. S. Al-Zubaidi Page 32
  12. ^ Arab Socialism. [al-Ishtirakiyah Al-?Arabiyah]: A Documentary Survey By Sami A. Hanna, George H. Gardner Page 271 [2]
  13. ^ Arab Socialism. [al-Ishtirakiyah Al-Arabiyah]: A Documentary Survey By Sami A. Hanna, George H. Gardner Page 271 [3]
  14. ^ Men Around the Messenger By Khalid Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Khali Khalid Page 117 [4]
  15. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam:, Volume 2 edited by P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis Page 605 [5]
  16. ^ The Early Caliphate By Maulana Muhammad Ali
  17. ^ [6]
  18. ^ [7]
  19. ^ Rahman (1999, p. 37)
  20. ^ Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muḥammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997. Print. ISBN 0-521-64696-0 Pgs. 18, 87, 88, 90, 92-107, 111-113, 130, 134, 140-145, 147, 155-156, 158, 241 - 259, and 334
  21. ^ Sayyid, Kamāl, and Jasim Alyawy. Malik al-Ashtar. [Qum, Iran]: Ansariyan Foundation, 1996. Print. Pgs. 2-4
  22. ^ al-Nawawi, "Sharh Sahih Muslim" vol. 11 number 219 n.p Print
  23. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 81
  24. ^ Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites By Hussam S. Timani Page 49 [8] Some modern scholars like R.E. Brunnow trace the origins of the Qurra and the Kharitites back to Bedouin stock and desert tribesmen, who had become soldiers not out of commitment to Islam but to share the spoils. Brunnow held that the Kharijites were Bedouin Arabs (Beduinenaraber) or full blooded Arabs.
  25. ^ Spiritual Clarity By Jackie Wellman Page 51
  26. ^ The Koran For Dummies By Sohaib Sultan Page
  27. ^ Qur'an: The Surah Al-Nisa, Ch4:v2
  28. ^ Qur'an: Surat Al-Hujurat [49:13]
  29. ^ Qur'an: Surat An-Nisa' [4:1]
  30. ^ A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 10
  31. ^ Iraq a Complicated State: Iraq's Freedom War By Karim M. S. Al-Zubaidi Page 32
  32. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa her life and works by Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi translated by Syed Athar Husain and published by Darul Ishaat Page 39
  33. ^ History of the Jews: From the Roman Empire to the Early Medieval ..., Volume 2 By Simon Dubnov page 330 where it talks about Abdala Ben Saba [9]
  34. ^ Jewish Literature from the Eighth to the Eighteenth Century: With an ... By Moritz Steinschneider, William Spottiswoode page 59 [10]
  35. ^ history of the jews, Volume 2 By Ernst G. Maier Page 330
  36. ^ There is also other non Muslim literature from near that time like The Chronography of Bar Hebraeus By Bar Hebraeus [11]
  37. ^ al-Baladhuri and At-Tabari 5:66
  38. ^ Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites By Hussam S. Timani Page 62 [12]
  39. ^ The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns, Nat. Publishing. House, Rawalpindi (1970) ISBN 0-7101-0104-X
  40. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 13
  41. ^ a b c d Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites By Hussam S. Timani Page 61 [13]
  42. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith by Aisha Bewley, page 14, with text from Al-Baladuri
  43. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 13
  44. ^ Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites By Hussam S. Timani Page 62 [14]
  45. ^ Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites By Hussam S. Timani Page 62 [15]
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  52. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 13
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  66. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 14
  67. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 14
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  74. ^ The Many Faces of Faith: A Guide to World Religions and Christian Traditions By Richard R. Losch
  75. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam Volume VII, page 264 By Bosworth
  76. ^ tabri 2959 2985
  77. ^ al-Baladuri 204-5
  78. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 17
  79. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 18
  80. ^ Valerie Jon Hoffman, The Essentials of Ibadi Islam, pg. 8. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780815650843
  81. ^ Nahj ul Balagha Sermon 91
  82. ^ Nahj ul Balagha, Letter 54.
  83. ^ Iraq, a Complicated State Page 32
  84. ^ a b Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi Page 44
  85. ^ a b Nahj al Balagha Sermon 72
  86. ^ Medieval Islamic civilization By Josef W. Meri Page 131
  87. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  88. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  89. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  90. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  91. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  92. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  93. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  94. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  95. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  96. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  97. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  98. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  99. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44
  100. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44
  101. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44
  102. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  103. ^ The Early Caliphate, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Al-Jadda Printers, pg. 169-206, 1983
  104. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi p. 44"
  105. ^ See:
  106. ^ Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (2001). The History of Islam V.2. Riyadh: Darussalam. pp. 110. ISBN 9960-892-88-3.
  107. ^ [21]
  108. ^ Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 22 from Ibn Hisham from Ibn Muzahim died 212 AH from Abu Mikhnaf died 170 AH
  109. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa her life and works by Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi translated by Syed Athar Husain and published by Darul Ishaat Page 44
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  111. ^ Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi [23]
  112. ^ "Asadul Ghaba" vol 3, p. 246. Name of book needed
  113. ^ a b Nahjul Balaagha - Letter 58
  114. ^ Nahjul Balaagha - Letter 58
  115. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam Volume VII, page 265 By Bosworth
  116. ^ A Chronology of Islamic History 570-1000 CE By H U Rahman Page 59
  117. ^ A Chronology of Islamic History 570-1000 CE By H U Rahman Page 60
  118. ^ Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia edited by Alexander Mikaberidze, p. 836 [24]
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  121. ^ A Chronology of Islamic History 570-1000 CE By H U Rahman Page 59
  122. ^ A Chronology of Islamic History 570-1000 CE By H U Rahman Page 59
  123. ^ Treadgold (1997), pp. 314–318
  124. ^ Modern Intellectual Readings of the Kharijites By Hussam S. Timani Page 58 [25]
  125. ^ The Arab World: An Illustrated History By Kirk H. Sowell Page 57 [26]
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  128. ^ In the shadow of the sword, The Battle for Global Empire and the End of the Ancient World By Tom Holland, ISBN 978-0-349-12235-9 Abacus Page 399
  129. ^ A Chronology of Islamic History 570-1000 CE By H U Rahman Page 59
  130. ^ In the shadow of the sword, The Battle for Global Empire and the End of the Ancient World By Tom Holland, ISBN 978-0-349-12235-9 Abacus Page 399
  131. ^ A Chronology of Islamic History 570-1000 By H. U. Rahman
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  148. ^ [37] Book of "Peacemaking" Sahih Bukhari - Volume 3, Book 49 (Peacemaking), Number 867
  149. ^ The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah the first Phase, Ibn Katheer, Taken from Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah by Ibn Katheer, Ismail Ibn Omar 775 ISBN 978-603-500-080-2 Translated by Yoosuf Al-Hajj Ahmad Page 45
  150. ^ The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah the first Phase, Ibn Katheer, Taken from Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah by Ibn Katheer, Ismail Ibn Omar 775 ISBN 978-603-500-080-2 Translated by Yoosuf Al-Hajj Ahmad Page 45
  151. ^ The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah the first Phase, Ibn Katheer, Taken from Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah by Ibn Katheer, Ismail Ibn Omar 775 ISBN 978-603-500-080-2 Translated by Yoosuf Al-Hajj Ahmad Page 45
  152. ^ The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah the first Phase, Ibn Katheer, Taken from Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah by Ibn Katheer, Ismail Ibn Omar 775 ISBN 978-603-500-080-2 Translated by Yoosuf Al-Hajj Ahmad Page 45
  153. ^ The Great Arab Conquests By Hugh Kennedy, page 349
  154. ^ History of Israel and the Holy Land By Michael Avi-Yonah, Shimon Peres. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
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  156. ^ Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa her life and works by Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi translated by Syed Athar Husain and published by Darul Ishaat Page 47

References[edit]

Encyclopedia

Further reading[edit]

  • Djaït, Hichem (2008-10-30). La Grande Discorde: Religion et politique dans l'Islam des origines. Editions Gallimard. ISBN 2-07-035866-6.  Arabic translation by Khalil Ahmad Khalil, Beirut, 2000, Dar al-Tali'a.