First Kok cabinet

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First Kok cabinet
First Purple cabinet
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
62nd cabinet of the Netherlands
Kabinet-Kok I.jpg ZetelsKokI.svg
The installation of the First Kok cabinet on 22 August 1994
Date formed 22 August 1994 (1994-08-22)
Date dissolved 3 August 1998 (1998-08-03)
(Demissionary from 6 May 1998 (1998-05-06))
People and organisations
Head of state Queen Beatrix
Head of government Wim Kok
Deputy head of government Hans Dijkstal
Hans van Mierlo
No. of ministers 14
Member party Labour Party
(PvdA)
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy

(VVD)
Democrats 66
(D66)
Status in legislature Grand coalition (Purple)
Opposition party Christian Democratic Appeal
Opposition leader Enneüs Heerma (1994–1997)
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (1997–1998)
History
Election(s) 1994 election
Outgoing election 1998 election
Legislature term(s) 1994–1998
Incoming formation 1994 formation
Outgoing formation 1998 formation
Predecessor Third Lubbers cabinet
Successor Second Kok cabinet
Azure, billetty Or a lion with a coronet Or armed and langued Gules holding in his dexter paw a sword Argent hilted Or and in the sinister paw seven arrows Argent pointed and bound together Or. [The seven arrows stand for the seven provinces of the Union of Utrecht.] The shield is crowned with the (Dutch) royal crown and supported by two lions Or armed and langued gules. They stand on a scroll Azure with the text (Or) "Je Maintiendrai" (French for "I will maintain".)
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Netherlands

The First Kok cabinet, also called the First Purple cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 22 August 1994 until 3 August 1998. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Labour Party (PvdA), People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Democrats 66 (D66) after the election of 1994. The grand coalition (Purple) cabinet was a majority government in the House of Representatives. It was the first of two cabinets of Wim Kok, the Leader of the Labour Party as Prime Minister, with Hans Dijkstal the Deputy Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and Hans van Mierlo the Leader of the Democrats 66 serving as Deputy Prime Ministers.[1]

Formation[edit]

After the election on 3 May 1994 the Labour Party (PvdA) of Wim Kok was the winner of the election despite losing 12 seats and now had a total of 37 seats. The Christian Democratic Appeal of incumbent Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers who had announced his retirement from national politics earlier was succeeded as Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal by the Parliamentary leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal in the House of Representatives Elco Brinkman, a former Minister of Welfare, Health and Culture on 29 January 1994, under the new leadership they lost 20 seats and now had 34 seats. The Democrats 66 of Hans van Mierlo was the biggest winner gaining 12 new seats and now had a total of 24 seats. The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy under Frits Bolkestein where the other big winner gaining 9 new seats had a total of 31 seats in the House of Representatives.

On 6 May 1994 Queen Beatrix appointed President of the Senate Herman Tjeenk Willink (PvdA) as Informateur to start the cabinet formation process. After a first round of talks the Labour Party, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and the Democrats 66 agreed to start negotiation talks. The first round of negotiations were troubled by objections from the Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy Frits Bolkenstein, in the end an agreement was reached to form a coalition. On 14 May 1994 Queen Beatrix appointed President of the Association of Netherlands Municipalities Klaas de Vries (PvdA), a former Member of the House of Representatives and Gijs van Aardenne (VVD), a former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economic Affairs and Senator Jan Vis (D66), a professor of Constitutional law at the University of Groningen as Informateurs. On 3 June 1994 party leaders Wim Kok (PvdA), Frits Bolkenstein (VVD) and Hans van Mierlo (D66) reached a an agreement to begin the cabinet formation. The final cabinet formation negotiations were also troubled by new objections from Frits Bolkenstein about a stronger integration policy and on 26 June 1994 negotiations between the parties failed to form a cabinet.

On 27 June 1994 Queen Beatrix reappointed Herman Tjeenk Willink as Informateur to look at the possibility of the Christian Democratic Appeal joining the Labour Party and the Democrats 66 in a coalition but objections from Democrats 66 halted that. On 6 July 1994 Queen Beatrix appointed Wim Kok as Informateur to write a open coalition proposal with the possibility of other parties to join the agreement. On 29 July 1994 the Labour Party, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and the Democrats 66 finally agreed to form a cabinet and Queen Beatrix appointed Wim Kok as Formateur that same day and tasked him with forming a new cabinet. On 22 August 1994 the cabinet formation was completed and the First Kok cabinet was installed with Wim Kok as Prime Minister and with Hans Dijkstal and Hans van Mierlo as Deputy Prime Ministers.

On 16 August 1994 shortly before the cabinet formation was completed Elco Brinkman who had only been the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal since 29 January 1994 stepped down following the disappointing election results and his inability to join the new cabinet, he was succeeded by Member of the House of Representatives Enneüs Heerma, the former State Secretary for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment.

Term[edit]

The main aim of the cabinet under the lead of Wim Kok was to create employment. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth had been erratic in recent years. The aim of the cabinet was to increase the influence of markets in the economy, with policies of tax reduction, economizing and trying to keep people out of the social care by supporting employment. Large infrastructural projects were started. Another aim was to make an end to the enormous debt of the Dutch government.

The Treaty of Amsterdam was signed during this cabinet. The Srebrenica massacre occurred under the responsibility of this government, which led later to the fall of the Second Kok cabinet.

The cabinet started processes of liberalization which were completed by the same coalition in the following cabinet: the legalization of prostitution in 2000, same-sex marriage in 2001 and Euthanasia in 2002.

This cabinet was the last to serve a full term until the Second Rutte cabinet from 2012 to 2017. Five of the following cabinets resigned and one was a temporary caretaker cabinet.[2]

Changes[edit]

On 28 June 1996 State Secretary for Social Affairs and Employment Robin Linschoten (VVD) resigned after a majority of the House of Representatives indicated that they had lost confidence in his ability to remain in office after a critical parliamentary inquiry into his handeling of several social security issues was released. On 2 July 1996 Amsterdam alderman Frank de Grave (VVD), a former Member of the House of Representatives was appointed as his successor.

Commandant of Dutchbat Lieutenant colonel Thom Karremans and minister of Defence Joris Voorhoeve in Zagreb days before the Srebrenica massacre in July 1995.
European Leaders before the signing of the Treaty of Amsterdam on 2 October 1997.

Cabinet Members[edit]

Ministers Title/Ministry Term of office Party
Wim Kok Wim Kok
(born 1938)
Prime Minister General Affairs 22 August 1994 –
22 July 2002
Labour Party
Hans Dijkstal Hans Dijkstal
(1943–2010)
Deputy Prime Minister /
Minister
Interior 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Hans van Mierlo Hans van Mierlo
(1931–2010)
Deputy Prime Minister /
Minister
Foreign Affairs 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
Gerrit Zalm Gerrit Zalm
(born 1952)
Minister Finance 22 August 1994 –
22 July 2002
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Winnie Sorgdrager Winnie Sorgdrager
(born 1948)
Minister Justice 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
Hans Wijers Dr.
Hans Wijers
(born 1951)
Minister Economic Affairs 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
Joris Voorhoeve Dr.
Joris Voorhoeve
(born 1945)
Minister Defence 22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Els Borst Dr.
Els Borst
(1932–2014)
Minister Health, Welfare
and Sport
3 August 1998 –
22 July 2002
Democrats 66
Ad Melkert Ad Melkert
(born 1956)
Minister Social Affairs and
Employment
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
Jo Ritzen Dr.
Jo Ritzen
(born 1945)
Minister Education, Culture
and Science
7 November 1989 –
3 August 1998
[Retained]
Labour Party
Annemarie Jorritsma Annemarie Jorritsma
(born 1950)
Minister Transport and
Water Management
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Jozias van Aartsen Jozias van Aartsen
(born 1947)
Minister Agriculture, Nature
and Fisheries
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Margreeth de Boer Margreeth de Boer
(born 1939)
Minister Housing, Spatial Planning
and the Environment
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
Ministers without portfolio Title/Portfolio/Ministry Term of office Party
Jan Pronk Jan Pronk
(born 1940)
Minister Development Cooperation

(within Foreign Affairs)
7 November 1989 –
3 August 1998
[Retained]
Labour Party
Joris Voorhoeve Dr.
Joris Voorhoeve
(born 1945)
Minister Netherlands Antilles
and Aruba Affairs

(within Interior)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
State Secretaries Title/Portfolio/Ministry Term of office Party
Netherlands politic personality icon.svg Tonny van de Vondervoort
(born 1950)
State Secretary • Provincial Government Affairs
• Local Government Affairs
• Government Reform

(within Interior)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
Jacob Kohnstamm Jacob Kohnstamm
(born 1949)
• Urban Planning
• Emergency Services
• Disaster Management

(within Interior)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
Netherlands politic personality icon.svg Michiel Patijn
(born 1942)
State Secretary • European Affairs
• NATO Affairs
• Benelux Affairs
• International Aviation Policy

(within Foreign Affairs)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Willem Vermeend Dr.
Willem Vermeend
(born 1948)
State Secretary • Fiscal Affairs
• Tax and Customs Administration
• Local Government Finances
• National Mint
• Gambling Policy
• State Lottery

(within Finance)
22 August 1994 –
24 March 2000
Labour Party
Elizabeth Schmitz Elizabeth Schmitz
(born 1938)
State Secretary • Integration
• Immigration
• Asylum Affairs
• Privacy Policy
• Family Law
• Youth Justice
• Prison Administration

(within Justice)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
Anneke van Dok-van Weele Anneke van Dok-van Weele
(born 1947)
State Secretary
[Title]
• International Trade
• Export Promotion
• Regional Development
• Consumer Protection
• Tourism Affairs

(within Economic Affairs)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
Jan Gmelich Meijling Jan Gmelich Meijling
(1936–2012)
State Secretary • Personnel Affairs
• Equipment Policy
• Organizational Restructuring
• Veteran Affairs

(within Defence)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Erica Terpstra Erica Terpstra
(born 1943)
State Secretary • Youth Policy
• Elderly Policy
• Disability Affairs
• Minority Affairs
• Food Policy
• Sport

(within Health, Welfare
and Sport
)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Robin Linschoten Robin Linschoten
(born 1956)
State Secretary Social Security
• Unemployment Affairs
• Occupational Safety
• Social Services
• Poverty Policy

(within Social Affairs and
Employment
)
22 August 1994 –
28 June 1996
[Res]
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Frank de Grave Frank de Grave
(born 1955)
2 July 1996 –
3 August 1998
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
Tineke Netelenbos Tineke Netelenbos
(born 1944)
State Secretary • Primary Education
• Secondary Education
• Special Education

(within Education, Culture
and Science
)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Labour Party
Aad Nuis Aad Nuis
(1933–2007)
• Science Policy
• Media Affairs
• Culture Policy
• Arts Policy

(within Education, Culture
and Science
)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
Dick Tommel Dr.
Dick Tommel
(born 1942)
State Secretary • Public Housing
• Spatial Planning
• Environmental Policy
• Nature Policy
• Environmental Remediation
• Sustainability Policy
• Rural Development

(within Housing, Spatial Planning
and the Environment
)
22 August 1994 –
3 August 1998
Democrats 66
Source: (in Dutch) Kabinet-Kok I Rijksoverheid
Retained Retained this position from the previous cabinet.
Res Resigned.
Title Allowed to use the title of Minister while on foreign business.

References[edit]

  1. ^ (in Dutch) "De formatie van Paars 1: een heidens karwei". Andere Tijden. 3 September 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2018. 
  2. ^ (in Dutch) "Paarse kabinetten (1994-2002)". IsGeschiedenis. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2018. 

External links[edit]

Official