First National Pictures

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the defunct Canadian television newscast, see First National (television show). For the record label, see First National Records. For the various banks, see First National Bank (disambiguation).
First National Pictures
Industry Motion picture exhibition, distribution and production
Founded 1917
Founders Thomas L. Tally
J. D. Williams
Defunct 1936
Headquarters United States
Products Motion pictures, film distribution
Parent Warner Bros. (1928–1936)

First National Pictures is a defunct American motion picture production and distribution company. It was founded in 1917 as First National Exhibitors' Circuit, Inc., an association of independent theater owners in the United States, and became the country's largest theater chain. Expanding from exhibiting movies to distributing them, the company reincorporated in 1919 as Associated First National Theatres, Inc., and Associated First National Pictures, Inc. In 1924 it expanded to become a motion picture production company as First National Pictures, Inc., and became an important studio in the film industry. In September 1928, control of First National passed to Warner Bros., into which it was completely absorbed November 4, 1929. A number of Warner Bros. films were thereafter branded First National Pictures until 1936, when First National Pictures, Inc., was dissolved.

Early history[edit]

Poster for A Dog's Life (1918), Charlie Chaplin's first film under his $1 million contract with First National
First National Pictures studios in Burbank, California (c. 1928)

The First National Exhibitors' Circuit was founded in 1917 by the merger of 26 of the biggest first-run cinema chains in the United States. It eventually controlled over 600 cinemas, more than 200 of them first-run houses (as opposed to the less lucrative second-run or neighborhood theaters to which films moved when their initial box office receipts dwindled).

First National was the brainchild of Thomas L. Tally, who was reacting to the overwhelming influence of Paramount Pictures, which dominated the market. In 1912, he thought that a conglomerate of theaters throughout the nation could buy or produce and distribute its own films. In 1917 Tally and J. D. Williams formed First National Exhibitors' Circuit.

The first film released through First National was the 1916 British film, The Mother of Dartmoor.[citation needed] Between 1917 and 1918, the company made contracts with Mary Pickford and Charlie Chaplin, the first million-dollar deals in the history of film. Chaplin's contract allowed him to produce his films without a set release schedule. However, the production of the feature film The Kid ran so long that the company started to complain. To address their concerns Chaplin invited the exhibitors to the studio, and they were so impressed by the project and charmed by the players, especially co-star Jackie Coogan, that they agreed to be patient. That patience was ultimately rewarded when The Kid became a major critical and box office success.[1] First National's distribution of films by independent producers is credited with launching careers including that of Louis B. Mayer.[2]

Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures was threatened by First National's financial power and its control over the lucrative first-run theaters, and decided to enter the cinema business as well. With a $10 million investment, Paramount built its own chain of first-run movie theaters after a secret plan to merge with First National failed.

First National Exhibitors' Circuit was reincorporated in 1919 as Associated First National Pictures, Inc., and its subsidiary, Associated First National Theatres, Inc., with 5,000 independent theater owners as members.[3][4] In the early 1920s, Paramount attempted a hostile takeover, buying several of First National's member firms.

Associated First National Pictures expanded from only distributing films to producing them in 1924 and changed its corporate name to First National Pictures, Inc.[5] It built its 62-acre (25 ha) studio lot in Burbank in 1926.[6] The Motion Picture Theatre Owners of America and the Independent Producers' Association declared war in 1925 on what they termed a common enemy—the "film trust" of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount, and First National, which they claimed dominated the industry not only by producing and distributing motion pictures but also by entering into exhibition as well.[7]

Acquisition by Warner Bros.[edit]

The financial success of The Jazz Singer and The Singing Fool enabled Warner Bros. to purchase a majority interest in First National in September 1928. Warner Bros. held 42,000 shares of common stock out of 72,000 outstanding shares while Fox Pictures held 21,000 shares; 12,000 shares were publicly held.[8] Warner Bros. acquired access to First National's affiliated chain of theaters, while First National acquired access to Vitaphone sound equipment. Warner Bros. and First National continued to operate as separate entities.

On November 4, 1929, Fox sold its interest in First National to Warner Bros. for $10 million.[9][10]:66 The First National studio in Burbank became the official home of Warner Bros.–First National Pictures. Thereafter, First National Pictures became a trade name for the distribution of a designated segment of Warner Bros. product. Forty-five of the 86 Warner Bros. feature films released in 1929 were branded as First National Pictures.[10]:66 Half of the 60 feature films Warner Bros. announced for release in 1933–34 were to be First National Pictures.[11]

Although both studios produced "A" and "B" budget pictures, generally the prestige productions, costume dramas, and musicals were made by Warner Bros., while First National specialized in modern comedies, dramas, and crime stories. Short subjects were made by yet another affiliated company, The Vitaphone Corporation (which took its name from the sound process).

In July 1936, stockholders of First National Pictures, Inc. (primarily Warner Bros.) voted to dissolve the corporation and distribute its assets among the stockholders in line with a new tax law which provided for tax-free consolidations between corporations.[12]

From 1929 to 1958, most Warner Bros. films bore the combined trademark "A Warner Bros.–First National Picture".[13]

Select filmography[edit]

Poster for Tarzan of the Apes (1918)
Poster for Daddy-Long-Legs (1919)
Poster for The Kid (1921)
Poster for Smilin' Through (1922)
Poster for Lorna Doone (1922)
Lobby card for Brawn of the North (1922)
Poster for The Hottentot (1922)
Lobby card for Flaming Youth (1923)
Poster for The Sea Hawk (1924)
Window card for The Lost World (1925)
Poster for The Half-Way Girl (1925)
Poster for Classified (1925)
Poster for Mademoiselle Modiste (1926)
Lobby card for Subway Sadie (1926)
Poster for Broadway Nights (1927)
Poster for Babe Comes Home (1927)
Poster for American Beauty (1927)
Poster for Her Wild Oat (1927)
Release Date Title Notes
September 23, 1917 Fall of the Romanoffs, TheThe Fall of the Romanoffs Distribution[14]
December 3, 1917 Alimony Distribution[14]
December 23, 1917 Daughter of Destiny Distribution[14]
March 10, 1918 My Four Years in Germany Distribution[14]
April 2, 1918 Tarzan of the Apes Distribution[14]
April 14, 1918 Dog's Life, AA Dog's Life Distribution[15]
June 1, 1918 Passing of the Third Floor Back, TheThe Passing of the Third Floor Back Distribution[14]
October 1, 1918 Romance of Tarzan, TheThe Romance of Tarzan Distribution[14]
January 19, 1919 Auction of Souls Distribution[14]
May 11, 1919 Daddy-Long-Legs Distribution[14]
September 1, 1919 Hoodlum, TheThe Hoodlum Distribution[14]
September 29, 1919 Back to God's Country Distribution[16]
November 16, 1919 Virtuous Vamp, AA Virtuous Vamp Distribution[14]
November 17, 1919 Heart o' the Hills Distribution[14]
December 15, 1919 In Old Kentucky Distribution[14]
December 28, 1919 Greatest Question, TheThe Greatest Question Distribution[14]
January 15, 1920 Even as Eve Distribution[14]
February 1, 1920 River's End, TheThe River's End Distribution[14]
March 15, 1920 Family Honor, TheThe Family Honor Distribution[14]
March 21, 1920 Idol Dancer, TheThe Idol Dancer Distribution[14]
April 1, 1920 Passion's Playground Distribution[14]
August 16, 1920 Jack-Knife Man, TheThe Jack-Knife Man Distribution[14]
September 26, 1920 Splendid Hazard, AA Splendid Hazard Distribution[14]
October 4, 1920 Branded Woman, TheThe Branded Woman Distribution[14]
November 22, 1920 Devil's Garden, TheThe Devil's Garden Distribution[14]
January 1, 1921 Great Adventure, TheThe Great Adventure Distribution[17]
January 1, 1921 Mama's Affair Distribution[17]
February 6, 1921 Kid, TheThe Kid Distribution[17]
March 1, 1921 Scrambled Wives Distribution[17]
April 1, 1921 Jim the Penman Distribution[17]
April 1, 1921 Passion Flower, TheThe Passion Flower Distribution[17]
April 1, 1921 Sowing the Wind Distribution[17]
May 1, 1921 Sign on the Door, TheThe Sign on the Door Distribution[17]
May 1, 1921 Sky Pilot, TheThe Sky Pilot Distribution[17]
July 1, 1921 Salvation Nell Distribution[17]
August 1, 1921 Midnight Bell, AA Midnight Bell Distribution[17]
September 26, 1921 Bits of Life Distribution[17]
October 10, 1921 Invisible Fear, TheThe Invisible Fear Distribution[17]
October 17, 1921 Woman's Place Distribution[17]
November 20, 1921 Molly O' Distribution[17]
November 21, 1921 Tol'able David Distribution[17]
November 27, 1921 Lotus Eater, TheThe Lotus Eater Distribution[17]
December 26, 1921 Cave Girl, TheThe Cave Girl Distribution[17]
February 13, 1922 Red Hot Romance Distribution[17]
February 13, 1922 Smilin' Through Distribution[17]
February 27, 1922 Kindred of the Dust Distribution[17]
April 2, 1922 Infidel, TheThe Infidel Distribution[17]
May 1, 1922 Woman He Married, TheThe Woman He Married Distribution[17]
May 15, 1922 Primitive Lover, TheThe Primitive Lover Distribution[17]
July 2, 1922 Rose o' the Sea Distribution[17]
September 1, 1922 Light in the Dark, TheThe Light in the Dark Distribution[17]
October 1, 1922 Lorna Doone Distribution[17]
October 1, 1922 White Shoulders Distribution[17]
October 30, 1922 Oliver Twist Distribution[17]
November 1, 1922 Brawn of the North Distribution[17]
December 1, 1922 Omar the Tentmaker Distribution[17]
December 1, 1922 Woman Conquers, TheThe Woman Conquers Distribution[17]
December 25, 1922 Hottentot, TheThe Hottentot Distribution[17]
January 1, 1923 Fury Distribution[17]
January 2, 1923 Brass Bottle, TheThe Brass Bottle Distribution[17]
February 12, 1923 Mighty Lak' a Rose Distribution[17]
February 25, 1923 Pilgrim, TheThe Pilgrim Distribution[17]
March 18, 1923 Isle of Lost Ships, TheThe Isle of Lost Ships Distribution[17]
March 26, 1923 Daddy Distribution[17]
April 9, 1923 Bright Shawl, TheThe Bright Shawl Distribution[17]
April 9, 1923 Her Fatal Millions Distribution[17]
April 30, 1923 Within the Law Distribution[17]
May 3, 1923 Girl of the Golden West, TheThe Girl of the Golden West Production and distribution[18]
June 11, 1923 Slippy McGee Distribution[17]
July 30, 1923 Circus Days Distribution[17]
August 27, 1923 Dulcy Distribution[17]
September 10, 1923 Fighting Blade, TheThe Fighting Blade Distribution[17]
September 16, 1923 Potash and Perlmutter Distribution[17]
October 1, 1923 Ashes of Vengeance Distribution[17]
October 8, 1923 Bad Man, TheThe Bad Man Distribution[17]
October 29, 1923 Ponjola Distribution[17]
November 12, 1923 Flaming Youth Production and distribution[18]
November 12, 1923 Jealous Husbands Distribution[17]
November 19, 1923 Dangerous Maid, TheThe Dangerous Maid Distribution[17]
November 26, 1923 Wanters, TheThe Wanters Distribution[17]
November 28, 1923 Anna Christie Distribution[18]
December 17, 1923 Eternal City, TheThe Eternal City Distribution[17]
December 23, 1923 Boy of Mine Distribution[18]
December 29, 1923 Black Oxen Distribution[17]
January 21, 1924 Abraham Lincoln Distribution[17]
February 1, 1924 Love Master, TheThe Love Master Distribution[17]
February 25, 1924 Torment Distribution[17]
February 29, 1924 Lilies of the Field Distribution[17]
March 24, 1924 Enchanted Cottage, TheThe Enchanted Cottage Production and distribution[17]
March 24, 1924 Secrets Distribution[17]
April 20, 1924 Woman on the Jury, TheThe Woman on the Jury Production and distribution[18]
April 27, 1924 Those Who Dance Distribution[17]
May 4, 1924 Cytherea Distribution[17]
May 11, 1924 White Moth, TheThe White Moth Distribution[17]
May 25, 1924 Perfect Flapper, TheThe Perfect Flapper Production and distribution[18]
June 14, 1924 Sea Hawk, TheThe Sea Hawk Distribution[17]
June 29, 1924 Self-Made Failure, AA Self-Made Failure Distribution[17]
July 20, 1924 Girl in the Limousine, TheThe Girl in the Limousine Distribution[17]
July 27, 1924 Single Wives Distribution[17]
September 1, 1924 In Hollywood with Potash and Perlmutter Distribution[17]
October 1, 1924 Her Night of Romance Distribution[16]
October 5, 1924 Silent Watcher, TheThe Silent Watcher Distribution[16]
October 26, 1924 Only Woman, TheThe Only Woman Distribution[16]
November 23, 1924 Classmates Distribution[16]
November 30, 1924 Inez from Hollywood Distribution[16]
December 28, 1924 So Big Production and distribution[19]
January 11, 1925 As Man Desires Production and distribution[19]
January 18, 1925 Thief in Paradise, AA Thief in Paradise Distribution[20]
February 1, 1925 Enticement Distribution[20]
February 2, 1925 Lost World, TheThe Lost World Production and distribution[19]
March 15, 1925 Heart of a Siren Distribution[20]
March 22, 1925 Déclassée Distribution[20]
March 29, 1925 Sally Production and distribution[19]
April 12, 1925 His Supreme Moment Distribution[20]
April 30, 1925 Playing with Souls Distribution[20]
May 3, 1925 Soul-Fire Distribution[20]
May 10, 1925 Chickie Production and distribution[19]
May 17, 1925 Necessary Evil, TheThe Necessary Evil Production and distribution[19]
June 16, 1925 Just a Woman Production and distribution[19]
July 12, 1925 Lady Who Lied, TheThe Lady Who Lied Production and distribution[19]
July 26, 1925 Scarlet West, TheThe Scarlet West Distribution[20]
August 16, 1925 Half-Way Girl, TheThe Half-Way Girl Production and distribution[19]
August 16, 1925 Winds of Chance Production and distribution[19]
September 6, 1925 Shore Leave Distribution[20]
September 13, 1925 What Fools Men Production and distribution[19]
September 27, 1925 Dark Angel, TheThe Dark Angel Distribution[20]
October 4, 1925 Pace That Thrills, TheThe Pace That Thrills Production and distribution[19]
October 11, 1925 Classified Distribution[20]
October 18, 1925 Why Women Love Distribution[20]
November 8, 1925 Scarlet Saint Production and distribution[19]
November 15, 1925 We Moderns Distribution[20]
November 25, 1925 Clothes Make the Pirate Distribution[20]
December 6, 1925 Splendid Road, TheThe Splendid Road Distribution[20]
December 13, 1925 Joanna Distribution[20]
January 10, 1926 Just Suppose Distribution[20]
January 13, 1926 Bluebeard's Seven Wives Production and distribution[19]
January 31, 1926 Girl from Montmartre, TheThe Girl from Montmartre Distribution[20]
February 14, 1926 Far Cry, TheThe Far Cry Production and distribution[19]
February 21, 1926 Irene Production and distribution[20]
February 28, 1926 Dancer of Paris, TheThe Dancer of Paris Production and distribution[19]
March 14, 1926 High Steppers Distribution[20]
March 21, 1926 Mademoiselle Modiste Distribution[19]
March 21, 1926 Tramp, Tramp, Tramp Distribution[19]
March 28, 1926 Her Second Chance Production[19]
April 4, 1926 Kiki Distribution[20]
April 11, 1926 Old Loves and New Distribution[20]
May 2, 1926 Greater Glory, TheThe Greater Glory Production and distribution[19]
May 23, 1926 Wise Guy, TheThe Wise Guy Distribution[20]
May 30, 1926 Ranson's Folly Distribution[20]
June 6, 1926 Ella Cinders Distribution[20]
June 17, 1926 Sporting Lover, TheThe Sporting Lover Distribution[20]
June 27, 1926 Miss Nobody Production and distribution[19]
July 25, 1926 Great Deception, TheThe Great Deception Distribution[20]
July 26, 1926 Mismates Production and distribution[19]
August 8, 1926 Duchess of Buffalo, TheThe Duchess of Buffalo Distribution[20]
August 8, 1926 Into Her Kingdom Distribution[20]
August 15, 1926 Amateur Gentleman, TheThe Amateur Gentleman Distribution[20]
September 4, 1926 Don Juan's Three Nights Distribution[20]
September 5, 1926 Strong Man, TheThe Strong Man Distribution[20]
September 12, 1926 Subway Sadie Distribution[20]
September 26, 1926 Paradise Distribution[20]
October 17, 1926 Prince of Tempters, TheThe Prince of Tempters Distribution[20]
October 25, 1926 Midnight Lovers Distribution[20]
October 31, 1926 Syncopating Sue Distribution[20]
November 20, 1926 Blonde Saint, TheThe Blonde Saint Distribution[20]
November 28, 1926 Twinkletoes Distribution[20]
December 12, 1926 Just Another Blonde Distribution[20]
December 12, 1926 White Black Sheep, TheThe White Black Sheep Distribution[20]
January 1, 1927 Lady in Ermine, TheThe Lady in Ermine Distribution[20]
January 16, 1927 Masked Woman, TheThe Masked Woman Production and distribution[19]
February 6, 1927 McFadden's Flats Production and distribution[19]
February 13, 1927 Affair of the Follies, AnAn Affair of the Follies Distribution[20]
February 20, 1927 Easy Pickings Production and distribution[19]
February 27, 1927 Sea Tiger, TheThe Sea Tiger Production and distribution[19]
March 5, 1927 Three Hours Distribution[20]
March 6, 1927 Orchids and Ermine Distribution[20]
March 13, 1927 High Hat Distribution[20]
March 26, 1927 Long Pants Distribution[20]
March 27, 1927 Notorious Lady, TheThe Notorious Lady Distribution[20]
April 21, 1927 Camille Distribution[20]
April 24, 1927 Convoy Distribution[20]
May 15, 1927 Broadway Nights Distribution[20]
May 22, 1927 Babe Comes Home Production and distribution[19]
June 5, 1927 Sunset Derby, TheThe Sunset Derby Production and distribution[19]
June 26, 1927 Naughty but Nice Distribution[20]
July 9, 1927 Prince of Headwaiters, TheThe Prince of Headwaiters Distribution[20]
July 31, 1927 For the Love of Mike Distribution[20]
August 14, 1927 Stolen Bride, TheThe Stolen Bride Production and distribution[19]
September 1, 1927 Patent Leather Kid, TheThe Patent Leather Kid Production and distribution[19]
September 3, 1927 Life of Riley, TheThe Life of Riley Production and distribution[19]
September 25, 1927 Drop Kick, TheThe Drop Kick Production and distribution[19]
September 25, 1927 Rose of the Golden West Production and distribution[19]
October 9, 1927 American Beauty Production and distribution[19]
October 23, 1927 Breakfast at Sunrise Distribution[20]
November 13, 1927 Gorilla, TheThe Gorilla Production and distribution[19]
December 4, 1927 Texas Steer, AA Texas Steer Production and distribution[19]
December 4, 1927 Valley of the Giants, TheThe Valley of the Giants Production and distribution[19]
December 9, 1927 Private Life of Helen of Troy, TheThe Private Life of Helen of Troy Production and distribution[19]
December 10, 1927 French Dressing Production and distribution[19]
December 18, 1927 Love Mart, TheThe Love Mart Production and distribution[19]
December 25, 1927 Her Wild Oat Production and distribution[19]
January 22, 1928 Sailors' Wives Production and distribution[19]
January 29, 1928 Noose, TheThe Noose Production and distribution[19]
February 5, 1928 Whip Woman, TheThe Whip Woman Production and distribution[19]
April 15, 1928 Chinatown Charlie Production and distribution[19]
May 6, 1928 Lady Be Good Production and distribution[19]
May 20, 1928 Yellow Lily, TheThe Yellow Lily Production and distribution[19]
June 10, 1928 Three-Ring Marriage Production and distribution[19]
June 24, 1928 Happiness Ahead Production and distribution[19]
July 22, 1928 Heart to Heart Production and distribution[19]
August 19, 1928 Out of the Ruins Production and distribution[19]
August 26, 1928 Oh, Kay! Production and distribution[19]
September 9, 1928 Night Watch, TheThe Night Watch Production and distribution[19]
September 16, 1928 Waterfront Production and distribution[19]
September 23, 1928 Show Girl Production and distribution[19]
October 14, 1928 Do Your Duty Production and distribution[19]
October 18, 1928 Lilac Time Production and distribution[19]
October 21, 1928 Companionate Marriage, TheThe Companionate Marriage Distribution[20]
November 4, 1928 Haunted House, TheThe Haunted House Production and distribution[19]
November 11, 1928 Outcast Production and distribution[20]
December 2, 1928 Adoration Production and distribution[19]
December 5, 1928 Barker, TheThe Barker Production and distribution[19]
December 29, 1928 Scarlet Seas Production and distribution[19]
January 6, 1929 Synthetic Sin Production and distribution[20]
February 10, 1929 Weary River Production and distribution[19]
February 17, 1929 Seven Footprints to Satan Production and distribution[19]
March 3, 1929 Children of the Ritz Production and distribution[19]
March 12, 1929 Why Be Good? Production and distribution[19]
March 24, 1929 Love and the Devil Production and distribution[19]
March 31, 1929 Divine Lady, TheThe Divine Lady Production and distribution[20]
April 2, 1929 His Captive Woman Production and distribution[19]
April 28, 1929 House of Horror, TheThe House of Horror Production and distribution[19]
May 5, 1929 Hot Stuff Production and distribution[19]
May 8, 1929 Squall, TheThe Squall Production and distribution[19]
May 12, 1929 Two Weeks Off Production and distribution[19]
June 2, 1929 Careers Production and distribution[19]
June 21, 1929 Broadway Babies Production and distribution[19]
July 7, 1929 Man and the Moment, TheThe Man and the Moment Production and distribution[19]
July 20, 1929 Drag Production and distribution[19]
July 28, 1929 Smiling Irish Eyes Production and distribution[19]
August 4, 1929 Hard to Get Production and distribution[19]
August 25, 1929 Her Private Life Production and distribution[19]
August 31, 1929 Girl from Woolworth's, TheThe Girl from Woolworth's Production and distribution[19]
September 15, 1929 Great Divide, TheThe Great Divide Production and distribution[19]
October 1, 1929 Young Nowheres Production and distribution[19]
October 25, 1929 Isle of Lost Ships, TheThe Isle of Lost Ships Production and distribution[19]
November 4, 1929 Paris Production and distribution[20]

Films as a Warner Bros. subsidiary[edit]

As a subsidiary of Warner Bros., First National Pictures, Inc., continued to be a copyright claimant and trademark on motion pictures through 1936. Notable examples of First National Pictures titles are listed below.[19][20]

1929[edit]

1930[edit]

1931[edit]

1932[edit]

1933[edit]

1934[edit]

1935[edit]

1936[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kevin Brownlow, David Gill (1983). Unknown Chaplin: The Great Director (Television production). Thames Television. 
  2. ^ "J. D. Williams, Film Pioneer, Dies". New York Times. August 29, 1934. Retrieved 2015-12-28. 
  3. ^ "New Incorporations", The New York Times, November 18, 1919, p. 25.
  4. ^ "Picture Plays and People", The New York Times, February 1, 1920, p. XX4.
  5. ^ "New Incorporations", The New York Times, May 6, 1924, p. 36.
  6. ^ "First National Properties", The Wall Street Journal, May 21, 1926, p. 16.
  7. ^ "Theatre Owners Open War on Hays", The New York Times, May 12, 1925, p. 14.
  8. ^ "Warner Buys First National", The Wall Street Journal, September 27, 1928, p. 3.
  9. ^ "Fox Holdings in First National Pictures Sold", The Washington Post, November 4, 1929, p. 3.
  10. ^ a b c Hirschhorn, Clive. The Warner Bros. Story. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-53834-2. 
  11. ^ "Warners to Issue 60 Feature Films". The New York Times. August 2, 1933. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  12. ^ "Film Concern Dissolves", The New York Times, July 12, 1936, p. F1.
  13. ^ American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures, volumes F4 and F5.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "First National Exhibitors' Circuit, Inc.". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-12-26. 
  15. ^ "A Dog's Life". BFI Film & TV Database. British Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-01-01. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f "First National Pictures". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-12-26. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq "Associated First National Pictures". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-12-26. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Associated First National Pictures". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-12-26. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce "First National Pictures, Inc.". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-12-26. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi "First National Pictures, Inc.". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-12-26. 

External links[edit]