First Nations in Manitoba

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First Nations in Manitoba constitute of over 160,000 registered persons as of 2021, about 57% of whom live on reserve. Manitoba is second to Ontario in total on-reserve population and in total First Nation population.[1]

There are 63 First Nations in the province and five indigenous linguistic groups. The languages are Nēhiyawēwin, Ojibwe, Dakota, Oji-Cree, and Dene.

First Nations are listed by common usage names but other names may be applied in certain areas; for example, "Cree Nation" and "First Nation" is applied to certain bands on the same reserve.


As of March 2021, there were 164,289 registered First Nation persons in Manitoba, 57.1% of whom (93,840) live on reserve.[1]

There are 63 First Nations in Manitoba, including 6 of the 20 largest bands in Canada.[1]

There are 5 Indigenous linguistic groups in the province: Cree, Ojibway, Dakota, Oji-Cree, and Dene.


There are 7 First Nations treaties in the province:[2]

  • Treaty 1 in the south-central region
  • Treaty 2 in the central and southwestern region
  • Treaty 3 in the southeastern region
  • Treaty 4 in part of west-central Manitoba
  • Treaty 5 (1875 and 1908) in the central and northern regions
  • Treaty 6 in the northern region
  • Treaty 10 along northwestern Manitoba

The Dakota Nations (Birdtail Sioux, Sioux Valley, Canupawakpa, Dakota Tipi, and Dakota Plains) are not signatory to any treaty with Canada, though their land is considered reserve land under the Indian Act.[2] There are 7 First Nations tribal councils in Manitoba:[3]

Cross Lake, Dakota Tipi, Fisher River, Sagkeeng, Nisichawayasihk, Norway House, O-Pipon-Na-Piwin, and Tootinaowaziibeeng have no tribal council affiliations.[3]

Additionally, First Nations in Manitoba are represented by 3 active provincial political organizations divided on a north-south basis: the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs, Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak, and the Southern Chiefs Organization.

Manitoba Indigenous Reconciliation and Northern Relations is the department of the Manitoba government responsible for issues related to Indigenous affairs and reconciliation in the province.[4]


Seventeen First Nations are not accessible by an all-weather road. This accounts for approximately half of all First Nations people who live on reserve in Manitoba.[1]

Reserves in Manitoba[edit]

There are about 63 reserves in Manitoba:

Urban reserves[edit]

There are currently 14 urban reserves in Manitoba:[5]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Indigenous Services Canada. 2021 March 32. "First Nations in Manitoba." Government of Canada. Retrieved 2023 April 1.
  2. ^ a b "Treaties in Manitoba." Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs, Government of Canada. 2010. ISBN 978-1-100-17944-5.
  3. ^ a b Indigenous Services Canada. 2021 March 32. "Manitoba First Nation Tribal Councils." Government of Canada. Retrieved 2023 April 1.
  4. ^ "Province of Manitoba | Cabinet Ministers". Province of Manitoba. Retrieved 2023-04-01.
  5. ^ Indigenous Services Canada. 2021 March 32. "Urban reserves in Manitoba." Government of Canada. Retrieved 2023 April 1.