|Founded||February 5, 1985|
|Defunct||May 1, 2023|
|Successors||JPMorgan Chase (acquisition of most First Republic Bank assets)|
|Headquarters||San Francisco, California, U.S.|
|Revenue||US$6.75 billion (2022)|
|US$1.67 billion (2022)|
|Total assets||US$212.6 billion (2022)|
|Total equity||US$17.45 billion (2022)|
Number of employees
|Capital ratio||Tier 1 8.51% (Q4 2022)|
|Footnotes / references|
First Republic Bank was a commercial bank and provider of wealth management services headquartered in San Francisco, California. It catered to high-net-worth individuals and operated 93 offices in 11 states, primarily in New York, California, Massachusetts, and Florida. On May 1, 2023, as part of the 2023 United States banking crisis, the FDIC announced that First Republic had been closed and sold to JPMorgan Chase.
Foundation and first IPO
First Republic was founded in February 1985 by Jim Herbert, previously the founder and CEO of San Francisco Bancorp, which he sold to Atlantic Financial. First Republic began operations on July 1, 1985, as a California-chartered industrial loan company. It became a public company via an initial public offering on the Nasdaq in August 1986, selling stock at $10 a share. In 1993, First Republic acquired Silver State Thrift, a savings and loan association in Nevada.
In 1996, First Republic sought to shift to a banking charter to expand its offerings. It lobbied the Nevada Legislature to pass a law allowing conversion of a Nevada thrift into a Nevada state bank. The law passed in July 1997, shortly after First Republic completed a reverse merger of the larger California-chartered thrift into the Nevada-chartered Silver State Thrift subsidiary. After the passage of the law, the Nevada thrift became a state-chartered bank, First Republic Savings Bank.
In 1998, First Republic acquired Trainer Worthman & Co., and in December 2001, it acquired Starbuck, Tisdale & Associates for $13 million in cash and stock. In January 2000, First Republic acquired an 18% interest in Froley, Revy Investment Company Inc., and in 2002, it purchased the investment firm for $17 million in cash and stock.
In 2006, the bank acquired Bank of Walnut Creek.
Acquisition, sale, and second IPO
In July 2010, Bank of America, which acquired Merrill Lynch and thereby acquired First Republic, sold First Republic Bank to a group of private investors including Colony Capital, General Atlantic, and chairman James Herbert and former COO Katherine August DeWilde, for approximately $1 billion. Thomas J. Barrack, Jr., the head of Colony, had been a board member prior to the Merrill Lynch deal and General Atlantic had been an early investor in the firm putting up about $5 million in 1987. An additional $800 million was provided by the investment consortium to meet new capital requirements established by U.S. regulators.
In November 2012, First Republic acquired Luminous Capital, a wealth management firm with $5.5 billion in assets, for $125 million. The 2015 acquisition was followed by in 2015, First Republic acquired Constellation Wealth Partners for $115 million.
In December 2016, led by then chief investment officer Hafize Gaye Erkan, the bank acquired Gradifi, a then 2-year-old startup that works with companies to help employees pay off student loan debt that counted PricewaterhouseCoopers, Natixis Global Asset Management, and Penguin Random House as customers. In March 2018, the bank invested in CommonBond, a student loan financier, and in May of the same years, the company leased more office space at Rockefeller Center in New York City. 50 client advisors, who were part of First Republic's Luminous acquisition, with $17 billion of assets under management, left the company in 2019.
|This article is part of a series about the|
|2023 United States banking crisis|
During the March 2023 United States bank failures, Fitch Ratings and S&P Global Ratings downgraded First Republic's credit rating, citing "a high proportion of uninsured deposits" from wealthy customers who are more likely to move their money elsewhere and a loan-to-deposit ratio of 111%, meaning that it had lent out more money than it had in deposits from customers. To alleviate concerns of a possible bank run and support any withdrawals of deposits, on March 16, 2023, eleven American banks including JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, Citigroup, and Truist Financial deposited $30 billion with First Republic. Despite the deposits, shares of the company declined.
On March 19, S&P downgraded the bank's credit rating further into junk by three grades saying that it "may not solve the substantial business, liquidity, funding, and profitability challenges that we believe the bank is now likely facing." On that day, the bank's capital shortfall was $13.5 billion, which The Wall Street Journal compared to the liquidity crisis of the Silicon Valley Bank (SVB) being a factor in its collapse. In its first quarterly earnings release since the crisis, the bank noted that its customers withdrew $104.5 billion in deposits during the turmoil, but noted that outflows had stabilized in April. The significance of those outflows was explained by the number of high-net-worth clients at the bank, whose assets exceeding $250,000 would not have been protected by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). First Republic noted it was "weighing strategic options" and aiming to reduce the size of its balance sheet. Since the majority of the bank's long term assets were in municipal bonds, First Republic was unable to make full use of the Bank Term Funding Program—an emergency lending program instated after the collapse of SVB—as those assets did not qualify as an eligible collateral.
On April 28, the bank announced plans to begin selling its bonds and securities at a loss to raise equity and also begin laying off people. Multiple advisor teams began to leave the bank as well. On that day, it was announced that the FDIC was considering seizing the bank, causing its stock price to plunge another 43% to $3.50. After the price fell another 42% in after-hours trading, the FDIC confirmed its imminent takeover of the bank. The next day, the FDIC approached various banks, including JPMorgan Chase, PNC and Bank of America, saying they had until April 30 to place bids for First Republic Bank. On May 1, the FDIC announced that First Republic had been closed by the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation and its assets seized by the FDIC. JPMorgan Chase eventually won the auction, paying the FDIC $10.6 billion for nearly all of First Republic's assets.
|Total revenue (in billions)||1.072||1.002||1.183||1.341||1.468||1.649||1.841||2.2||2.6||3.0||3.3||3.9||5.0||6.8|
|Net income (in millions)||346||271||354||401||462||487||522||673||758||854||930||1,064||1,478||1,665|
|Assets (in billions)||19.94||22.38||27.79||34.38||42.11||48.35||58.98||73.3||87.8||99.2||116.3||142.5||181.1||212.6|
|Market cap (in billions)||N/A||3.75||3.95||4.30||6.95||7.2||9.65||13.80||13.91||14.32||19.80||25.30||37.02||22.29|
|Average stock price||N/A||26.0421||26.5584||29.9428||39.3133||47.7605||57.9133||69.2193||92.4429||92.6591||98.5723||111.1200||187.4291||149.0652|
|Dividends per common share||N/A||N/A||N/A||0.30||0.36||0.54||0.59||0.63||0.67||0.71||0.75||0.79||0.86||1.03|
Note: The financial data for the total revenue, net income, assets, and dividends per common share is sourced from the company's annual reports, earnings releases, and SEC Form 10-Ks from 2009 to 2022. Total revenue:  Net Income:  Assets:  Market cap:  Average Stock Price:  Dividends per common share: 
- Isidore, Chris; Dmitracova, Olesya (May 1, 2023). "JPMorgan Chase to buy most First Republic assets after bank fails". CNN. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
- "First Republic Bank 2022 Form 10-K Annual Report". First Republic.
- Farrell, Maureen; Smialek, Jeanna; Hirsch, Lauren (May 1, 2023). "First Republic Bank Is Seized by Regulators and Sold to JPMorgan Chase". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
- "JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association, Columbus, Ohio Assumes All the Deposits of First Republic Bank, San Francisco, California". FDIC. May 1, 2023. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
- "First Republic acquires Silver State thrift". American Banker. December 30, 1993.
- "Nevada Bank Charter – Revisiting the Law". First Republic Bank.
- "First Republic buys LA firm for $17M". American City Business Journals. February 1, 2002. Archived from the original on September 29, 2003.
- "Janus to Sell Private Client Asset Management Division of Bay" (Press release). Business Wire. June 30, 2004.
- "First Republic Bank completes acquisition of Bank of Walnut Creek". American City Business Journals. October 16, 2006.
- "Merrill Lynch and First Republic Bank Successfully Close Merger; Final Results of Election Regarding Merger Consideration Announced" (Press release). Business Wire. September 21, 2007.
- McLaughlin, Tim (January 29, 2007). "Merrill to buy First Republic for $1.8 bln". Reuters.
- Kouwe, Zachery (October 22, 2009). "Bank of America Sells Republic Bank to Private Equity Firms". The New York Times.
- Kouwe, Zachery (October 21, 2009). "Bank of America Sells First Republic Bank". The New York Times.
- General Atlantic, Colony Capital close First Republic Bank deal , July 21, 2010 Archived August 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Baldwin, Clare (December 9, 2010). "First Republic shares rise in IPO debut". Reuters.
- "First Republic to Acquire Luminous Capital" (Press release). PR Newswire. November 2, 2012.
- "First Republic To Acquire Constellation Wealth Advisors" (Press release). PR Newswire. June 17, 2015.
- "40 Under 40 - Hafize Gaye Erkan". Crain's New York Business. July 4, 2018. Retrieved June 3, 2023.
- Obrien, Kelly J. (December 12, 2016). "First Republic Bank scoops up Boston student debt startup in the Boston Business Journal". American City Business Journals.
- Kellard, Joseph (December 12, 2016). "First Republic Buys Student-Debt Startup Gradifi in American Banker". American Banker.
- Stoller, Kristin (March 21, 2018). "Student Lender CommonBond Raises $50M to Invest in Technology, Blockchain". Forbes.
- "First Republic Bank Renews and Expands to 280K SF in Rock Center". May 29, 2018.
- Marsh, Ann (June 6, 2019). "$17B gone: The biggest-ever advisory team exit and the bank that lost it". American Banker.
- Egan, Matt; Morrow, Allison; Goldman, David (March 16, 2023). "First Republic secures $30 billion rescue from large banks". CNN. Retrieved April 30, 2023.
- Gura, David (March 16, 2023). "First Republic becomes the latest bank to be rescued, this time by its rivals". NPR.
- Weil, Jonathan (March 10, 2023). "First Republic Hit by Silicon Valley Bank Failure". The Wall Street Journal.
- Rushe, Dominic (March 16, 2023). "US banks launch $30bn rescue of First Republic to stem spiraling crisis". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.
- Reyes, Max; Weinstein, Austin; Versprille, Allyson (March 17, 2023). "First Republic's $30 Billion Rescue Fails to Soothe Investor Fear". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 17, 2023.
- "S&P cuts First Republic deeper into junk, says $30 billion infusion may not solve problems". CNBC. March 19, 2023. Archived from the original on March 20, 2023. Retrieved March 20, 2023 – via Reuters.
- Ackerman, David Benoit and Andrew (March 19, 2023). "First Republic Bank Looms Large for U.S. Regulators After Credit Suisse Sale". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
- Ensign, Rachel Louise (April 24, 2023). "First Republic Lost $100 Billion in Deposits in Banking Panic". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 24, 2023.
- Surane, Jennifer; Reyes, Max (April 24, 2023). "First Republic Shares Plunge as Deposit Drop Renews Concern". Bloomberg. Retrieved April 24, 2023.
- Gaus, Annie; Truong, Kevin; Smith, Matt (April 28, 2023). "First Republic Will Be Seized by Regulators, Report Says". The San Francisco Standard. Retrieved April 30, 2023.
- Dayen, David (April 28, 2023). "Pre-Farewell to First Republic". The American Prospect. Retrieved May 3, 2023.
- Pound, Jesse (April 28, 2023). "First Republic most likely headed for FDIC receivership, sources say; shares drop 40%". CNBC. Retrieved April 28, 2023.
- Welsch, Andrew (April 28, 2023). "Pressure on First Republic Mounts as Advisors Jump Ship". Barrons. Retrieved April 28, 2023.
- Sorkin, Andrew Ross; Mattu, Ravi; Warner, Bernhard; Kessler, Sarah; Merced, Michael J. de la; Hirsch, Lauren; Livni, Ephrat (April 28, 2023). "First Republic's Troubles Reignite Fears of a Banking Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2023.
- "First Republic Bank Stock Quote (U.S.: NYSE)". MarketWatch. Retrieved April 28, 2023.
- "First Republic Bank to be taken over by FDIC: Report". FOX Business. April 28, 2023. Retrieved April 28, 2023.
- "U.S. regulator set to take over First Republic". Reuters. April 28, 2023. Retrieved April 28, 2023.
- Hollerith, David (April 29, 2023). "FDIC approaches big banks about buying First Republic". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved April 29, 2023.
- Scott, Murdoch; Niket, Nishant; Prentice, Chris (May 1, 2023). "Regulators seize First Republic Bank, sell assets to JPMorgan". Reuters. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
- "FORM 10-K - FIRST REPUBLIC BANK (2009, 2010)". First Republic. March 1, 2011. p. 84.
- "FORM 10-K - FIRST REPUBLIC BANK (2011)". First Republic. March 20, 2012. p. 39.
- "FIRST REPUBLIC BANK REPORTS RECORD ANNUAL AND QUARTERLY EARNINGS - Press Release (2011, 2012)". First Republic. January 16, 2013. p. 15.
- "FORM 10-K - FIRST REPUBLIC BANK (2013, 2014, 2015)". First Republic. February 26, 2016. p. 103.
- "FIRST REPUBLIC REPORTS STRONG QUARTERLY AND ANNUAL RESULTS - Press Release (2016)" (PDF). First Republic. January 13, 2017. p. 1.
- "FIRST REPUBLIC REPORTS STRONG 2017 RESULTS - Press Release (2017)" (PDF). First Republic. January 16, 2018. p. 1.
- "FIRST REPUBLIC REPORTS STRONG 2018 RESULTS - Press Release (2018)". First Republic. January 15, 2019. p. 1.
- "FIRST REPUBLIC REPORTS STRONG 2019 RESULTS - Press Release (2019)". First Republic. January 14, 2020. p. 1.
- "FIRST REPUBLIC REPORTS 2020 RESULTS - Press Release (2020)" (PDF). First Republic. January 14, 2021. p. 1.
- "FIRST REPUBLIC REPORTS 2021 RESULTS - Press Release (2021)". First Republic. January 14, 2022. p. 1.
- "FORM 10-K - FIRST REPUBLIC BANK (2009, 2010)". First Republic. March 1, 2011. p. 54.
- "FORM 10-K - FIRST REPUBLIC BANK (2011-2015)". First Republic. February 26, 2016. p. 52.
- "2021 First Republic Bank Annual Report (2016-2021)" (PDF). First Republic. p. 4.
- "FORM 10-K - FIRST REPUBLIC BANK (2009, 2010)". First Republic. March 1, 2011. p. 49.
- "Market capitalization of First Republic Bank (FRC)". Companies Marketcap.
- "First Republic Bank - Stock Price History | FRC". Macrotrends LLC.
- "FORM 10-K - FIRST REPUBLIC BANK (2013-2017)". First Republic. February 28, 2018. p. 52.
- "FORM 10-K - FIRST REPUBLIC BANK (2018-2020)" (PDF). First Republic. February 26, 2021.
- "FORM 10-K - FIRST REPUBLIC BANK (2018-2020)". First Republic. February 28, 2022. p. 69.
Media related to First Republic Bank at Wikimedia Commons