First information report

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A first information report (F.I.R.) is a document prepared by police organizations in countries including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan etc. when they receive information about the commission of a cognisable offence, or in Singapore when the police receives information about any criminal offence. It generally stems from a complaint lodged with the police by the victim of a cognizable offense or by someone on his or her behalf, but anyone can make such a report either orally or in writing to the police. Police investigation follows most F.I.Rs.

For a non-cognisable offense an entry in a community service register is made.

Each F.I.R. is important as it sets the process of criminal justice in motion. It is only after the F.I.R. is registered in the police station that the police take up investigation of most types of cases. Anyone who knows about the commission of a cognizable offence, including police officers, can file an F.I.R.

As described in law:

  • When information about the commission of a cognizable offence is given orally, the police must write it down.
  • The complainant or supplier of the information has a right to demand that the information recorded by the police be read to him or her.
  • Once the information has been recorded by the police, it must be signed by the person giving the information.
  • The complainant can get a free copy of an F.I.R.

An F.I.R. includes date, time, place, detail (of events), description (of person(s)).


  • "First Information Report". Criminal Justice and Supreme Court. Allied Publishers. 2005. pp. 5–19. ISBN 81-7764-904-3.
  • R. Deb (2002). "Police Investigations: A Review". In P. J. Alexander (ed.). Policing India in the New Millennium. Allied Publishers. p. 120. ISBN 978-81-7764-207-0.
  • Maneka Gandhi; Ozair Husain; Raj Panjwani (2006). "How to file an FIR". Animal Laws of India. Universal Law Publishing Co. p. 795. ISBN 978-81-7534-528-7.
  • Sunil Goel. Courts Police Authorities & Common Man. srishti books. pp. 95–97.

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