Fishcake

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Fishcake
Fishcake on salad.jpg
A fishcake served on salad
Main ingredients fish, potato, breadcrumbs, or batter
Cookbook: Fishcake  Media: Fishcake

A fishcake (sometimes written as fish cake) is a food item similar to a croquette, consisting of filleted fish or other seafood with potato patty, sometimes coated in breadcrumbs or batter, and fried.

Fishcakes as defined in the Oxford Dictionary of Food and Nutrition are Chopped or Minced Fish mixed with Potato, Egg and Flour with seasonings of onions, peppers and sometimes herbs. [1]

The fishcake has been seen as a way of using up leftovers that might otherwise be thrown away. In Mrs Beeton's 19th century publication Book of Household Management, her recipe for fishcakes calls for "leftover fish" and "cold potatoes."[2] More modern recipes have added to the dish, suggesting ingredients such as smoked salmon and vegetables.

Fish cakes can be made by the combination of fish paste and Surimi. The fish paste is usually a combination of salt, water, flour and egg. The combined product is then shaped and left to cool.They are then battered and breaded using a machine.Then, they are usually fried with oil at around 180°C and should reach the internal temperature of 74 °C. After the cooking process, they are frozen and packaged and are kept frozen until used.[3]

History[edit]

China[edit]

According to Chinese folk tales, fish cakes have had more than 4000 years’ history. In ancient times, an emperor called Shun travelled to Southern China with his two wives. After a long period of travel, his wives were tired and had bad appetites. This caused Shun to worry, and he searched for ways to resolve the problem. A fisher called Bo came and gave Shun his fish cakes. Shun’s wives really enjoyed them, and their appetites returned to normal. Shun was so pleased that he asked the fisher Bo to teach other people how to make fish cakes, so everyone can enjoy food even when they have bad appetites. Fish cakes them became popular in China.

Later in the history, a famous version of fish cake occurred during Guangxu Emperor’s reign in the Qing Dynasty (1875-1908). Guangxu Emperor’s wife, Zheng loved fish cakes. She brought the fish cakes’ recipe into the forbidden city, where royal family lived. With Royal cooks’ improvement to the recipe during practise, Zheng’s fish cakes eventually became famous. However, the fish cakes also disappeared after Zheng was murdered.[4]

Japan[edit]

Japanese fishcakes dates back to Muromachi period (1336–1573).[citation needed]

Korea[edit]

Japanese fishcakes were introduced to Korea during the Japanese forced occupation (1910–1945), and the first eomuk processing plant in Korea was DongKwangFood in Bupyeong Kkangtong Market during 1950s in Busan.[5]

In 1953, Park Jae-Deok who learned eomuk processing from Japan founded Samjin Fish Cake which has the longest history in Korea. It was shortly after the outbreak of Korean War and many refugees migrated to Busan, resulting in booming eomuk industry.[6]

In early 1990s, Busan-eomuk commonly sold in food trucks became a trend. The term Busan-eomuk started referring to long, sausage shaped eomuk. Since the food trucks usually served eomuk with a hot broth, eomuk became one of the most popular fast food in winter season. Even in contemporary Korea, eomuk food truck can be easily spotted on major downtown streets.[7]

In 2010s, eomuk industry in Korea goes through a major transformation from the public perception of eomuk as a fast food to a recognized delicacy. In 2013 December, Samjin Fish Cake established an eomuk bakery, for the first time in Korea. A store that sell variety kind of eomuk in a bakery style. A store that sell variety kind of eomuk in a bakery style.

Up to this day, Samjin Fish Cake solidified unique conception and image of eomuk. Other eomuk processors attempted to transform their stores and diversified their menu to secure lucrative position and remain competitiveness.[8]

Composition[edit]

Commonly, fishcakes used cod as a filling; however, as cod stocks have been depleted, other varieties of white fish are now used, such as haddock or whiting.[9] Fishcakes may also use oily fish such as salmon for a markedly different flavour.

Fishcakes have also traditionally been made from salted fish (most commonly cod, haddock, or pollock). Fishcakes are also prepared without breadcrumbs or batter, and are made with a mixture of cooked fish, potatoes, and occasionally eggs formed into patties and then fried.

As fish has traditionally been a major dietary component of people living near seas, rivers, and lakes, many regional variations of the fish cake have arisen.

Variations can depend on what type of fish is used; how finely chopped the fish is; the use of milk or water; the use of flour or boiled potatoes; the use of eggs, egg whites, or no eggs; the cooking method (boiling, frying, or baking); and the inclusion of other ingredients (for example, shrimp, bacon, herbs, or spices).

Bermuda[edit]

In Bermuda, they are known as Bermuda fishcakes and are made especially during Easter, but also throughout the year. Here fishcakes are normally eaten between hot cross buns.

Canada[edit]

In Newfoundland and Labrador, the fish is generally salted cod flakes and is blended with mashed potatoes. Savory is used instead of parsley, along with minced sweated onions. The cakes are then formed into rounds and cooked in oil or pork back fat until golden brown.

Caribbean[edit]

In Barbados, fishcakes are made from salted codfish and flour batter, then fried in oil.

Denmark[edit]

In Denmark, fiskefrikadeller are slightly elongated, pan-fried patties much like regular frikadeller. They are normally not breaded. A similar dish which is boiled, rather than fried, is called fiskeboller and added to certain soups, though it may be closer to a fish version of a knödel. In Southern Jutland, fiskefrikadeller sometimes contain smoked pork fat.

India[edit]

In West Bengal, several local fish species (mostly riverine) are prepared and eaten in deep-fried breadcrumb covered fishcakes, locally called maacher chop. The item is very popular as an appetizer during middle-class Bengali festivities.

Indonesia[edit]

Indonesian varieties of fishcakes are locally known in South Sumatra as pempek or empek-empek. The traditional South Sumatran pempek is served with kuah cuka. These fishcakes are usually round or tube-shaped.

Israel[edit]

In Jewish cuisine, gefilte fish are patties of white fish mixed with matzoh or challah, poached in the skin of the fish.

Japan[edit]

In Japan, white fish is puréed and steamed into a loaf called kamaboko. Fried fishcakes, such as satsumaage, are also popular.

Fishcakes in Japan are commonly made from surimi, a paste made primarily from freshwater fish meat and starch, egg whites and spices. After formation, they are commonly fried or boiled before packing and distribution.[10]Based on the Japanese Food Regulations, Fish Cakes made from Fish Paste should be sterilized for 45 minutes at 80℃, measured in the centre. After sterilization, the fish paste should also be stored below 10℃ with frozen fish pastes requiring a minimum storage temperature below -15℃.[11]

Korea[edit]

In South Korea, fishcakes are called eomuk (어묵) or odeng (오뎅, which is a loan word from the Japanese stew, oden). Fish cakes are mainly made of corvina or cuttlefish which contains less fat. This is because fatty fish are not suitable for making fishcakes. Salt, sugar, flour, and starch are necessary ingredients as well. Also, other ingredients may be added in order to make fishcakes: onions, carrots, green onions, and cooking wine.[12] It is normal to add several chemicals in order to have a better flavor such as D-sorbitol (an artificial sweetener which has approximately 60% of the sweetness of sugar so that diabetic patients can consume), soy protein (protein extracted from soy which can make it possible to create a better texture of fish cakes with less amount of fish fillets), and D-xylose (a natural sweetener with low calories), or monosodium glutamate (MSG).[13]

Usually made by deep-frying paste made from ground fish, eomuk can be boiled with other ingredients to make eomuk-tang (어묵탕; "fishcake soup") or eomuk-jeongol (어묵전골; "fishcake hot pot"), stir-fried to make eomuk-bokkeum (어묵볶음), and put in various dishes such as jjigae and gimbap.

Sold from street carts, eomuk can be boiled on a skewer in broth. The broth is sometimes provided to the customer in paper cups for dipping and drinking.[14] Hot bar, also written as hotbar, is another version of eomuk sold during cold weather. While still served on a stick or skewer, the hot bar is deep-fried instead of boiled. In this form, the hot bar can be prepared according to any particular vendor's 'secret' recipe: plain, mixed with vegetables such as diced carrot or whole perilla leaf, or served with any number of sauces or condiments including ketchup and mustard.

Norway[edit]

In Norway, fishcakes are made much like the Danish fiskefrikadeller. In addition, spherical fiskeboller (“fishballs”: fisk + bolle, of the same etymological origin as meatballs) are formed from forcemeat. They are generally served with a white sauce and boiled carrots, and a popular condiment is mild curry powder.

Portugal[edit]

In Portugal, Pastéis de Bacalhau (codfish pasties) are a type of very popular fishcake. Pastéis are made of potato, codfish (Bacalhau), parsley, and eggs.

Puerto Rico[edit]

In Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, bacalaítos are eaten either as a snack or as part of a meal.

Romania[edit]

In Romania, fishcakes are called chiftele de peşte and are made with carp.

Singapore[edit]

Fishcakes and Fish balls should be prepared from one or more kinds of fish. They may contain starch, additional condiments or government permitted colouring agents. Fishcakes must contain at least 40% of fish under governmental regulations.[15]

Homemade fishballs and fish cakes can also be made using store bought or homemade fish paste. Fish paste that are sold commercially have to contain more than one fish, with possible additions of condiments, colouring agents or starch. Based on the Singaporean government Food Regulations, Fish Pastes should contain at least 70% fish. [15] Homemade fish cakes are usually made mackerel[16][17][18], yellowtail or other similar fishes[19]. Mackerels often chosen for their sweeter tastes and ease in preparing. Fish paste mixtures are often put in the food processor or traditionally thrown against the side of the mixing bowl to achieve the bouncier texture of the fish cakes.[20] They are then shaped by hand or in molds into various shapes and sizes and stored in the refrigerator or freezer till use. 

Sweden[edit]

In Sweden, canned fiskbullar are widely found; in contrast to fiskefrikadeller, they are not fried but boiled and as a result are almost entirely white.

Thailand[edit]

In Thai cuisine, the fish is first mashed and then mixed with chopped yardlong beans[21], fresh cilantro (including stalks), fish sauce[22], kaffir lime leaves[21], red curry paste[23], and an egg binding[22]. This is deep fried and usually served with a sweet chilli dipping sauce. Thot man pla have become popular around the world.

United Kingdom[edit]

In Yorkshire, England, the “Yorkshire fishcake” is a variation traditionally served in many fish and chip shops in South Yorkshire, parts of West Yorkshire, and Humberside. It consists of two slices of potato (sometimes parboiled), with offcuts of fish in between, deep fried in batter.[24] Yorkshire fishcakes can also be known as scallop fishcakes, or fish patties. TV chef Brian Turner has made the recipe available via his website.[25] Another variation of the fishcake is the parsley cake which is sold in some fish and chip shops in and around Castleford, West Yorkshire, England. It consists of minced fish, mashed potato and fresh parsley, coated in breadcrumbs and deep fried.

In Edinburgh, Scotland, fish patties are traditionally served with haggis, tatties, and neeps.

In Saint Helena, fishcakes are made from locally caught tuna or wahoo scraped into mashed potato with herbs and spices, then moulded into cakes and fried in oil. They are often spicy or, as locals would describe, 'with bite.' Traditional Recipe

Vietnam[edit]

In Vietnam, fishcakes are made of fresh fish, sometimes along with flour. The fishcakes can either be fried or steamed/boiled.

Nutrition[edit]

The nutrients in fish cakes are mainly contributed by freshwater fish, the main ingredient in fish cakes. Asian-style fish cakes are usually high in protein, calcium, and low in fat. For example, per 100g of Japanese fish cakes (kamaboko) has approximately 113.6 Calories, in which 12.3g are carbohydrates (4%) (including dietary fiber of 0.12g), 13.2g protein (26%), 0.67g fat (1%) (composed of 0.092g saturated fat, 0.33g polyunsaturated fat and 0.078g monounsaturated fat), 48.0mg cholesterol (16%), 845.5mg sodium (35%), and 241.1mg potassium (7%).[26]

As for western fish cakes or fish patties, there is no significant difference in the nutritional aspects with their Asian counterparts. However, the western fish cakes are relatively in higher fat content. Western fish cakes or patties have approximately 201 Calories per 100g, contributed by 12.38g carbohydrate (4%) (including 1.1g dietary fiber and 1.03g sugar), 13.65g protein, 10.49g fat (16%*) (including saturated fat 2.245g, polyunsaturated fat 3.085g and monounsaturated fat 4.418g), 55mg cholesterol (22%), 279mg sodium (14%), and 463mg potassium. The percentage daily values above are based on a 2000 Calories diet so may vary depending on the caloric needs of the consumer.[27]

Common Dishes[edit]

Fish cakes are cooked in different manners based on the cuisine.

In North America, it is common practice to pan fry the fish cakes[28][29] and are often served as appetizers [30] whereas in Asia it is often served boiled in soups[31] or as an accompaniment to noodles.[32]Some common dishes in Asian countries that include fish cakes are Udon[33], Fish Cake Soup[34], Fish ball Noodles[35] or just served individually as a side dish[36].

Manufacturing[edit]

When it comes to manufacturing fishcakes, according to Singaporean fishcake production, fish meats are first defrosted and then ground.[37] After the grinding process, fish meats and all ingredients needed are blended together at high speed. Normally, salt, sugar, flour, and starch are necessarily added to mashed fish fillets. It is good to add salt which approximately weighs 3% of the fish fillets’ weight. Also, other ingredients such as vegetables (onions, carrots, or green onions) or chemicals such as MSG can be added for a better flavor only if the ingredients are suitable for the local requirement. Next, the fish paste is formed so that it can be baked or deep-fried. In order to properly preserve fishcake product, during the process of baking or frying, eradication of enzymes and microorganisms is necessary using heat.[38] For instance, Canada has a specific regulation that the fish cakes should be heated to 65°C for one minute to destroy the salmonella that may be present.[39] After fishcakes are finally filtered, it is sent for packing and it is now ready to deliver.

Distribution and Storage[edit]

Manufacturing Brands like Dodo, Bobo and many more brands have information on the storage temperatures of the fish cakes written on the packaging. Major supermarket chains such as Fairprice Singapore[40], Cold Storage Singapore[41] all categorize fishcakes under the chilled and frozen sections.

Fishcakes are also often sold in fish markets in individual pieces. To keep the fish cakes fresh they are often sold in bags full of water. (Picture 3) These fish cakes are not fried and usually used in soups.

The shelf life for fish cakes varies greatly depending on the manufacturing and storage process. The shelf life can range from 12 days to 90 days.[42][43]

Packaging and Labelling[edit]

The label must include the product name, the allergen information and the price of the product.[44]

If carton is used in packaging it is usually are made up of solid white cardboard,paper or chipboard.The material used is then coated with wax, plastic or aluminium foil. The manufacturers then have the option to freeze, defrost or vacuum package it.[45] (Picture 2)

When carton is used to the package fish cakes, it is coated with polyethene. This is so that any strain on the inner layer will not result in damage to the outer layer.[45]

The packaging is reliant on whether the fish cakes are pre-wrapped or not. It may be made up of pure white board or duplex board. Carbon Dioxide controlled atmospheres are prime conditions for fish cake storage.[45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fish cakes - Oxford Reference". doi:10.1093/acref/9780191752391.001.0001/acref-9780191752391-e-2117. 
  2. ^ "Mrs. Beeton's Fish Recipes Revisited, TheFoody.com". 
  3. ^ "Provincial Fish Processing Operations" (PDF). BC Center for Disease Control. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  4. ^ "Chinese Fish Cake". www.baidu.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  5. ^ "The Present Status of Fisheries Processing Industry and Fishery Products of Busan in the Colonial Period", 김승, 역사와 경제 Vol.101, 2016
  6. ^ "A study on the Formation Process of Food Culture in Busan -Based on raw fish and eomuk", 김정하, 세계해양발전연구 Vol.22, 2013
  7. ^ "History of Busan Eomuk: The story of Busan Eomuk", 백승제, 부산발전연구원 부산학연구센터, 2015
  8. ^ "The secret to the growth of Samjin Eomuk that leading a wind of change", FOODNEWS, 2017.1.18
  9. ^ ""Has cod had its chips?", BBC News". July 20, 2000. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  10. ^ "EBSCO Publishing Service Selection Page". web.b.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  11. ^ "Specifications and Standards for Foods, Food Additives, etc. Under the Food Sanitation Act (Abstract) 2010" (PDF). 
  12. ^ "어묵" (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  13. ^ "어묵, 맛살" (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  14. ^ Goldberg, Lina "Asia's 10 greatest street food cities" Archived 2012-03-25 at the Wayback Machine. CNN Go. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-11
  15. ^ a b https://www.ava.gov.sg/docs/default-source/default-document-library/food-regulations-2-feb-20161da0851875296bf09fdaff00009b1e7c.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ "How to make "smooth & springy" fish paste | Food-4Tots | Recipes for Toddlers". Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  17. ^ "Homemade Fishcake". vivianpangkitchen.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  18. ^ "Singapore Style Fish Cakes (Otak-Otak)". Asia Society. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  19. ^ "Homemade Fish Cakes 自造鱼饼". wendyinkk.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  20. ^ hermes (2016-10-04). "Bouncy homemade fish cakes". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  21. ^ a b "Thai Fish Cake (Tod Mun Pla) | Easy Delicious Recipes". rasamalaysia.com. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  22. ^ a b "Thai fishcakes". BBC Good Food. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  23. ^ Dave. "Thai Fish Cakes - Best Recipes". Best Recipes. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  24. ^ "Yorkshire Fishcake, Potato Slice, Fish, Potato Slice photo – L. Gill photos at". Pbase.com. July 1, 2003. Retrieved November 17, 2010. 
  25. ^ "Yorkshire Fishcakes". Brianturneronline.co.uk. Retrieved November 17, 2010. 
  26. ^ "How many calories are in Kamaboko (Japanese fish cake)". www.fitday.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  27. ^ "Calories in 100 g of Fish Cake or Patty and Nutrition Facts". Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  28. ^ "Ultimate fish cakes". BBC Good Food. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  29. ^ Cloake, Felicity (2011-06-16). "How to cook perfect fishcakes". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  30. ^ "Fish Cake Recipes". Allrecipes. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  31. ^ "Korean Fish Cake Soup - My Korean Kitchen". My Korean Kitchen. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  32. ^ "Japanese Ingredient Spotlight on Kamaboko (Fish Cake)". The Spruce. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  33. ^ "Kitsune Udon Recipe きつねうどん • Just One Cookbook". Just One Cookbook. 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  34. ^ "Eomukguk (Fish cake soup) recipe - Maangchi.com". www.maangchi.com. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  35. ^ "Fish Ball Mee Pok | Mee Pok Dry Recipe | Noob Cook Recipes". Noob Cook Recipes. 2014-04-30. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  36. ^ "Thai-style fish cakes". www.taste.com.au. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  37. ^ "Fish Cake Production". www.nyeeguan.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  38. ^ "9.2 Fish Cakes". www.nzdl.org. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  39. ^ "Fish Processing Plants" (PDF). 
  40. ^ http://www.fairprice.com.sg/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/en/fairprice/chilled---frozen--1.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ https://coldstorage.com.sg/shop-online/dairy-chilled-frozen/chilled-frozen/meat-fish-balls.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  42. ^ Bavitha, M; Dhanapal, K. "QUALITY AND STORAGE STABILITY OF FISH CAKE FROM COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) DURING REFRIGERATED STORAGE" (PDF). International journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 5. 
  43. ^ Chowdhury, S. "Study of the Shelf Life of Fishcake Prepared from Surimi of Silver Carp During Frozen Storage" (PDF). Bangladesh J. Fish. 
  44. ^ "Labelling Requirements for Sale of Seafood" (PDF). Bord Iascaigh Mhara. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  45. ^ a b c Goal, T. K. Srinivasa. "Packaging materials for shrimp,fish and fish products,their properties, selection and effect of different packaging materials on their shelf life" (PDF). Retrieved 10 August 2017.