A fish pond, or fishpond, is a controlled pond, artificial lake, or reservoir that is stocked with fish and is used in aquaculture for fish farming, or is used for recreational fishing or for ornamental purposes. In the medieval European era it was typical for monasteries and castles (small, partly self-sufficient communities) to have a fish pond.
Records of the use of fish ponds can be found from the early Middle Ages. "The idealized eighth-century estate of Charlemagne's capitulary de villis was to have artificial fishponds but two hundred years later, facilities for raising fish remained very rare, even on monastic estates.". As the Middle Ages progressed, fish ponds became a more common feature of urbanizing environments.
Those with access to fish ponds had a controlled source of food, not unlike pastures for cattle and sheep, for use on days when it was not permitted to eat meat. However fish ponds were difficult to maintain. They were a mark of power and authority, since only rich nobles and institutions such as monasteries could afford to maintain them. In winter, supplying fresh food for a castle garrison was a constant struggle. Nobles had access to meat from deer parks, but this did not supply the needs of whole households. Though fish ponds required maintenance to keep them healthy, they were an elegant way of giving monasteries and noble houses access to fresh fish.
Fish ponds have been used in aquaculture.
They are/were common in:
- Europe, especially in the Czech Republic (Rožmberk Pond, Velké Dářko, Lake Mácha), where common carp may be kept.
- Ireland, where medieval monks kept fish that could be eaten on Fridays, in accordance with Catholic rules of fasting
- Hawaii, U.S.A., where the Native Hawaiians used them extensively.
- The Philippines where milkfish, tilapia, crabs, lobsters, tiger shrimp, snails and others may be kept.
- East Asia, especially in Japan with koi, trout, and white crucian carp.
Fish ponds are also being promoted in developing countries. They provide a source of food and income from the sale of fish for small farmers and can also supply irrigation needs and water for livestock. The ecosystem and production services offered by carp farming in fishponds have immense societal and economic advantages. For example - per production cycle, common carp aquaculture in the whole Central and Eastern Europe fishponds offer at least 579 million € worth of services, some of which are realized while a larger part is intangible. European carp aquaculture in fishponds is probably cleaner than most food production sectors in the EU, offering lesser nutrient burden to the environment than standard crop and livestock sectors.
Classic fishing pond used by the Clay Cross Angling Club
Fishing pond on Grainthorpe Fen
Coarse fishing pond in England
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fish ponds.|
- Hoffmann, Richard C. (1996) "Economic Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in Medieval Europe." The American Historical Review, 101 (3): 631–669. doi:10.2307/2169418
- FAO, Farm ponds for water, fish and livelihoods[permanent dead link] FAO, Rome, 2009
- Roy, Koushik; Vrba, Jaroslav; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Mraz, Jan (October 2020). "Nutrient footprint and ecosystem services of carp production in European fishponds in contrast to EU crop and livestock sectors". Journal of Cleaner Production. 270: 122268. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122268. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
Hoffmann, Richard C. “Economic Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in Medieval Europe.” The American Historical Review, vol. 101, no. 3, 1996, pp. 631–669., www.jstor.org/stable/2169418.
- Aston M (1998) Medieval fish, fisheries and fishponds in England Volumes 1–2. B.A.R. ISBN 978-0-86054-509-5.
- Chattopadhyay GN (1998) Chemical Analysis of Fish Pond Soil and Water Daya Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7035-177-1.
- Compton LV (1943) Techniques of fishpond management U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
- Delincé G (1992) The ecology of the fish pond ecosystem Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7923-1628-2.
- Farber JM (1997) Ancient Hawaiian fishponds: can restoration succeed on Molokaʻi? Neptune House Publications. ISBN 978-0-9659782-0-0.
- Gopalakrishnan V and Coche AG (1994) Handbook on small-scale freshwater fish farming Training Series No. 24, FAO, Rome. ISBN 92-5-103163-0.
- Hoare J (1870) A treatise on fishponds, addressed to the nobility and gentry of Sussex Wyman & sons, original from Harvard University.
- IUCN (1997) Fishing for a living: the ecology and economics of fishponds in Central Europe ISBN 978-2-8317-0386-2.
- FAO (1996) Simple methods for aquaculture: Management for freshwater fish culture: Ponds and water practices[permanent dead link] Training Series No. 21/1, Rome.
- FAO (1995) Simple methods for aquaculture: Pond Construction for Freshwater Fish Culture: Building Earthen Ponds[permanent dead link] FAO Training Series No. 20/1, Rome.
- FAO (1992) Simple methods for aquaculture: Pond Construction for Freshwater Fish Culture: Pond-Farm Structures and Layouts[permanent dead link] FAO Training Series No. 20/2, Rome.
- FAO (1989) Simple methods for aquaculture: Topography: Making topographical surveys for freshwater fish culture[permanent dead link] Training Series No. 16/2, Rome.
- FAO (1981) Simple methods for aquaculture. Water for freshwater fish culture[permanent dead link] Training Series No.4, Rome.