Jump to content

Fishing cat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fishing cat
CITES Appendix II (CITES)[1]
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: Prionailurus
P. viverrinus
Binomial name
Prionailurus viverrinus
(Bennett, 1833)
Distribution of the fishing cat as of 2016[1]

The fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized wild cat of South and Southeast Asia. It has a deep yellowish-grey fur with black lines and spots. Adults have a head-to-body length of 57 to 78 cm (22 to 31 in), with a 20 to 30 cm (7.9 to 11.8 in) long tail. Males are larger than females weighing 8 to 17 kg (18 to 37 lb); females average 5 to 9 kg (11 to 20 lb). Since 2016, it is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Fishing cat populations are threatened by destruction of wetlands and have declined severely over the last decade. The fishing cat lives foremost in the vicinity of wetlands, along rivers, streams, oxbow lakes, in swamps, and mangroves.

The fishing cat's main prey is fish. Other prey items include birdsinsects, small rodents; molluscs, reptiles including snakes, amphibians and carrion of domestic cattle. The fishing cat is thought to be primarily nocturnal. It is a good swimmer and can swim long distances, even under water. The species is the state animal of West Bengal. As of 2015, there are estimated to be 10,000 living individuals.


Felis viverrinus was proposed by Edward Turner Bennett in 1833 who described a cat skin sent from India by Josiah Marshall Heath.[2] Prionailurus was proposed by Nikolai Severtzov in 1858 as generic name for spotted wild cats native to Asia.[3] Felis viverrinus rhizophoreus was proposed by Henri Jacob Victor Sody in 1936 who described a specimen from the north coast of West Java that had a slightly shorter skull than fishing cat specimens from Thailand.[4] There is evidence that the nominate taxon and the Javan fishing cat are distinguishable by skull morphometrics.[5]


Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear DNA in tissue samples from all Felidae species revealed that the evolutionary radiation of the Felidae began in Asia in the Miocene around 14.45 to 8.38 million years ago.[6][7] Analysis of mitochondrial DNA of all Felidae species indicates a radiation at around 16.76 to 6.46 million years ago.[8]

The Prionailurus species are estimated to have had a common ancestor between 8.16 to 4.53 million years ago,[6] and 8.76 to 0.73 million years ago.[8] Both models agree in the rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus) having been the first cat of the Prionailurus lineage that genetically diverged, followed by the flat-headed cat (P. planiceps) and then the fishing cat.[6][8] It is estimated to have diverged together with the leopard cat (P. bengalensis) between 4.31 to 1.74 million years ago[6] and 4.25 to 0.02 million years ago.[8] The following cladogram shows the phylogenetic relationships of the fishing cat as derived through analysis of nuclear DNA:[6][7]


Leopard cat

Fishing cat

Flat-headed cat

Rusty-spotted cat


Pallas's cat (O. manul)

other Felinae lineages



A fishing cat at the San Diego Zoo

The fishing cat has a deep yellowish-grey fur with black lines and spots. Two stripes are on the cheeks, and two above the eyes running to the neck with broken lines on the forehead. It has two rows of spots around the throat. The spots on the shoulder are longitudinal, and those on the sides, limbs and tail are roundish.[2] The background colour of its fur varies between individuals from yellowish tawny to ashy grey, and the size of the stripes from narrow to broad. The fur on the belly is lighter than on the back and sides. The short and rounded ears are set low on the head, and the back of the ears bear a white spot. The tail is short, less than half the length of head and body, and with a few black rings at the end.[9] As an aquatic adaptation, the fur is layered. A short, dense layer provides a water barrier and thermal insulation, while another layer of protruding long guard hairs provides its pattern and glossy sheen.[10]

The fishing cat is the largest cat of the Prionailurus.[9] It is about twice the size of a domestic cat and stocky and muscular with medium to short legs. Its head-to-body length ranges from 57 to 78 cm (22 to 31 in), with a tail of 20 to 30 cm (7.9 to 11.8 in). Female fishing cats range in weight from 5 to 9 kg (11 to 20 lb), and males from 8 to 17 kg (18 to 37 lb), evidencing quite pronounced sexual dimorphism in size for a cat of this size.[11][12] Its skull is elongated, with a basal length of 123–153 mm (4.8–6.0 in) and a post-orbital width of 27–31 mm (1.1–1.2 in).[9]

Its paws are less completely webbed than those of the leopard cat, and the claws are incompletely sheathed so that they protrude slightly when retracted.[9][13] Webbed feet have often been noted as a characteristic of the fishing cat, but the webbing beneath the toes is not much more developed than that of a bobcat.[14]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

A fishing cat in the Sundarbans
Fishing cat photographed in Nepal

The fishing cat is broadly but discontinuously distributed in South and Southeast Asia.[1] It is strongly associated with wetlands, inhabiting swamps and marshy areas around oxbow lakes, reed beds, tidal creeks and mangrove forests; it seems less abundant around smaller, fast-moving watercourses. Most records are from lowland areas.[15]

In Pakistan's Sindh Province, the fishing cat was recorded in the Chotiari Dam area in 2012.[16] In the Nepal Terai, it has been recorded in Shuklaphanta, Bardia, Chitwan and Parsa National Parks and in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve.[17][18] In India, its presence has been documented in Ranthambore National Park,[19] in Pilibhit,[17] Dudhwa and Valmiki Tiger Reserves,[1] in Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary,[20] outside protected areas in West Bengal,[21] in Lothian Island Wildlife Sanctuary in the Sundarbans,[22] in Odisha's Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and coastal districts outside protected areas,[23] in Andhra Pradesh's Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary and adjoining reserve forests.[24][25][26][27]

Reports in Bangladeshi newspapers indicate that fishing cats live in all divisions of Bangladesh but are severely threatened; villagers killed at least 30 fishing cats between January 2010 and March 2013.[28] In Sri Lanka, it has been recorded in multiple localities ranging from coastal to hilly regions.[1] In Myanmar, it was recorded in the Ayeyarwady Delta in 2016 and 2018.[29]

In Thailand, its presence has been documented in Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park and Thale Noi Non-Hunting Area along the coast, and in Kaeng Krachan National Park.[30][31] Between 2007 and 2016, it was also recorded near wetlands outside protected areas in Phitsanulok Province, Bang Khun Thian District, Samut Sakhon Province, Phetchaburi and Songkhla Provinces, and near a mangrove site in Pattani.[32]

In Cambodia, a single fishing cat was photographed by a camera trap in Kulen Promtep Wildlife Sanctuary in March 2003.[33] In 2008, a fishing cat kitten was found in Botum-Sakor National Park.[34] In 2015, it was also recorded in Peam Krasop Wildlife Sanctuary.[35] The island of Java constitutes the southern limit of the fishing cat's range, but by the 1990s fishing cats were scarce and apparently restricted to tidal forests with sandy or muddy shores, older mangrove stands, and abandoned mangrove plantation areas with fishponds.[36] There are no confirmed records in Peninsular Malaysia, Vietnam and Laos.[37]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

A fishing cat in the Godavari mangroves at night

The fishing cat is thought to be primarily nocturnal, and is very much at home near water. It can swim long distances, even under water. Adult males and females without dependent young are solitary. Females have been reported to range over areas of 4 to 6 km2 (1.5 to 2.3 sq mi), while males range over 16 to 22 km2 (6.2 to 8.5 sq mi). Adults have been observed to make a "chuckling" sound.[11]

The fishing cat's main prey is fish; scat collected in India's Keoladeo National Park revealed that fish comprises about three-quarters of its diet, with the remainder consisting of birds, insects, small rodents; molluscs, reptiles including snakes, amphibians and carrion of domestic cattle supplement its diet.[38] In the Godavari River delta, fish comprised three fifths of the fishing cat diet, whereas rodents and crustaceans made up the reminder of the diet. The diet make-up remained relatively constant throughout the year.[39] Fishing cats have been observed while hunting along the edges of watercourses, grabbing prey from the water, and sometimes diving into the water to catch prey further from the banks.[40] It prefers hunting in shallow water and spends about half the time lying in wait for prey to approach.[41]

It marks its home range using cheek-rubbing, head rubbing, chin rubbing, neck rubbing and urine-spraying to leave scent marks. It also sharpens its claws and displays flehmen.[42]

Reproduction and development[edit]

Juvenile fishing cat

Wild fishing cats most likely mate during January and February; most kittens in the wild were observed in March and April.[11] However, fishing cats may mate as late as June.[15] In captivity, the gestation period lasts 63–70 days; females give birth to an average of two to three kittens; the little size can be as small as one to as large as four.[42][15] The generation length of the species is 5 years.[1] They weigh around 170 g (6.0 oz) at birth, and are able to actively move around by the age of one month. They begin to play in water and to take solid food when about two months old, but are not fully weaned until six months old. They reach full adult size when about eight and a half months old, acquire their adult canine teeth by 11 months, and are sexually mature when approximately 15 months old. They live up to 10 years in captivity.[11]


Fishing cats are susceptible to carnivore protoparvovirus, a disease known to kill them. The disease significantly damages the kidney, spleen and gastrointestinal tract.[43] A captive individual was recorded with chlamydiota.[44] The fishing cat is also vulnerable to diseases and medical conditions such as feline hemoplasmas, transitional cell carcinoma and canine distemper virus.[45][46][47] Young fishing cats have been recorded with Toxocara cati; mortality often occurs.[48]


The fishing cat is threatened by destruction of wetlands, which are increasingly being polluted or converted for agricultural use and human settlements. The conversion of mangrove forests to commercial aquaculture ponds is a major threat in Andhra Pradesh, where the target killing of fishing cats is also prevalent where there is human/animal conflict. Over-exploitation of local fish stocks and retaliatory killing are also significant threats.[1][49] Fish farmers in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, may also view fishing cats as pests, as they regularly take fish from farms, resulting in farmers killing them in retaliation.[49] In Bangladesh, fishing cats are often confused for tiger cubs, and are killed whenever they come into contact with humans.[50] They are also hunted for their meat, which is used for traditional causes. In one instance, between 2012 and 2015, poachers were arrested after slaying 31% of radio-collared animals in Thailand.[1] Skin may also be traded, though this is not yet confirmed.[51] Its habitat in India is primarily marshlands, thus, highly subjective to agricultural use under the country's law, leading to human–wildlife conflict. In Sagar Island, the natives there allegedly wiped out the fishing cat population. Deaths in the Indian subcontinent more often than not took place in the dry season, when paths with humans often cross.[1] In West Bengal's Howrah district, 27 dead fishing cats were recorded between April 2010 and May 2011.[21] In Bangladesh, at least 30 fishing cats were killed by local people in three years between January 2010 and March 2013.[28] Furthermore, in a study in Thailand, 84% of all fishing cats that were tracked via radio collars were killed – either due to poaching or unknown causes.[1] Crashes with vehicles is another major mortality factor.[23]

In Southeast Asia, wetlands are strongholds for the fishing cat population. However, estimates predict that only 6% of wetlands remain unthreatened by human activities. A 2015 study stated that the fishing cat population is likely lower than 10,000.[28] The fishing cat is possibly extinct in coastal Kerala, India.[52]


Fishing cat at the Cincinnati Zoo

Prionailurus viverrinus is included on CITES Appendix II, and protected by national legislation over most of its range. Hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand. Hunting regulations apply in Lao PDR. In Bhutan and Vietnam, the species is not protected outside protected areas.[15] Its survival depends on protection of wetlands, prevention of indiscriminate trapping, snaring and poisoning.[1] The species is the state animal of the Indian state of West Bengal.[53]

In areas where habitat degradation is a major concern, such as coastal Andhra Pradesh, NGOs are working to slow habitat conversion in collaboration with local villagers. Part of this work involves creating alternative livelihood programs that allow villagers to earn money without damaging natural habitats.[54][55] A Fishing Cat Conservation Alliance provides an umbrella for the cooperation of national fishing cat conservation groups, which began with the establishment of India's in 2010.[53]

In captivity[edit]

Fishing cat in Pessac Zoo

Fishing cat captive breeding programmes have been established by the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria and the American Association of Zoos and Aquariums. All the fishing cats kept in zoos around the world are listed in the International Studbook of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.[56][57] Zoos in Thailand house around 30 individuals; birth rates are not particularly high.[58] They have been placed in captivity as an "insurance population" due to their vulnerable status in the wild.[59]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mukherjee, S.; Appel, A.; Duckworth, J.W.; Sanderson, J.; Dahal, S.; Willcox, D.H.A.; Herranz Muñoz, V.; Malla, G.; Ratnayaka, A.; Kantimahanti, M.; Thudugala, A.; Thaung, R. & Rahman, H. (2022) [errata version of 2016 assessment]. "Prionailurus viverrinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T18150A50662615. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T18150A221434864.en. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
  2. ^ a b Bennett, E. T. (1833). "Characters of a New Species of Cat (Felis, Linn.) from the Continent of India, presented by J. M. Heath, Esq". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part I: 68–69.
  3. ^ Severtzow, M. N. (1858). "Notice sur la classification multisériale des Carnivores, spécialement des Félidés, et les études de zoologie générale qui s'y rattachent". Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée. X: 385–396.
  4. ^ Sody, H. J. V. (1936). "Seventeen generic, specific and subspecific names for Dutch East Indian mammals". Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië. 96: 42−55.
  5. ^ Jusoh, W. F. A.; Chua, M. A. H.; Bakker, P. A. J.; Kamminga, P.; Weiler, D.; Rookmaaker, K. & Low, M. E. Y. (2022). "A historical specimen of the Fishing Cat, Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833) (Carnivora, Felidae) from Singapore in the zoological collection of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden". Zoosystematics and Evolution. 98 (1): 43–53. doi:10.3897/zse.98.76940. S2CID 246172906. Archived from the original on 2022-07-22. Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  6. ^ a b c d e Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146. S2CID 41672825. Archived from the original on 2020-10-04. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  7. ^ a b Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W. E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D. W. & Loveridge, A. J. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 59–82. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5. Archived from the original on 2018-09-25. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  8. ^ a b c d Li, G.; Davis, B. W.; Eizirik, E. & Murphy, W. J. (2016). "Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)". Genome Research. 26 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1101/gr.186668.114. PMC 4691742. PMID 26518481.
  9. ^ a b c d Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Prionailurus viverrinus". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Vol. 1. Mammalia. London: Taylor and Francis, Ltd. pp. 281–284.
  10. ^ "Fishing Cat". The International Society for Endangered Cats (ISEC) Canada. 21 December 2012. Archived from the original on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d Sunquist, M. & Sunquist, F. (2002). "Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833)". Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 241–245. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7. Archived from the original on 2024-03-16. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  12. ^ Santymire, R.M.; Brown, J.L.; Stewart, R.A.; Santymire, R.C.; Wildt, D.E.; Howard, J. (2011). "Reproductive gonadal steroidogenic activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) assessed by fecal steroid analyses". Animal Reproduction Science. 128 (1–4): 60–72. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2011.09.001. PMID 21975304.
  13. ^ Emura, S.; Okumura, T.; Chen, H. (2014). "Morphology of the lingual papillae in the fishing cat". Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica. 90 (4): 79–83. doi:10.2535/ofaj.90.79. PMID 24815105.
  14. ^ Kitchener, A. C. (1998). The Natural History of the Wild Cats. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
  15. ^ a b c d Nowell, K. & Jackson, P. (1996). "Fishing Cat, Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833)". Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. pp. 74−76. ISBN 978-2-8317-0045-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2005-05-29. Retrieved 2018-05-08.
  16. ^ Islam, S.; Nawaz, R. & Moazzam, M. (2015). "A survey of Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata sindica) and Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) in Chotiari Reservoir, Sanghar, Pakistan using camera traps". International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology. 12 (4): 579–584. Archived from the original on 2024-03-16. Retrieved 2020-10-12.
  17. ^ a b Yadav, B.P.; Appel, A.; Shrestha, B.P.; Dahal, B.R. & M. Dhakal (2020). "The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) in Shuklaphanta National Park, Nepal". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 12 (16): 17203–17212. doi:10.11609/jott.6145.12.16.17203-17212.
  18. ^ Mishra, R.; De Longh, H.H.; Leirs, H.; Lamichhane, B.R.; Subedi, N.; Kolipaka, S.S. (2022). "Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus distribution and habitat suitability in Nepal". Ecology and Evolution. 12 (4): e8857. Bibcode:2022EcoEv..12E8857M. doi:10.1002/ece3.8857. PMC 9034449. PMID 35475187.
  19. ^ Sadhu, A. & Reddy, G. V. (2013). "First evidence of Fishing Cat in the Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India". Cat News (58): 36–37.
  20. ^ Prerna, S.; Raj, B.; Sharma, V.; Seshamani, G. & Satayanarayan, K. (2016). "First record of Fishing Cat in Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Agra, India". Cat News (63): 19–20.
  21. ^ a b Mukherjee, S.; Adhya, T.; Thatte, P. & Ramakrishnan, U. (2012). "Survey of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae) and some aspects impacting its conservation in India". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 4 (14): 3355–3361. doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3199.3355-61.
  22. ^ Das, S. K.; Saha, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Danda, A. A. & Borah, J. (2017). "First estimates of fishing cat abundance and density in Lothian WS, Sundarbans, India". Cat News (66): 25−27.
  23. ^ a b Palei, S.H.; Das, P.U.; Debata, S. (2018). "The vulnerable fishing cat Prionailurus viverrinus in Odisha, eastern India: status and conservation implications". Zoology and Ecology. 28 (2): 69–74. Bibcode:2018ZooEc..28...69S. doi:10.1080/21658005.2018.1468646.
  24. ^ Malla, G. & Sivakumar, K. (2014). "The Coringa Mangroves—realm of the Fishing Cat". Sanctuary Asia. XXXIV (6). Archived from the original on 2017-01-10. Retrieved 2016-12-24.
  25. ^ Malla, G. (2016). "Ecology and conservation of Fishing Cat in Godavari mangroves of Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). In A. Appel; J. W. Duckworth (eds.). Proceedings of the First International Fishing Cat Conservation Symposium, 25–29 November 2015, Nepal. Bad Marienberg, Germany and Saltford, Bristol, United Kingdom: Fishing Cat Working Group. pp. 48–50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  26. ^ Sathiyaselvam, P. & Eswar Satyanarayana, J. (2016). Status of Fishing Cat and Indian Smooth-coated Otter in Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (PDF). Kakinada: EGREE Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-24. Retrieved 2016-09-24.
  27. ^ Kantimahanti, M. (2016). "Community-based Fishing Cat conservation in the Eastern Ghats of South India" (PDF). In A. Appel; J. W. Duckworth (eds.). Proceedings of the First International Fishing Cat Conservation Symposium, 25–29 November 2015, Nepal. Bad Marienberg, Germany and Saltford, Bristol, United Kingdom: Fishing Cat Working Group. pp. 51–54. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  28. ^ a b c Chowdhury, S. U.; Chowdhury, A. R.; Ahmed S. & Muzaffar, S. B. (2015). "Human-fishing cat conflicts and conservation needs of fishing cats in Bangladesh". Cat News (62): 4–7.
  29. ^ Naing Lin & Platt, S. G. (2019). "Recent photographic records of Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833) (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Ayeyarwady Delta of Myanmar". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11 (7): 13910–13914. doi:10.11609/jott.4795.11.7.13910-13914.
  30. ^ Cutter, P. (2009). "Recent sightings of fishing cats in Thailand". Cat News (51): 12–13.
  31. ^ Lynam, A. J.; Jenks, K. E.; Tantipisanuh, N.; Chutipong, W.; Ngoprasert, D. & Gale, G. A. (2012). "Terrestrial activity patterns of wild cats from camera-trapping" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology: 407–415. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-01.
  32. ^ Chutipong, W.; Kamjing, A.; Klinsawat, W.; Ngoprasert, D.; Phosri, K.; Sukumal, N.; Wongtung, P. & Tantipisanuh, N. (2019). "An update on the status of Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae) in Thailand". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 11 (4): 13459–13469. doi:10.11609/jott.4557.11.4.13459-13469.
  33. ^ Rainey, H. J. & Kong, K. (2010). "A fishing cat observation from northern Cambodia" (PDF). Cat News (52): 8–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-19. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
  34. ^ Royan, A. (2009). "Confirmation of the endangered fishing cat in Botum-Sakor National Park, Cambodia" (PDF). Cat News (51): 10–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-11-04. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
  35. ^ Thaung R. & Herranz Muñoz, V. (2016). "Identifying priority sites and conservation actions for Fishing Cat in Cambodia" (PDF). In A. Appel & J. W. Duckworth (eds.). Proceedings of the First International Fishing Cat Conservation Symposium, 25–29 November 2015, Nepal. Bad Marienberg, Germany and Saltford, Bristol, United Kingdom: Fishing Cat Working Group. pp. 37–40. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  36. ^ Melisch, R.; Asmoro, P. B.; Lubis, I. R. & Kusumawardhani, L. (1996). "Distribution and status of the Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus rhizophoreus Sody, 1936) in West Java, Indonesia (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae)" (PDF). Faunistische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden. 20 (17): 311–319. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-23. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
  37. ^ Duckworth, J. W.; Stones, T.; Tizard, R.; Watson, S. & Wolstencroft, J. (2010). "Does the fishing cat inhabit Laos?". Cat News (52): 4–7.
  38. ^ Haque, N. M. & Vijayan, V. (1993). "Food habits of the fishing cat Felis viverrina in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 90 (3): 498–500.
  39. ^ Malla, G.; Ray, P.; Srinivas, Y.; Malla, S.; Reddy, T.B.; Hayward, M.; Sivakumar, K. (2024). "Fish on the platter! Dietary habits of fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus) in the Godavari Delta, India". Mammal Research. 69 (2): 221–230. doi:10.1007/s13364-023-00731-0.
  40. ^ Mukherjee, S. (1989). Ecological separation of four sympatric carnivores in Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India (MSc. Thesis). Dehra Dun: Wildlife Institute of India.
  41. ^ Ganguly, D.; Adhya, T. (2022). "How fishing cats Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 fish: describing a felid's strategy to hunt aquatic prey". Mammalia. 86 (2): 182–189. doi:10.1515/mammalia-2020-0133.
  42. ^ a b Mellen, J. D. (1993). "A comparative analysis of scent-marking, social and reproductive behavior in 20 species of small cats (Felis)". American Zoologist. 33 (2): 151–166. doi:10.1093/icb/33.2.151. JSTOR 3883837.
  43. ^ Piewbang, C.; Wardhani, S.W.; Chanseanroj, J.; Yostawonkul, J.; Boonrungsiman, S.; Saengkrit, N.; Kongmakee, P.; Banlunara, W.; Poovorawan, Y.; Kasantikul, T.; Techangamsuwan, S. (2021). "Natural infection of parvovirus in wild fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus) reveals extant viral localization in kidneys". PLOS ONE. 16 (3): e0247266. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1647266P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247266. PMC 7924760. PMID 33651823.
  44. ^ Kik, M.J.L.; van der Hage, M.H.; Greydanus-van der Putten, S.W.M. (1997). "Chlamydiosis in a Fishing Cat (Felis viverrina)". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 28 (2): 212–214. JSTOR 20095645. PMID 9279414.
  45. ^ Suksai, P.; Tangsudjai, S.; Sariya, L.; Chamsai, T.; Sedwisai, P.; Patumrattanathan, S.; Prasittichai, L.; Cutter, P.; Ratanakorn, P.; Sangkachai, N. (2016). "Molecular study of feline hemoplasmas in free- ranging fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus) in Thailand". The Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research. 64 (3): 205–213. PMID 29786992.
  46. ^ Sutherland-Smith, M.; Harvey, C.; Campbell, M.; McAloose, D.; Rideout, B.; Morris, P. (2004). "Transitional cell carcinomas in four fishing cats (Prionailurus verrinus)". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 35 (3): 370–380. doi:10.1638/03-106. PMID 15526893.
  47. ^ Kadam, R.G.; Karikalan, M.; Siddappa, C.M.; Mahendran, K.; Srivastava, G.; Rajak, K.K.; Bhardwaj, Y.; Varshney, R.; War, Z.A.; Singh, R.; Ghosh, M.; Beena, V.; Pawde, A.M.; Singh, K.P.; Sharma, A.K. (2022). "Molecular and pathological screening of canine distemper virus in Asiatic lions, tigers, leopards, snow leopards, clouded leopards, leopard cats, jungle cats, civet cats, fishing cat, and jaguar of different states, India". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 98: 105211. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2022.105211. PMID 35051653.
  48. ^ Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, B.; Mukherjee, J.; Chakraborty, G.C.; Mitra, M. (2012). "Toxocara cati infestation in fishing kitten - a case report" (PDF). Exploratory Animal and Medical Research. 1 (2): 184–186.
  49. ^ a b Mishra, R.; Gautam, B.; Kaspal, P.; Shah, S.K. (2021). "Population status and threats to fishing cat Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833) in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Eastern Nepal". Nepalese Journal of Zoology. 5 (1): 13–21. doi:10.3126/njz.v5i1.38284.
  50. ^ Eva, Afsana Nasreen; Suzuki, Ai; Numata, Shinya (September 2022). "Spatiotemporal Patterns of Human–Carnivore Encounters in a Seasonally Changing Landscape: A Case Study of the Fishing Cat in Hakaluki Haor, Bangladesh". Conservation. 2 (3): 402–413. doi:10.3390/conservation2030027. ISSN 2673-7159.
  51. ^ Heinen, J.T.; Leisure, B. (1993). "A new look at the Himalayan fur trade". Oryx. 27 (4): 231–238. doi:10.1017/S0030605300028143.
  52. ^ Janardhanan, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Karunakaran, P. V. & Athreya, R. (2014). "On the occurrence of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae) in coastal Kerala, India". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 6 (3): 5569–5573. doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3780.5569-73.
  53. ^ a b Sean Mowbray (9 May 2024). "Saving Asia's fishing cat means protecting threatened wetland habitat". Mongabay. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  54. ^ Eng, K.F. (2020). "By saving this adorable, elusive wild cat, you could help save the planet (really!)". Ideas Ted. Archived from the original on 2020-12-10. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  55. ^ "Projects | Fishing Cat Conservancy | United States". Fishing Cat Conservancy. Archived from the original on 2019-03-08. Retrieved 2019-03-07.
  56. ^ Johnson, A.; Kutzler, M. (2022). Feline Reproduction. CABI. pp. 270–271. ISBN 978-1-78924-708-4.
  57. ^ Fazio, Jilian M. (2016). Assessment of adrenal activity and reproductive cycles during captive management in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus). George Mason University. pp. 1–6.
  58. ^ Khonmee, J.; Vorawattanatham, N.; Pinyopummin, A.; Thitaram, C.; Somgird, C.; Punyapornwithaya, V.; Brown, J.L. (2016). "Assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite excretion in captive female fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus) in Thailand". Conservation Physiology. 4 (1): cow021. doi:10.1093/conphys/cow021. PMC 4892097. PMID 27293767.
  59. ^ Sukparangsi, W.; Thongphakdee, A.; Karoon, S.; Suban Na Ayuthaya, N.; Hengkhunthod, I.; Prakongkaew, R.; Bootsri, R.; Sikaeo, W. (2022). "Establishment of fishing cat cell biobanking for sustainable conservation". Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 9. doi:10.3389/fvets.2022.989670. PMC 9684188. PMID 36439340.

External links[edit]