Fist of the North Star
|Fist of the North Star|
Volume 1 of the Japanese Jump Comics edition of Hokuto no Ken, as published on March 9, 1984.
(Hokuto no Ken)
|Genre||Martial arts, Post-apocalyptic|
|Illustrated by||Tetsuo Hara|
|Magazine||Weekly Shōnen Jump|
|Original run||September 13, 1983 – August 8, 1988|
|Anime television series|
|Directed by||Toyoo Ashida|
|Music by||Nozomi Aoki|
|Original run||October 11, 1984 – March 5, 1987|
|Anime television series|
|Hokuto no Ken 2|
|Directed by||Toyoo Ashida|
|Music by||Nozomi Aoki|
|Original run||March 13, 1987 – February 18, 1988|
Fist of the North Star, known in Japan as Hokuto no Ken (北斗の拳?, "Fist of the Northern Ladle"), is a Japanese manga series written by Buronson and illustrated by Tetsuo Hara. Serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump from 1983 to 1988, the 245 chapters were initially collected in 27 tankōbon volumes by Shueisha. Set in a post-apocalyptic world that has been destroyed by a nuclear war, the story centers on a warrior named Kenshiro, the successor of a deadly martial art style known as Hokuto Shinken, which gives him the ability to kill most adversaries from within through the use of the human body's secret vital points, often resulting in an exceptionally violent and gory death. Kenshiro dedicates his life to fighting against the various ravagers who threaten the lives of the weak and innocent, as well as rival martial artists, including his own "brothers" from the same clan.
Fist of the North Star was adapted into two anime TV series produced by Toei Animation, which together aired on Fuji TV and its affiliates from 1984 through 1988, comprising a combined total of 152 episodes. Several films, OVAs, and video games have been produced as well, including a series of spin-offs centering on other characters from the original story.
The original manga was published in English by Viz Communications as a monthly comic book, and later by Gutsoon! Entertainment as a series of colorized graphic novels, although neither translation was completed. English adaptations of other Fist of the North Star media have been licensed to other companies, including the TV series and the 1986 film.
In "199X," civilization was ruined as a result of a worldwide nuclear war and many creatures died out. In spite of these events, 30% of mankind survived and entered an age where the strong ruled over the weak, as the few survivors fought over whatever supply of food and uncontaminated water remained in the wasteland of the world.
Kenshiro, successor to the ancient assassination art of Hokuto Shinken (北斗神拳?), wanders into a village in search of water when he is caught in a trap and imprisoned by the local defense force. In prison, he befriends a young orphaned girl named Rin who nursed him back to health. When the village is attacked by a biker gang and Rin is taken hostage by their leader, Ken breaks free from his cell and rescues Rin by defeating the leader with his deadly martial art technique. Kenshiro leaves the village and continues his journey, now accompanied by a young thief named Bat. He becomes involved against the King organization after witnessing the many atrocities they have committed. As he infiltrates the gang's stronghold in the city of Southern Cross, he finds out that the leader of King is his old nemesis, the Nanto Seiken master Shin, the man who engraved the seven scars on Kenshiro's chest and kidnapped his fiancee Yuria. Kenshiro emerges victorious in his rematch with Shin, only to find out that Yuria is no longer with Shin.
Kenshiro continues his journey and goes on to fight several more enemy organizations. After being reunited with Rin and meeting new allies such as the woman warrior Mamiya and the Nanto Suichōken successor Rei, Kenshiro learns that his three former brothers-in-training in the ways of Hokuto Shinken are still alive. The third brother, Jagi, a violent thug who sought to torment Kenshiro after losing the Hokuto Shinken succession to him, is quickly eliminated. Kenshiro goes on to search for the second brother, a gentle healer named Toki, and learns that he is being kept prisoner in the dungeon city of Cassandra. After rescuing Toki, Kenshiro learns that Raoh, the eldest of the four brothers, has become a ruthless warlord known as Ken-oh (拳王 "Fist King"?) and is now seeking to conquer the postwar world. Kenshiro goes on to challenge Raoh, but the long grueling battle ends in a stalemate and the two warriors are forced to settle their differences another day. Rei is fatally wounded as a result of a previous battle with Raoh and he spends the last few days of his life tracking down his nemesis Juda, the successor of Nanto Kōkakuken and the man who once tormented Mamiya in the past. After defeating Juda, Rei goes on to die, at peace with himself.
With Raoh still recovering from his wounds, another warlord, the Nanto Hōōken successor Souther (Thouzer in some translations), proclaims himself as the Holy Emperor (聖帝 Seitei?). Kenshiro joins a resistance movement led by an old benefactor, the Nanto Hakuroken successor Shu. When Shu is captured and executed by Souther, Kenshiro confronts Souther and foils his ambitions. With Souther now gone, Raoh recovers from his wounds and goes on to resume his reign of conquest. Toki, who is on the verge of dying as a result of a terminal illness, challenges the newly revived Raoh as part of a childhood promise they made to each other, but is ultimately no match for him. Toki eventually passes away from his disease, leaving Kenshiro as the only man capable of stopping Raoh.
The Last General of Nanto appears and decides to side with Kenshiro in order to defeat Raoh, sending out her five guardians, the Goshasei, after Raoh. Kenshiro and Raoh both learn that the General's true identity is Yuria, Kenshiro's missing fiancee. After a series of numerous events and battles, Kenshiro emerges victorious over Raoh and he is finally reunited with Yuria. However, the victory is bittersweet, as Yuria has been affected by a terminal illness and had very little time left to live. However Raoh, feeling sympathy for her, manipulates one of Yuria's pressure points and extends her lifespan by several years. Kenshiro leaves his friends and spends the final few years of Yuria's life with her.
The peace that follows Raoh's downfall does not last long and the world returns to turmoil several years later. Kenshiro rejoins his former traveling companions, Bat and Rin, in their battle against an oppressive Empire, fighting under the banner of the Hokuto Army. The Hokuto Army rescues the rightful Empress Rui, who is also Rin's estranged twin sister, foiling the plot of the usurper Jako, who was blackmailing Rui's guardian, the Gento Kōken successor Falco, to do his evil bidding.
However, Rin is taken captive by the remnant of Jako's forces and is sent off to the mysterious Kingdom of Shura, a brutal land of warriors ruled by three overlords who have all mastered the ways of Hokuto Ryūken, a martial art which branched off from the same clan alongside Hokuto Shinken into the ways of darkness. Kenshiro defeats Han, the third-ranking overlord, who reveals that the Kingdom of Shura was Kenshiro's birthplace. Moreover, Kenshiro also learns that Hyou, the second overlord, is his biological older brother. After a grueling battle, Hyou and Ken reconcile their differences and Kenshiro seeks out the highest-ranking and most powerful of the three overlords, Kaioh, who is Raoh's biological older brother, and plans a conquest to rule the post apocalyptic world in the name of evil after wiping out the followers of Hokuto Shinken. However, Kenshiro is ultimately helpless against Kaioh's evil powers, and the man known as Shachi, a feared righteous warrior throughout Shura, helps him nearly escape death. After having recovered from the harrowing fight, Hyou reveals to Kenshiro that the homeland of the progenitor clan of all Hokuto style martial arts, the Hokuto Soke, lies in Shura, and holds the secrets of overcoming Kaioh's overwhelming power. Upon gaining the favor of the spirits of the Hokuto Soke, and rightfully bestowed the ancestral techniques in a race against Kaioh, the final battle concludes with Kenshiro defeating Kaioh and Kaioh making his peace with Hyoh before both of them pass away.
Afterward, Kenshiro rescues Rin and leaves her under Bat's care as he goes on an adventure with Raoh's orphaned son Ryu. After his adventure with Ryu, Kenshiro is forced to help out Bat and Rin one last time when a villain from Kenshiro's past named Bolge threaten their happiness. Kenshiro defeats Bolge and leaves the two to live a life of happiness. The series ends as Kenshiro, now the 64th successor of Hokuto Shinken, does what he does best: protecting the weak and the innocent.
Tetsuo Hara has stated that he came up with the idea of Hokuto no Ken from his editor Nobuhiko Horie. According to Hara, Horie suggested to him that he should draw a manga about "a martial artist who destroys his opponents by striking their acupressure points" based on Hara's aspiration to draw a manga about martial arts and his knowledge of pressure points. At the time, Hara was having trouble breaking into the market, as his first series, the Iron Don Quixote, was cancelled ten weeks after its debut. A prototype version of Hokuto no Ken was published as a one shot story in the April 1983 issue of Fresh Jump, which was followed by Hokuto no Ken II, a second one-shot published in the June 1983 issue. Both stories are collected in the second tankōbon volume of Tetsu no Don Quixote.
The two one-shots were well received in the reader's surveys of Fresh Jump and Tetsuo Hara was commissioned to turn Hokuto no Ken into a weekly series. Buronson was assigned to work with him as writer for the serialized version. The storyline was revamped, with the 1980s present-day setting in the original version replaced by post apocalyptic future world, and the protagonist Kenshiro, originally a high school student in Hara's earlier story, became an older and more stoic hero inspired by Bruce Lee. Originally, Tetsuo Hara and Buronson were contracted to do Fist of the North Star for a three-year run, but due to its popularity and the publisher's demand, it was extended to a five-year run.
Hokuto no Ken premiered in Japan in Weekly Shōnen Jump in Issue 41 on September 13, 1983 and was serialized weekly until Issue 35 of 1988, lasting 245 chapters. The original collected volumes or tankōbon of Hokuto no Ken were originally published under Shueisha's Jump Comics imprint and spans 27 volumes. During the 1990s, Shueisha reprinted Hokuto no Ken in 15 hardcover aizōban editions, as well as 15 corresponding economy-sized bunko editions. A 14-volume Kanzenban edition was published by Shogakukan in 2006 under the Big Comics Selection imprint, featuring the original water-colored artwork from the Weekly Shōnen Jump serialization. It has also been released in 27 digital e-book editions.
Viz Communications published the first sixteen chapters of Fist of the North Star in English as an eight-issue monthly comic in 1989, which were later reprinted in a single graphic novel collection in 1995. During the same year, Viz resumed publication of the series as a monthly comic until 1997, lasting eighteen issues (adapting chapters 17-44), which were subsequently republished in three additional graphic novel volumes. A second English adaptation was published by Gutsoon! Entertainment under the title of Fist of the North Star: Master Edition,which featured newly colorized artwork, but retained the original right-to-left orientation. Each volume from the fourth one and onward featured new cover illustrations by Tetsuo Hara that were made specifically for the Master Edition. The Master Edition was published from 2002 to 2003, lasting only nine volumes, due to Gutsoon!'s withdrawal from the North American market.
To celebrate the series' 30th anniversary, Tokuma Shoten re-published Hokuto no Ken in an Extreme Edition (究極版 Kyūkokuban?) comprising 18 volumes that were published two books per month from September 20, 2013 through July 20, 2014 (with a three month gap between January and April 2014). These Extreme Editions feature new cover illustrations by Tetsuo Hara and reprints all the colorized artwork from the original Weekly Jump serials. Vol. 11 features an additional chapter by Buronson and Hara, originally published in two parts in the May and June 2014 issues of Monthly Comic Zenon, titled Hokuto no Ken: Last Piece. The storyline covers the gap between the defeat of Raoh and Kenshiro's later reunion with the grown Bat and Rin, centering around Raoh's former steed Kokuoh and how he lost his left eye during the time span. It also introduces a new character named Jōza (ジョウザ?), the son of Jūza of the Clouds.
In 2001, Tetsuo Hara began working on a Fist of the North Star prequel titled Fist of the Blue Sky (蒼天の拳 Sōten no Ken?), which was serialized in Weekly Comic Bunch. Set during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1935, the story stars Hokuto Shinken predecessor and Kenshiro's namesake, Kenshiro Kasumi. An English adaptation of Fist of the Blue Sky was published in North America by Gutsoon! Entertainment in the now-defunct manga anthology Raijin Comics. Four collected volumes were published before the company went out of business.
A series of Fist of the North Star spinoffs began to be published in Weekly Comic Bunch and Big Comics Superior later. This lineup of titles has been dubbed the Hokuto Gaiden (北斗外伝?) series, as each title focuses on a particular supporting character from the original manga. The following titles had been published so far:
- Legends of the Dark King: A Fist of the North Star Story (天の覇王 北斗の拳 ラオウ外伝 Ten no Haō - Hokuto no Ken Raō Gaiden?) by Youkow Osada. A series that was serialized in Weekly Comics Bunch featuring Reina and Souga from The Legends of the True Savior movie series. All 42 chapters (as well as a two-part epilogue published sometime after the series' conclusion) were collected in five tankōbon volumes. It was adapted into a 13-episode anime series which aired on Tokyo MX in 2008. The anime adaptation was licensed to Sentai Filmworks and a subtitle-only DVD, dual language DVD and Blu-ray set of the complete series are currently available for release.
- Fist of the North Star Yuria's Story: The Merciful Mother Star (北斗の拳 ユリア外伝 慈母の星 Hokuto no Ken Yuria Gaiden - Jibo no Hoshi?) by Ayumi Kasai. Serialized in Big Comics Superior in three parts that ran from March 10 to April 14, 2006 and six subsequent chapters from March 9 to June 8, 2007. A single tankōbon volume was released.
- Bloody Wolf's Darkness Blue: Fist of the North Star Rei Side Story (蒼黒の餓狼 -北斗の拳 レイ外伝- Sōkoku no Garō Hokuto no Ken Rei Gaiden?) by Yasuyuki Nekoi. Originally began as two separate one-shot stories that were published in the March 22 and December 8, 2006 issues of Weekly Comic Bunch. The one-shot version of the manga is subtitled The Magnificent Avenger (華麗なる復讐者 Kareinaru Fukushūsha?). Rei Gaiden was picked up as an ongoing series, which began in the April 27, 2007 issue of Weekly Comic Bunch. The serial was originally subtitled The Hungry Wolf Saga (餓狼編 Garō Hen?), before receiving its current title.
- Fist of the North Star Toki Side Story: Silvery Savior (銀の聖者 北斗の拳 トキ外伝 Shirogane no Seija - Hokuto no Ken Toki Gaiden?), a series by Yuka Nagate that began serialization in the August 24, 2007 issue of Weekly Comic Bunch.
- The Flower of Carnage: Fist of the North Star Jagi Side-Story (極悪ノ華 北斗の拳 ジャギ外伝?) by Shin-ichi Hiromoto, which began serialization in the December 26, 2008 issue of Weekly Comic Bunch.
- The Wandering Cloud: Fist of the North Star Juuza Side-Story (彷徨の雲 北斗の拳ジュウザ外伝?) by Kakurai Missile, which began serialization in the February 12, 2010 issue of Weekly Comic Bunch.
- DD Fist of the North Star (DD北斗の拳?) by Kajio, which began serialization in the December 2010 issue of Monthly Comic Zenon.
- The Gold Wings of Garuda: The Prehistory of the Nanto Goshasei (金翼のガルダ〜南斗五車星前史〜 Kinyoku no Garuda Nanto Gosha Sei Zenshi?) by Yoshiji Yamaguchi, serialized in Monthly Comic Zenon from April 2013 to August 2013.
- Hokuto no Ken: Ichigo Aji (北斗の拳 イチゴ味?, lit. Fist of the North Star: Strawberry Flavor), written by Yūshi Kawata and illustrated by Imōto Yukito, began serialization in 2013 on the Web Comic Zenyon website.
Hokuto no Ken was first adaptated into a weekly anime series by Toei Animation under the title Seikimatsu Kyūseishu Densetsu: Hokuto no Ken (世紀末救世主伝説 北斗の拳?, lit. Legend of the Century's End Messiah: Fist of the North Star). The series aired on Fuji Television from October 11, 1984 to March 5, 1987, lasting 109 episodes. It was immediately followed by a sequel series, titled Hokuto no Ken 2, which aired from March 13, 1987 to February 18, 1988, lasting for 43 additional episodes (a combined total of 152 episodes between both series).
The full series was never released on VHS (nor LaserDisc) in Japan, although three hour-long compilation movies were produced by Toei Video covering the Shin, Rei and Raoh story arcs in that order. On July 24, 2002, Universal Music released a Region 2 DVD box set containing all 152 episodes spread across 26 discs. These discs were later released as individual volumes from May 21, 2003 through January 21, 2004. Three "best of" DVD compilations were also released in 2005, each featuring seven key episodes from the series. On March 28, 2008, Avex released a 25th anniversary edition box set featuring new video transfers of all 152 episodes remastered in high definition, once again spread across 26 discs. This set also features two additional discs of bonus content (including the aforementioned compilation movies).
The first 36 episodes of the first series were translated and dubbed by Manga Entertainment in 1999, although only 24 episodes were released on VHS (spread across eight tapes). All 36 episodes of the dub version were aired on Showtime Beyond in the United States and on Sci-Fi Channel in the United Kingdom, and were later released on DVD in 2003 (spread across six individual volumes). In 2008, the US subsidiary of Toei Animation produced an official subtitle-only translation of all 152 episodes, which were released on various paid download and streaming websites available only for North American customers. Discotek Media announced on October 2, 2009 that they have licensed the entire Fist of the North Star TV series. The first two boxsets were released in that year, and the latter two in 2011. The episodes used the sames transfers from the 2008 DVD box set in Japan, although it did not contain any of the special features. The first set featured the first 36 episodes along with Manga Entertainment's English dub, and a Japanese audio option with English subtitles; these subtitles were adjusted from the translation of Toei's streaming episodes. Discotek later released all discs from all four boxsets (a total of 21 discs) together in one set, Fist of the North Star: The Series - The Complete Series Collection, on March 25, 2014.
In 2009, William Winckler Productions produced six compilation movies voiced in English. The movies cover major story arcs from the TV series, each one centering on a specific character (Shin, Rei, Toki, Thouzer, Raoh, and Kaioh). These compilation movies had not been officially released in North America and Europe yet, but were distributed to video streaming websites in Japan in 2012.
Anime films and original video animations
The first animated feature film based on the series, simply titled Fist of the North Star, was produced by Toei Animation, which premiered in Japan on March 8, 1986. Produced by the same staff and cast who worked on the TV series, the movie adapts the storyline of the manga from the beginning and up to Kenshiro's first fight with Raoh, taking several liberties with the order of events and how the story unfolds. An English-dubbed version produced by Streamline Pictures was first released in 1991 in North America and in 1994 in Europe and Australia by Manga Entertainment.
In 2003, a three-episode original video animation (OVA) mini-series titled New Fist of the North Star was produced by OB Planning, based on a 1996 Hokuto no Ken novel, Jubaku no Machi. An English dub version was produced by ADV Films in 2004.
In 2005, North Stars Pictures and TMS Entertainment announced the development of a five-part film series titled Fist of the North Star: The Legends of the True Savior. The series is composed of three theatrical films and two OVAs, which were released during a three-year period between 2006 throughout 2008, culminating with the 25th anniversary of the franchise.
An original novel was written by Buronson and Tetsuo Hara titled Shōsetsu Hokuto no Ken: Jubaku no Machi (小説·北斗の拳 呪縛の街?, Fist of the North Star the Novel: The Cursed City) which was published by Jump Novel in Japan on December 13, 1996. The novel was the basis of the later three-episode OVA series New Fist of the North Star. A novelization of the movie Legend of Raoh: Chapter of Love in Death written by Eiichi Sakaki was published by Tokuma Novels on March 10, 2006.
There has also been two cell phone novels released via the mobile site Hokuto no Ken DX. Raoh Gaiden (ラオウ外伝?), a novelization of the manga of the same name, and Kenshiro Gaiden (ケンシロウ外伝?), an original novel by Jotaro Higashi.
An American-produced live-action movie version of Fist of the North Star was released in 1995, directed by Tony Randel based on a script by Peter Atkins and Wynne McLaughlin. The movie, loosely based on the Shin storyline of the manga, stars Gary Daniels as Kenshiro, Costas Mandylor as Shin and Japanese actress Isako Washio as Yuria, with Malcolm McDowell as Ryuken and Chris Penn as "Jackal" (actually a renamed Jagi). It also featured a cameo by professional wrestler Big Van Vader as Goliath, and Kevin Arbouet as "Rao" (unrelated to the actual Raoh from the manga). The movie was released straight-to-video in the US and Japan (though it did receive a premiere on HBO). The Japanese dubbed version used the original voice actors from the 1980s anime series.
Numerous video game titles based on the Fist of the North Star have been produced since the 1986 release of Enix adventure game, simply titled Hokuto no Ken for the PC-88. The earlier games in the franchise were released by Sega for the Mark III and Mega Drive and by Toei Animation for the Nintendo's Famicom, Game Boy and Super Famicom. These titles included side-scrolling action games, role-playing video games and competitive-style fighting games. The two Sega titles were released overseas without the Hokuto no Ken license under the titles of Black Belt and Last Battle, while a couple of the Toei titles, namely Fist of the North Star for the NES and Fist of the North Star: 10 Big Brawls for the King of Universe for the Game Boy, had American releases with the license intact. Further games were released for the Sega Saturn, PlayStation, Arcade, PlayStation 2 and Nintendo DS among other platforms. In 2000, Konami released an arcade game based on the franchise titled Fighting Mania. Another arcade game, a 2D fighting game simply titled Fist of the North Star, was produced by Sega and Arc System Works in 2005. Both games saw international distributions, although the PS2 version of the fighting game was released exclusively in Japan. Tecmo Koei produced a Dynasty Warriors spinoff focusing on the events from the first half of the manga, titled Fist of the North Star: Ken's Rage. It which was released in Japan on March 25, 2010, and later in North America on November 2, 2010, and Europe on November 5, 2010. A sequel, Fist of the North Star: Ken's Rage 2, expanded on the first game and incorporated the events from the second half of the manga. It was released in Japan on December 20, 2012, and in North America on February 5, 2013.
Fist of the North Star was one of Weekly Shōnen Jump's most popular titles during the 1980s. It is one of the best-selling manga series in history, having sold approximately 100 million copies. In a poll conducted by TV Asahi in 2005, the Fist of the North Star anime series ranked 26 in a list of Top 100 Anime series. In a second poll in 2006, it ranked 89. In a celebrity version of the poll, it ranked 15.
Notes and references
- Hokuto (北斗?) literally means the "Northern Ladle", which is the Japanese name of the Big Dipper asterism.
- "Interview with Hara Tetsuo". Raijin Comics. Archived from the original on 2004-06-29. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- "Interview with Buronson". ADV Films Presents: New Fist of the North Star. Archived from the original on 2007-02-18. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- "Fist of the North Star Manga Marks 25 Years with Wedding". Anime News Network. 2008-08-12. Retrieved 2015-07-29.
- 北斗の拳 全27巻・全巻セット (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- 北斗の拳/全15巻 (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- 北斗の拳全15巻・全巻セット (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- 小学館: コミック (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- "北斗の拳 原哲夫 : コアミックス - 電子書籍はeBookJapan : マンガ" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- "Fist of the North Star Manga Reprint to Add New Chapter". Anime News Network. 2013-09-14. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- "Fist of the North Star Gets 2nd New Chapter in Comic Zenon". Anime News Network. 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
- 週刊コミックバンチ★コアミックス: 連載作品・作家紹介: 天の覇王 北斗の拳 ラオウ外伝 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- "ADV Nation: ADV Films to distribute Sentai Filmworks new license: Ten no Haoh (Fist of the North Star spin-off)".
- "Amazon.com: 北斗の拳ユリア外伝慈母の星 (ビッグコミックススペシャル)" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- 週刊コミックバンチ★コアミックス: 最新号情報と予告 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- 週刊コミックバンチ★コアミックス: 最新号情報と予告 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2007-06-24. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
- "Fist of the North Star Spinoff Manga Series Kinyoku no Garuda Ends in Comic Zenon". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- "Hokuto no Ken: Ichigo Aji Spinoff Gag Manga Gets TV Anime This Fall". Anime News Network. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- "北斗の拳 (official Toei site)" (in Japanese). Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "Newtype" 18 (10). Kadokawa Shoten. June 2002: 128.
- "「北斗の拳」DVD-BOX発売" (in Japanese).
- "Discotek Media picks up Fist of the North Star".
- "Toei, William Winckler Prod., Rioloco Dub 23+ Features". Anime News Network.
- "Hokuto no ken (1986)". Imdb.com. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
- "GAGA Communications, Inc./International Sales Catalogue".
- 劇場版映画"北斗の拳｢ラオウ外伝｣純愛編"を2006年春全国東宝系公開 (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-08-30.
- 小説・北斗の拳 (in Japanese).
- 北斗の拳 — 徳間書店 (in Japanese).
- "Tecmo Koei America Announces North American Release Date for Fist of the North Star: Ken's Rage". Tecmo Koei America. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
Tecmo Koei America is pleased to announce the release date for Fist of the North Star: Ken’s Rage, the new action-packed title based on the popular manga series Fist of the North Star. Currently set for release on November 2nd, 2010 for the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 platforms, players will soon unleash a whirlwind of martial arts fury torn from the pages of the seminal manga tale.
- "劇場アニメ「真救世主伝説 北斗の拳」DVD発売記念イベント" (in Japanese). AV Watch. 2006-10-19. Retrieved 2013-11-28.
- "TV Asahi Top 100 Anime". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- "Japan's Favorite TV Anime". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
- Hokuto no Ken Special: All About the Man (北斗の拳SPECIΑL ΑLL ΑBOUT THE MΑN?) (in Japanese).
- Hara, Tetsuo. Tetsu no Don Quixote (鉄のドン·キホーテ Tetsu no Don Kihōte?, "The Iron Don Quixote") (in Japanese). ISBN 4-420-13109-8.
- Buronson. Shōsetsu Hokuto no Ken: Jubaku no Machi (小説·北斗の拳―呪縛の街?, "Fist of the North Star the Novel: The Cursed City") (in Japanese). ISBN 4-08-703054-7.
- Hokuto no Ken Kyūkyoku Kaisetsusho: Sekimatsu Haō Retsuden (北斗の拳 究極解説書 世紀末覇王列伝?, "The Ultimate Handbook to Fist of the North Star: History of the Century's End Conqueror). ISBN 4-8342-1684-5.
- Hokuto no Ken 2000: Kyūkyoku Kaisetsusho Part 2 (北斗の拳2000 究極解説書 PART2?, "Fist of the North Star 2000: The Ultimate Handbook Part 2"). ISBN 4-8342-1685-3.
- Boku-tachi no Sukina Hokuto no Ken (僕たちの好きな北斗の拳?, "We Love Fist of the North Star"). ISBN 4-7966-5858-0.
- Hokuto no Ken Kanzen Tokuhon (北斗の拳 完全読本?, "The Complete Guide to Fist of the North Star"). ISBN 978-4-7966-5856-0.
- Official sites
- Shin Kyuseishu Densetsu - Hokuto no Ken official website (Japanese)
- Toei Animation's official Seikimatsu Kyūseishu Densetsu: Hokuto no Ken website (Japanese)
- Unofficial sites