FitzGerald dynasty

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Mhic Gearailt, Gearaltaigh

FitzGerald arms.svg
Arms of FitzGerald: Argent a saltire gules
Parent houseHouse of Gherardini[1]
Etymology"Son of Gerald"
Place of originIreland and Britain
Founded1075; 947 years ago (1075)
FounderGerald of Windsor
Current headMaurice FitzGerald, 9th Duke of Leinster
Connected familiesDinefwr, de Montgomery, Yale, Kennedy, DeBarry, Keating
Crom A Boo

("Crom Forever"[7])
Cadet branchesHouse of Kildare
House of Desmond
House of Leinster
Ireland in 1450, showing the Geraldine earldoms of Kildare and Desmond
Arms of the Fitzgeralds of Kildare, Viscounts of Leinster, by Charles Catton (1790)

The FitzGerald/FitzMaurice Dynasty is a noble and aristocratic dynasty of Cambro-Norman, Anglo-Norman and later Hiberno-Norman origin. They have been peers of Ireland since at least the 13th century, and are described in the Annals of the Four Masters as having become "more Irish than the Irish themselves" or Gaels, due to assimilation with the native Gaelic aristocratic and popular culture. The dynasty has also been referred to as the Geraldines and Ireland's largest landowners.[12] They achieved power through the conquest of large swathes of Irish territory by the sons and grandsons of Gerald of Windsor (c. 1075 – 1135). Gerald of Windsor (Gerald FitzWalter) was the first Castellan of Pembroke Castle in Wales, and became the male progenitor of the FitzMaurice and FitzGerald Dynasty ("fitz", from the Anglo-Norman fils indicating "sons of" Gerald). His father, Baron Walter FitzOther, was the first Constable and Governor of Windsor Castle for William the Conqueror, and was the Lord of 38 manors in England, 21 of which he owned as tenant-in-chief. "Castle Dodd" (or Dod), of the Fitzgerald family,[13] appears on a 1736 map of north County Cork.[14]

The progenitor of the Irish FitzMaurices was a Cambro-Norman Marcher Lord named Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan, who was married to a daughter of the Norman magnate Arnulf de Montgomery, of the House of Montgomery. A younger son of the Norman chieftain Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor and of his wife, Princess Nest ferch Rhys of the Welsh royal House of Dinefwr, he played an important part in the 1169 Norman invasion of Ireland. Gerald's Welsh wife Princess Nest ferch Rhys (c. 1085 – before 1136) is the female progenitor of the FitzGeralds and FitzMaurices, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last King of Deheubarth. The clan claim kinship with the Tudors who descended from the same Welsh royal line. Consequently, the FitzMaurices and FitzGeralds are cousins to the Tudors (Tewdwrs) through Princess Nest and her Welsh family.

In his poetry, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, referred to Elizabeth FitzGerald, Countess of Lincoln, (1527–89) as "Fair Geraldine".

The main branches of the family are:

The FitzGerald dynasty has played a major role in Irish history. Gearóid Mór, 8th Earl of Kildare and his son Gearóid Óg, 9th Earl of Kildare, were Lord Deputy of Ireland in the late-fifteenth and early-sixteenth centuries respectively. Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare (died 1537), known as "Silken Thomas," led an unsuccessful insurrection in Ireland, while Lord Edward FitzGerald (1763–1798), the fifth son of the first duke of Leinster, was a leading figure in the 1798 Rebellion. The present-day seat of the Irish Parliament Dáil Éireann is housed in Leinster House, which was first built in 1745–48 by James FitzGerald, 1st Duke of Leinster as the ducal palace for the Dukes of Leinster.

An example of the dynasty becoming "more Irish than the Irish themselves" is Gerald FitzGerald, 3rd Earl of Desmond (1335–1398), who was also known by the Irish Gaelic Gearóid Iarla (Earl Gerald).[15][16] Although made Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1367,[16] Gerald wrote poetry in the Irish language, most famously the poem Mairg adeir olc ris na mnáibh[15] ("Speak not ill of womenkind"). Indeed, although an accomplished poet in Norman French,[16] Gerald was instrumental in the move by the Fitzmaurices and Fitzgeralds of Desmond toward greater use of the Irish language.[15]


The surname FitzGerald is a patronymic of the Norman form, fitz meaning "son". "Fitz Gerald" thus means in Old Norman and in Old French "son of Gerald". Gerald itself is a Germanic compound of ger, "spear", and waltan, "rule". Variant spellings include Fitz-Gerald and the modern Fitzgerald. The name can also appear as two separate words Fitz Gerald.

Cambro-Norman origins[edit]

Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan, progenitor of the Irish Geraldines, from a manuscript of the Expugnatio Hibernica, an account of the 1169 invasion of Ireland written by Maurice's nephew, Gerald of Wales, in 1189.

The earliest recorded use of the patronymic FitzGerald is that of Raoul fitz Gerald le Chambellan, member of the Tancarville family. Raoul was a Norman baron, Chamberlain of Normandy, educator of the young William, future Conqueror of England, and father of William de Tancarville, Earl of Tankerville and chief chamberlain of Normandy and England after the Norman conquest. The eponymous ancestor of the various FitzGerald branches, as well as of the de Barry and FitzMaurice families, was Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor. Gerald was a Norman adventurer who took part in the 1093 invasion of South Wales upon the death in battle of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last king of South Wales.[citation needed] Gerald was the youngest son of another Norman adventurer, Walter fitz Otho, William the Conqueror's Constable for the strategic military fortress of Windsor Castle, as well as the King's Keeper of the Forests of Berkshire. Domesday Book records Walter fitz Otho as tenant-in-chief of lands formerly held by conquered Englishmen in Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Hampshire, and Middlesex. Walter's positions and most of his lands were inherited by Gerald's older brothers, Robert, Maurice, and William, the oldest, ancestor of the earls of Plymouth, while Gerald inherited the estate of Moulsford, now in Oxfordshire, near to Wallingford, where his father owned a fortified house adjacent to those of other powerful Norman authorities.

The earliest record of the Italian ancestry of the House of FitzGerald can be traced back to the Gherardini family of Florence in the year 1413. A priest named Maurice Fitzgerald was of passage in Florence at that time with a Bishop, and has been able to enter in contact with one of his fellow kinsman who then introduced him to other members of the Gherardinis.[17] As being part of the Gherardini family that dwelt in the island of Ireland, further exchanges were eventually done by the family to meet again. In a letter written in 1440 by the Chancellor of Florence, Leonardo Bruni, one of the associates of Cosimo de' Medici, stipulated that Giovanni Betti di Gherardini, a representative of the family, was sent to Ireland to become acquainted with his other kinsmen from the Geraldines of Ireland, the Earls of Kildare.[18]

Confirmed as well in 1507 by the Viceroy of Ireland, Gerald Fitzgerald, to Giovanni Manni, a Florentine merchant in passage to Ireland.[19][20] His son, the 9th Earl of Kildare, was also known as Lord Garret, which translates as Lord Gherardini in italian, and was married to Elizabeth Grey of the Royal House of Grey, a granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth Woodville. A letter written in 1566 by Girolamo Fortini, who was married to a daughter of Antonio Gherardini from Florence, to his brother in London, also stated that the Earl of Kildare was of the same family.[21]

Cristoforo Landino, tutor of Lorenzo de' Medici, stated in his preface of the Divine Comedy (Comedia) of the famous poet Dante Alighieri, that the descendants of Tommaso, Gherardo, and Maurizio Gherardini[22] were the ancestors of the Earls of Kildare and Earls of Desmonds, and went on to Conquer Ireland[23] with the King of England.[24][25] The English poet Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, user of the sonnet form that would later be used by William Shakespeare, also referred to the ancestral seat of the Geraldines in Florence in his poem Description and praise of his love.[26]

Since the 15th century, the FitzGeralds and the Gherardinis are known to be in touch and to acknowledge their kinship. Recently, a cover story published by "Sette"; in 2014, the Italian weekly magazine of Corriere della Sera, an article was dedicated to the Gherardini family of Montagliari and their relationship with the FitzGerald Family as well as with the Kennedy family. According to the magazine, the three families have maintained relationship among them even in recent times or in the past (for example with American President John Fitzgerald Kennedy).[27]

Nest ferch Rhys ap Tewdwr was the daughter of the last king of South Wales by his wife, Gwladys ferch Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn of Powys. Their grandchildren, Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan, Raymond le Gros and Philip de Barry were leaders in the Norman invasion of Ireland. Nest's son by her second marriage, Robert FitzStephen, was another participant, as was William de Hay, husband of one of Gerald's and Nest's granddaughters. Nest's grandson (through her son by Henry I of England), Meiler FitzHenry, was appointed Lord Justice of Ireland for his cousin, Henry II. The most renowned of Gerald's and Nest's grandchildren, Gerald of Wales, gave an account of the Norman invasion, as well as lively and invaluable descriptions of Ireland and Wales in the late 12th century.

Major houses[edit]

House of Kildare[edit]

Lords of Offaly[edit]

Earls of Kildare[edit]

16th-century woodcut of an attack on Dublin Castle by "Silken Thomas", 10th Earl of Kildare

Marquesses of Kildare (1761)[edit]

Dukes of Leinster, second Creation (1766)[edit]

Other titles: Marquesse of Kildare (1761), Earl of Kildare (1316), Earl of Offaly (1761), Viscount Leinster, of Taplow in the County of Buckingham (GB 1747) and Lord of Offaly (c. 1193–?)
Other titles (4th Duke onwards): Baron Kildare (UK 1870)

House of Desmond[edit]

The line of the Earls of Desmond has been extinct since the 17th century. Their branch of the dynasty continues only in their distant collateral kinsmen, Ireland's hereditary knights (for whom see section below).

Barons Desmond (1259)[edit]

Earls of Desmond, First creation (1329)[edit]

Carrigafoyle Castle, a Desmond Geraldine stronghold during the Second Desmond Rebellion, captured by the English in 1580

16th Earl of Desmond, appointed by Hugh O'Neill (1598–1601)[edit]

Earls of Desmond, Second creation (1600)[edit]

Lords of Decies[edit]

FitzMaurice of Kerry[edit]

The closely related FitzMaurice Barons and later Earls of Kerry continue in the male line with the current Petty-FitzMaurice Marquesses of Lansdowne, but they descend from John FitzGerald, 1st Baron Desmond's nephew, Thomas FitzMaurice, 1st Baron of Kerry, son of his brother Maurice FitzThomas. Thus in fact they represent a "sister" branch to the FitzGeralds of Desmond. However this technically makes them slightly closer to the FitzGeralds of Desmond than either are to the Offaly-Kildare-Leinster Geraldines, represented by the modern Dukes of Leinster, who descend from Gerald FitzMaurice, 1st Lord of Offaly, uncle of the 1st Baron Desmond.

Hereditary knights[edit]

These three hereditary knighthoods were created for their kinsmen by the Earls of Desmond,[28] acting as Earls Palatine.


Badge of USS Fitzgerald
The Flag of the United Kingdom, incorporating St. Patrick's Saltire

According to the 1890 Matheson report, Fitzgerald/FitzGerald was the 36th most common surname in Ireland.[29]

Fitzgerald/FitzGerald is the 692nd most frequent surname in the United Kingdom.[30] The surname occurs most frequently in the following ten counties, in descending order, with the number of occurrences in parentheses: "1. Greater London, (500), Greater Manchester (191), West Midlands (176), Lancashire (130), Kent (118), Essex (117), West Yorkshire (113), Merseyside (108), Hampshire (84), and Surrey (76)."[30]

"Fitzgerald" (including "FitzGerald," as the survey was not case-sensitive),[31] was the 390th most common surname in the 2000 United States Census.[31] 73,522 Fitzgeralds were counted, with 27.25 Fitzgeralds per 100,000 members of the population.[31] Respondents surnamed Fitzgerald had self-reported ethnicities of 88.03% non-Hispanic white only, 8.44% non-Hispanic black only, 0.32% non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander only, 1.28% non-Hispanic Asian only, 1.43% of two or more non-Hispanic races, and 1.43% Hispanic.[31]

The FitzGerald dynasty was the subject of a poem called "The Geraldines" by Thomas Osborne Davis, the chief organizer and poet of the nationalist Young Ireland movement. The ill-fated romance of Thomas FitzGerald, 5th Earl of Desmond with Catherine MacCormac was the subject[32] of the air "Desmond's Song"[33] by the Irish poet Thomas Moore.

Saint Patrick's Saltire, sometimes used to represent Ireland in modern flags, may have derived from the arms of the Geraldines.[34]

The Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Fitzgerald in the United States Navy is named for Lieutenant William Charles Fitzgerald, USN. The Fitzgerald family coat of arms (a white shield with a red saltire) provides the foundation for the coat of arms for USS Fitzgerald.

A variety of people, places, and businesses bear the name FitzGerald or Fitzgerald, including the FitzGerald crater on the far side of the Moon, named for physicist George FitzGerald.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ponsonby and Murphy (1879). The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. Fourth series. Vol. IV. The Association of Ireland. p. 257. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  2. ^ "Milo Fitzgerald, Baron of Enisnag".
  3. ^ "The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Volume 22 De Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland". 1892.
  4. ^ "The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Volume 22 De Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland". 1892.
  5. ^ John O'Hart (1892). "irish Pedigrees; or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation, volume 1, 5th edition". Library Ireland.
  6. ^ Dr Bertie George Charles, (1908 - 2000). "FITZGERALD, MAURICE (died 1176), one of the conquerors of Ireland". Dictionary of Welsh Biography.
  7. ^ A Hand-book of Mottoes Borne by the Nobility, Gentry, Cities, Public Companies, &c. Bell and Daldy. 1860. p. 35. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  8. ^ Fitzgerald, Walter 'The history of Morett Castle and the Fitzgeralds', Journal of the Kildare Archaeological Society IV 1903-5 285-96National Library of Ireland}}
  9. ^ McCarthy, John K. "Castles in Space: An Exploration of the Space In and Around the Tower Houses of South-East Kilkenny by John K McCarthy".
  10. ^ McCarthy, John K. "Castles in Space: An Exploration of the Space In and Around the Tower Houses of South-East Kilkenny by John K McCarthy".
  11. ^ "Ireland's Own – E-zine issue 5799, Galway through the ages".
  12. ^ Pakenham, Thomas (24 September 2015). The Year Of Liberty: The Great Irish Rebellion of 1789 by Thomas Pakenham. ISBN 9780349141954.
  13. ^ Colonel James Grove White (1911). Historical and Topographical Notes etc. on Buttevant, Castletownroche, Doneraile, Mallow and places in their vicinity (PDF). Vol. II. Cork: Guy and Company. p. 82.
  14. ^ {{cite web|url=
  15. ^ a b c Gearóid Iarla FitzGerald (1335–1398) Archived 11 October 2008 at (Error: unknown archive URL)
  16. ^ a b c Webb, Alfred. A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: 1878.
  17. ^ Ponsonby and Murphy (1879). The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. Fourth series. Vol. IV. The Association of Ireland. p. 247. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  18. ^ Sir John Thomas Gilbert (1865). History of the Viceroys of Ireland: With Notices of the Castle of Dublin and Its Chief Occupants in Former Times. James Duffy. pp. 334–336. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  19. ^ Ponsonby and Murphy (1879). The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. Fourth series. Vol. IV. The Association of Ireland. pp. 247–248. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  20. ^ Sir John Thomas Gilbert (1865). History of the Viceroys of Ireland: With Notices of the Castle of Dublin and Its Chief Occupants in Former Times. James Duffy. pp. 473–474. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  21. ^ Ponsonby and Murphy (1879). The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. Fourth series. Vol. IV. The Association of Ireland. p. 249. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  22. ^ Fitzgibbon, A. "Appendix to the Unpublished Geraldine Documents: The Gherardini of Tuscany", The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, Fourth Series, Vol. 4, No. 29, 1877
  23. ^ According to a study carried out by Enrico Faini of the University of Florence, there were about ten old aristocratic families who moved to Florence from 1000 and 1100: Amidei; Ardinghi; Brunelleschi; Buondelmonti; Caponsacchi; Donati; Fifanti; Gherardini of Montagliari; Guidi; Nerli; Porcelli; Scolari; Uberti; Visdomini. See: Jean-Claude Maire Vigueur and Andrea Zorzi (“Il gruppo dirigente fiorentino nell'età consolare” n "Archivio Storico", CLXII (2004), p. 210.
  24. ^ Ponsonby and Murphy (1879). The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. Fourth series. Vol. IV. The Association of Ireland. pp. 247–263. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  25. ^ "The earls of Kildare and their ancestors" by the Marquise of Kildare. Hodges, Smith & Co., Dublin 1858; "La leggenda dei tre Valdesani conquistatori dell'Irlanda", V. Uzielli, Firenze 1906. To see also: “I Gherardini ed il Castello di Montagliari” C. Corazzini, Firenze, 1898 and for a summary of the documentation available in the archives, see “Unpublished Gherardini documents” by Samuel Hayman
  26. ^ Sir John Thomas Gilbert (1865). History of the Viceroys of Ireland: With Notices of the Castle of Dublin and Its Chief Occupants in Former Times. James Duffy. p. 612. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  27. ^ Sette, Corriere della Sera, 28 March 2014, n.13. Cover: "Kennedy, l'Italiano". Title of the article at page 28: "Dall'America a Firenze passando per l'Irlanda. Così andando a ritroso fino ai "figli di Gerald" abbiamo ritrovato Kennedy "l'italiano".
  28. ^ John O'Donovan, "The Descendants of the Last Earls of Desmond", Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Volume 6. 1858.
  29. ^ "100 Irish surnames explained,Irish Genealogy,Irish coats of arms,How to start the search for your Irish roots,family crests,genealogy,Irish roots,heritage,Ireland,ancestry,decendants".
  30. ^ a b "Free Family Tree, Genealogy, Family History, and DNA Testing". MyHeritage. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013.[dead link]
  31. ^ a b c d "Genealogy Data: Frequently Occurring Surnames from Census 2000 - U.S. Census Bureau". 21 December 2009. Archived from the original on 21 December 2009.
  32. ^ Webb, Alfred. A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: 1878.
  33. ^ Moore, Thomas, The poetical works of Thomas Moore, including melodies, ballads, etc.. Philadelphia: 1835. p. 349
  34. ^ Hayes-McCoy, Gerard Anthony (1979). Pádraig Ó Snodaigh (ed.). A history of Irish flags from earliest times. Dublin: Academy Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-906187-01-X.

External links[edit]