Fitzpatrick scale

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The Fitzpatrick scale and the risk of skin cancer[1]

The Fitzpatrick scale (also Fitzpatrick skin typing test; or Fitzpatrick phototyping scale) is a numerical classification schema for human skin color. It was developed in 1975 by Thomas B. Fitzpatrick as a way to estimate the response of different types of skin to ultraviolet (UV) light.[2] It was initially developed on the basis of skin and eye color, but when this proved misleading[clarification needed], it was altered to be based on the patient's reports of how their skin responds to the sun; it was also extended to a wider range of skin types.[3][4][5] The Fitzpatrick scale remains a recognized tool for dermatological research into human skin pigmentation.

The following list shows the six categories of the Fitzpatrick scale in relation to the 36 categories of the older von Luschan scale:[6][7]

  • Type I (scores 0–6) always burns, never tans (palest; freckles).
  • Type II (scores 7–13) usually burns, tans minimally
  • Type III (scores 14–20) sometimes mild burn, tans uniformly
  • Type IV (scores 21–27) burns minimally, always tans well (moderate brown)
  • Type V (scores 28–34) very rarely burns, tans very easily (dark brown)
  • Type VI (scores 35–36) Never burns (deeply pigmented dark brown to darkest brown)

Emoji modifiers[edit]

The Fitzpatrick scale is also the basis of skin color in emoji, with 5 modifiers according to the Fitzpatrick scale, with types I and II merged. The following table shows both the Unicode characters and the open-source "Twemoji", designed by Twitter:

Sample use of Fitzpatrick modifiers
Code point Default FITZ-1-2 FITZ-3 FITZ-4 FITZ-5 FITZ-6
U+1F9D2: Child Twemoji2 1f9d2.svg Twemoji2 1f9d2-1f3fb.svg Twemoji2 1f9d2-1f3fc.svg Twemoji2 1f9d2-1f3fd.svg Twemoji2 1f9d2-1f3fe.svg Twemoji2 1f9d2-1f3ff.svg
🧒 🧒🏻 🧒🏼 🧒🏽 🧒🏾 🧒🏿
U+1F466: Boy Twemoji2 1f466.svg Twemoji2 1f466-1f3fb.svg Twemoji2 1f466-1f3fc.svg Twemoji2 1f466-1f3fd.svg Twemoji2 1f466-1f3fe.svg Twemoji2 1f466-1f3ff.svg
👦 👦🏻 👦🏼 👦🏽 👦🏾 👦🏿
U+1F467: Girl Twemoji2 1f467.svg Twemoji2 1f467-1f3fb.svg Twemoji2 1f467-1f3fc.svg Twemoji2 1f467-1f3fd.svg Twemoji2 1f467-1f3fe.svg Twemoji2 1f467-1f3ff.svg
👧 👧🏻 👧🏼 👧🏽 👧🏾 👧🏿
U+1F9D1: Adult Twemoji2 1f9d1.svg Twemoji2 1f9d1-1f3fb.svg Twemoji2 1f9d1-1f3fc.svg Twemoji2 1f9d1-1f3fd.svg Twemoji2 1f9d1-1f3fe.svg Twemoji2 1f9d1-1f3ff.svg
🧑 🧑🏻 🧑🏼 🧑🏽 🧑🏾 🧑🏿
U+1F468: Man Twemoji2 1f468.svg Twemoji2 1f468-1f3fb.svg Twemoji2 1f468-1f3fc.svg Twemoji2 1f468-1f3fd.svg Twemoji2 1f468-1f3fe.svg Twemoji2 1f468-1f3ff.svg
👨 👨🏻 👨🏼 👨🏽 👨🏾 👨🏿
U+1F469: Woman Twemoji2 1f469.svg Twemoji2 1f469-1f3fb.svg Twemoji2 1f469-1f3fc.svg Twemoji2 1f469-1f3fd.svg Twemoji2 1f469-1f3fe.svg Twemoji2 1f469-1f3ff.svg
👩 👩🏻 👩🏼 👩🏽 👩🏾 👩🏿

See also[edit]


  1. ^ D'Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy (7 June 2013). "UV Radiation and the Skin". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 14 (6): 12222–12248. doi:10.3390/ijms140612222. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  2. ^ Fitzpatrick, T. B. (1975). "Soleil et peau" [Sun and skin]. Journal de Médecine Esthétique (in French) (2): 33–34
  3. ^ Fitzpatrick, T.B. (1988), "The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types i through vi", Archives of Dermatology, 124 (6): 869–871, doi:10.1001/archderm.1988.01670060015008
  4. ^ Pathak, M. A.; Jimbow, K.; Szabo, G.; Fitzpatrick, T. B. (1976). "Sunlight and melanin pigmentation". In Smith, K. C. (ed.): Photochemical and photobiological reviews, Plenum Press, New York, 1976: 211-239
  5. ^ Fitzpatrick, T. B. (1986). "Ultraviolet-induced pigmentary changes: Benefits and hazards", Therapeutic Photomedicine, Karger, vol. 15 of "Current Problems in Dermatology", 1986: 25-38
  6. ^ "The Fitzpatrick Skin Type Classification Scale". Skin Inc. (November 2007). Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  7. ^ "Fitzpatrick Skin Type" (PDF). Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency. Retrieved 30 November 2017.