Wisdom King

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The Wisdom king Gundari.

In Vajrayana Buddhism, a Wisdom King (Sanskrit Vidyārāja, Chinese: 明王; pinyin: Míngwáng; Japanese pronunciation: Myōō) is the third type of deity after buddhas and Bodhisattvas. The Sanskrit name literally translates as "knowledge king", thus the Chinese character "明", meaning knowledgeable (and/or bright) is used, leading to wide array of alternative English names including "Radiant King", among others like "Guardian King". In Tibetan Buddhism, they are known as Herukas.

The female counterparts of Wisdom Kings are known as Wisdom Queens (Chinese: 明妃; pinyin: Míngfēi; Japanese pronunciation: Myōhi), although the distinction is often ignored.


On a general level, the Wisdom Kings are viewed as the guardians of Buddhism, and wrathful manifestations of Buddhas. In particular, the Five Wisdom Kings are the protectors of the Five Wisdom Buddhas.[1]

According to the esoteric doctrine of the Three Wheels, whereas Buddhas represent pure concepts and bodhisattvas teach through compassion, Wisdom Kings are the embodiment of the wheel of injunction and teach through fear, shocking nonbelievers into faith.[1]


As mentioned above, Wisdom Kings are usually represented as wrathful deities, often with blue skin, multiple arms, sometimes with many faces, and even many legs. They hold weapons in their hands and are sometimes adorned with skulls, snakes or animal skins and wreathed in flames.

A notable exception is Mahamayuri (Ch: Kǒngquè míngfēi 孔雀明妃 or Kǒngquè fómǔ 孔雀佛母; Jp: Kujaku myo-ō 孔雀明王), the "Peacock Wisdom Queen", who is usually presented with a peaceful expression. She is easily identifiable as she usually rides a peacock.

List of Wisdom Kings[edit]

The Five Wisdom Kings[edit]

In the Shingon tradition of Esoteric Buddhism, the Five Great Wisdom Kings (五大明王; Godai Myo-o,[2] Wǔ Dà Míngwáng), also known as the Five Guardian Kings are a group of Wisdom Kings who represent the luminescent wisdom of the Buddha and protect the Five Wisdom Buddhas. The Five Kings are usually defined as follows.

The Five Wisdom Kings is the most important grouping of Wisdom Kings (Vidyaraja) in Esoteric Buddhism. They are wrathful manifestations of The Five Wisdom Buddhas.

The Five Wisdom Kings inhabit the Womb Realm. They are organised according to the directions of the compass.






(principal deity/ meditator)







See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Baroni, Helen Josephine (2002). The illustrated encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism. New York: Rosen Pub. Group. p. 100. ISBN 0-8239-2240-5. 
  2. ^ Brown, Steven T. (2001), Theatricalities of power: the cultural politics of Noh, Stanford University Press, p. 85, ISBN 0-8047-4070-4 

Further reading[edit]

  • Mark and Luebeck,Walter Hosak (2006). Big Book of Reiki Symbols, The. Tokyo: Lotus Press. ISBN 0-914955-64-0.