Natural fixatives are resinoids (benzoin, labdanum, myrrh, olibanum, storax, tolu balsam) and animal products (ambergris, castoreum, musk, and civet). Synthetic fixatives include substances of low volatility (diphenylmethane, cyclopentadecanolide, ambroxide, benzyl salicylate) and virtually odorless solvents with very low vapor pressures (benzyl benzoate, diethyl phthalate, triethyl citrate).
- Wolfgang Sturm; Klaus Peters (2007), "Perfumes", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 2–3
- New Perfume Fixatives - Chemical & Engineering News Archive / Chem. Eng. News, 1941, 19 (20), p 1134 "perfume fixatives, ...the four traditionally used by perfumers—musk, civet, ambergris, and castoreum."
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