Fixative (perfumery)

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A fixative is used to equalize the vapor pressures, and thus the volatilities, of the raw materials in a perfume oil, as well as to increase the tenacity.[1]

Natural fixatives are resinoids (benzoin, labdanum, myrrh, olibanum, storax, tolu balsam) and animal products (ambergris, castoreum, musk, and civet[2]). Synthetic fixatives include substances of low volatility (diphenylmethane, cyclopentadecanolide, ambroxide, benzyl salicylate) and virtually odorless solvents with very low vapor pressures (benzyl benzoate, diethyl phthalate, triethyl citrate).[1]


  1. ^ a b Wolfgang Sturm; Klaus Peters (2007), "Perfumes", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 2–3
  2. ^ New Perfume Fixatives - Chemical & Engineering News Archive / Chem. Eng. News, 1941, 19 (20), p 1134 "perfume fixatives, ...the four traditionally used by perfumers—musk, civet, ambergris, and castoreum."