Flag of Ceuta
The gironny is identical to that of the flag of Lisbon, to commemorate the conquest of the city by the Portuguese in 1415. The city was a part of the Portuguese Empire until 1640, after which it decided to remain with Spain. Thus the coat of arms of the city is almost the same as that of the Kingdom of Portugal, showing the seven castles and the five escutcheons with silver roundels.
- CBS News (1973). The New York Times Encyclopedic Almanac. New York Times, Book & Educational Division. p. 750. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- John Drinkwater (1786). A History of the Late Siege of Gibraltar: With a Description and Account of that Garrison, from the Earliest Periods. T. Spilsbury. pp. 95–. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Edward McMurdo (1889). The History of Portugal: The history of Portugal from the reign of D. João II to the reign of D. João V. p. 25. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
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