Flag of Nepal

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Flag of Nepal.svg
NameNepali Flag, Triangle Flag, Chandra ra Surya, Jungi Nishan
UseCivil and state flag, national ensign
Proportionsee below
Adopted16 December 1962
DesignA combination of two red pennons (pennants) with the large blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles: the smaller upper triangle bears the white stylised moon (the rising sun on the horizontal crescent moon) and the larger lower triangle displays the white twelve-pointed sun.

The national flag of Nepal (Nepali: नेपालको झण्डा) is the world's only non-quadrilateral flag that acts as both the state flag and civil flag of a sovereign nation.[1] The flag is a simplified combination of two single pennons (or pennants), known as a double-pennon. Its crimson red is the symbol of bravery and it also represents the color of the rhododendron, Nepal's national flower, while the blue border is the color of peace. Until 1962, the flag's emblems, the sun and the crescent moon, had human faces, but they were removed to modernize the flag.

The current flag was adopted on 16 December 1962, along with the formation of a new constitutional government.[2] It borrows from the original, traditional design,[3] used throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, and is a combination of the two individual pennons used by rival branches of the ruling dynasty.[1]


After Prithvi Narayan Shah unified all small principalities of Nepal, the double-pennon flag was adopted. In modern times, the flag's symbolism has evolved to incorporate several meanings. The crimson red indicates the bravery of Nepali people and is the country's national color and the blue border represents peace and harmony. The colors are often found in Nepalese decoration and works of art.[2]. A theory is that the two points represented peace and hard work, using the symbols of the moon and sun respectively. However, the modern and government-sanctioned representation is of Hinduism and Buddhism, the main religions of the country.[4][5]

The inclusion of the celestial bodies indicates Nepal's permanence and the hope that Nepal will enjoy the same longevity as the Sun and the Moon. Additionally, the stylized moon represents the calm demeanor and purity of spirit of the Nepali people, while the stylized sun represents their fierce resolve[citation needed]. Further, the moon also symbolizes the cool weather of the Himalayas, whereas the sun symbolizes the heat and the high temperature of the Nepali lowlands (Terai).[4]

During ancient times, all the flags were triangular in the Indian Subcontinent. Nepal has simply maintained its ancient tradition, while every other states have adopted a rectangular or square western version. Triangular flags were used relatively recently in the state of Nagpur, Kurundwad State, etc.[6]

[7] Metal form of an earlier version of the national flag

Flag layout[edit]

A precise geometrical description of the Nepalese national flag is specified in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, Article 5, Schedule 1, adopted 9 November 1990.[8]

Aspect ratio[edit]

When constructed according to the stated geometric construction law, the ratio of the height of the flag to the longest width is an irrational number:

≈ 1:1.21901033… (OEISA230582).[9] This ratio is the least root of the quartic polynomial[10]

and arises from the addition of the blue border after construction of the red field. The bounding rectangle of the red field alone has the rational aspect ratio 3:4 (=1:1.333…).[8]

Other flags[edit]

Incorrect versions[edit]

A flag used for Nepal at some 2016 Summer Olympics venues. The usual flag design is placed on rectangular cloth the same shape as other flags at the Olympics, with the rest of the flag left white.

Because it is a flag of unique proportions and specificities, its large-scale production becomes difficult and usually overlaid on a white area to make the flag a 3:2 ratio; an example is the Nepalese flag used at some venues of the 2016 Summer Olympics.[11] The flag of Ohio, another non-quadrilateral civil flag, has also been turned into a rectangle by mistake.[12]

During a 2018 visit of the Prime Minister of India to Janakpur, a version of the flag with incorrect shape and geometrical proportions was flown by officials, causing outrage on social media and with national personnel.[13][14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Flag of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (CRW Flags)". Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  2. ^ a b "Flag of Nepal". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  3. ^ Article I, Section 5 of the Constitution of Nepal (2018)
  4. ^ a b "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-07-01. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  5. ^ "What's with the funny shape of Nepal's flag?". Public Radio International. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  6. ^ "Nepal Flag : Interesting Fact about the Flag of Nepal". www.ourtechroom.com. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
  7. ^ "Nepal Flag : Interesting Fact about the Flag of Nepal". www.ourtechroom.com. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
  8. ^ a b "Nepal - Constitution - Schedules: Schedule 1 (Relating to Article 5)". International Constitutional Law, University of Bern. 1990-11-09.
  9. ^ "Calculation of the aspect ratio of the national flag of Nepal (Berechnung des Seitenverhältnisses der Nationalfahne von Nepal)". 2012-06-08. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  10. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A230582 (Decimal expansion of the ratio of height to width of the bounding rectangle of the national flag of Nepal, as defined in Schedule 1 of Article 5 of its Constitution.)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  11. ^ "Closing Ceremony, 2016, Olympic Ceremonies - BBC Sport". BBC. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  12. ^ Purcell, John M. (July 23, 2001). The Centennial of Ohio's Flag: From Obscurity to Esteem (PDF). International Congress of Vexillology. York: International Federation of Vexillological Associations. pp. 181–184.
  13. ^ "Ministry seeks explanation on disfigured national flag". Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  14. ^ "Province 2 sets up wrong flag of Nepal during Indian PM Modi's visit - News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition". News, sport and opinion from the Kathmandu Tribune's global edition. 2018-05-12. Retrieved 2018-07-24.

External links[edit]