Flag of Perak
The stripes on the flag symbolises the three branches of the Perak royal family. The white stripe represents the Sultan, yellow represents the Raja Muda (the crown prince) and black represents the Raja Di Hilir, which is the next in line after the crown prince. Probably by coincidence, the flag resembles an inverted version of the Russian imperial colours that was in official use from 1858 to 1917.
The colours of the flag plus red forms the basis of the colour used in the Federated Malay States (Negeri Negeri Melayu Bersekutu) flag.
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