Flag of Romania
|Use||National flag and ensign|
14 June 1848
1 July 1866
27 December 1989
|Design||A vertical tricolor of blue, yellow, and red|
The national flag of Romania (Romanian: drapelul României) is a tricolour. The Constitution of Romania states that "The flag of Romania is tricolour; the colours are arranged vertically in the following order from the flagpole: blue, yellow, red". The flag has a width-length ratio of 2:3; the proportions, shades of colour as well as the flag protocol were established by law in 1994, and extended in 2001.
The civil flag of Andorra and the state flag of Chad are very similar to the Romanian national flag. The similarity with Chad's flag, which is identical apart from allowing a broader range of shades of blue, yellow and red, has caused international discussion. In 2004, Chad asked the United Nations to examine the issue. However, then-president of Romania Ion Iliescu announced that there would be no changes to the flag. The flag of Moldova is similar to the Romanian tricolour, except that it has a 1:2 ratio, a lighter shade of blue, a slightly different shade of yellow, and the Moldovan coat of arms in the middle. The civil ensign of Belgium, while featuring vertical yellow and red columns similar to those of Romania's flag, uses black rather than blue as its first color.
Law no. 75/1994, passed in September 1995, specifies that the stripes of the national flag are cobalt blue, chrome yellow and vermilion red, but does not go into further detail. The publication Album des pavillons nationaux et des marques distinctives (2000) suggests the following equivalents in the Pantone scale:
History and significance of the colours
During the 1970s and 1980s, with protochronism receiving official endorsement, it was claimed that red, yellow and blue were found on late 16th-century royal grants of Michael the Brave, as well as shields and banners. Contemporary descriptions and later reconstructions indicate the flag of Wallachia during Michael's reign was made of damask, originally yellow-white but later faded to white. It featured a black eagle on a green juniper branch, with a cross in its beak. During the Wallachian uprising of 1821, the colors were present, among many others, on the canvas of the revolutionaries' flag (a religious image) and in its fringes; much later historiography attributed to them the following meanings: "Liberty (sky-blue), Justice (field yellow), Fraternity (blood red)".
The tricolor was first adopted in Wallachia in 1834, when the reforming domnitor Alexandru II Ghica submitted naval and military colours designs for the approval of Sultan Mahmud II. The latter was a "flag with a red, blue and yellow face, also having stars and a bird's head in the middle". Soon, the order of colors was changed, with yellow appearing in the center.
In 1848, the flag adopted for Wallachia by the revolutionaries was a blue-yellow-red tricolor (with blue above, in line with the meaning "Liberty, Justice, Fraternity"). Already on 26 April, according to Gazeta de Transilvania, Romanian students in Paris were hailing the new government with a blue, gold and red national flag, "as a symbol of union between Moldavians and Muntenians". Decree no. 1 of 14/26 June 1848 of the provisional government mentioned that "the National Flag will bear three colours: blue, yellow, red", emblazoned with the words "DPEПTATE ФPЪЦIE" (Dreptate, Frăție or "Justice, Fraternity"). It differed from earlier tricolors in that the blue stripe was on top, the princely monogram was eliminated from the corners, as was the crown atop the eagle at the end of the flagpole, while a motto was now present.
Nevertheless, decree no. 252 of 13/25 July 1848, issued because "it has not been understood [yet] how the national flags should be designed", defined the flag as three vertical stripes, possibly influenced by the French model. The shades were "dark blue, light yellow and carmine red"; as for order, "near the wood comes blue, then yellow and then red fluttering".
Petre Vasiliu-Năsturel observes that from a heraldic point of view, on the French as well as the revolutionary Wallachian flag, the middle stripe represents a heraldic metal (argent and or respectively), thus, the two flags could be related. Other historians believe that the tricolour was not an imitation of the French flag, instead embodying an old Romanian tradition. This theory is supported by a note from the revolutionary minister of foreign affairs to Emin Pasha: "the colors of the band that we, the leaders, wear, as well as all our followers, are not of modern origin. We have had our flags since an earlier time. When we received the tricolor insignia and bands we did not follow the spirit of imitation or fashion". The same minister assured the extraordinary envoy of the Porte, Suleiman Pasha, that the flag's three colours had existed "for a long time; our ancestors bore them on their standard and their flags. So they are not a borrowing or an imitation from the present or a threat for the future".
After the revolution was quelled, the old flags were restored and the revolutionaries punished for having worn the tricolor.
From 1859 until 1866, the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia had a red-yellow-blue Romanian tricolor, with horizontal stripes, as national flag. The flag was described in Almanahul român din 1866 as: "a tricolor flag, divided in three stripes, red, yellow and blue and laid out horizontally: red above, blue below and yellow in the middle". Although the Ottoman Empire did not allow the United Principalities to have their own symbols, the new flag gained a degree of international recognition. Relating prince Cuza's May–June 1864 journey to Constantinople, doctor Carol Davila observed: "The Romanian flag was raised on the great mast, the Sultan's kayaks awaited us, the guard was armed, the Grand Vizier at the door... The Prince, quiet, dignified, concise in his speech, spent 20 minutes with the Sultan, who then came to review us… Once again, the Grand Vizier led the Prince to the main gate and we returned to the Europe Palace, the Romanian flag still fluttering on the mast...".
Article 124 of the 1866 Constitution of Romania provided that "the colors of the United Principalities will be Blue, Yellow and Red". The order and placement of the colors were decided by the Assembly of Deputies in its session of 26 March 1867. Thus, following a proposal by Nicolae Golescu, they were placed just as in 1848: vertically and in the following order: blue hoist, yellow in the middle and red fly. The country's coat of arms was placed only on army and princely flags, in the center; civilian flags remained without a coat of arms. The same distinction was made between flags of the Navy and those of the civil and merchant ships.
The rapporteur Mihail Kogălniceanu, who also conveyed the opinion of Cezar Bolliac, Dimitrie Brătianu, Constantin Grigorescu, Ion Leca, Nicolae Golescu and Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino, said: "The tricolor flag as it is today is not (as the minister claims) the flag of the United Principalities. It is much more: it is itself the flag of the Romanian nation in all lands inhabited by Romanians".
The "Law for modifying the country's arms" of 11/23 March 1872 did not change these provisions, only the design of the coat of arms. This design of the national flag lasted until 1948.
On 30 December 1947, Romania was proclaimed a socialist people's republic and all the ex-kingdom's symbols were outlawed, including the coat of arms and the tricolor flags that showed it. During the communist era in Romania, the state flag had the emblem of the country in the middle of the yellow stripe, and for the first time the 2:3 proportion was regulated by law. By 1989, the coat of arms had been changed four times.
Starting on 17 December 1989, during the revolution at Timișoara, the protesters began waving flags with the Communist coat of arms cut out of the middle. The coat of arms was perceived as a symbol of Nicolae Ceaușescu's dictatorship. These flags were called "the flag with the hole" (drapelul cu gaură). Even today, these flags are occasionally waved in the wake of certain street protests, especially regarding government misconduct.
Decree-Law no. 2 of 27 December 1989 regarding the membership, organization and functioning of the Council of the National Salvation Front and of the territorial councils of the National Salvation Front. provided at article 1, among other matters, that "the national flag is the traditional tricolor of Romania, with the colors laid out vertically, in the following order, starting from the flagpole: blue, yellow, red".
In May 2013, a Romanian flag that was the largest in the world was unfurled at Clinceni. The flag, weighing some 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and with a size of 349.425 m × 226.917 m (1,146.41 ft × 744.48 ft), had an official surface area of 79,290.39 m2 (853,474.7 sq ft). This area surpassed the previous world record of 65,975 m2 (710,150 sq ft), held by a flag of Lebanon.
Gallery of historical flags
Flag of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia (1859–1862)
Flag of the Romanian United Principalities (1862–1866)
This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience.(March 2023)
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|Symbols of Romania|
Law no. 75/1994 establishes the protocol for the flag of Romania. Its provisions are extended by the Governmental Decision no. 1157/2001 which approves the Regulations regarding the display of the Romanian flag, the singing of the national anthem and the use of insignia containing the Romanian coat of arms. Protocol for military flags and standards is fixed by internal regulation. The law contains the following provisions:
The flag of Romania is always to be hoisted on the buildings and in the headquarters of public authorities and institutions, at the headquarters of political parties, unions, of educational and cultural institutions, on border crossings and in international airports. As ensign, it is permanently hoisted on ships of any kind and other vessels that navigate under the Romanian flag. According to customary protocol, the flag of Romania is hoisted at the headquarters of diplomatic missions and consular offices of Romania, as well as at the residences of the chiefs of diplomatic missions and consular offices. Likewise, the flag of Romania is used as a standard on vehicles transporting chiefs of Romanian diplomatic missions and consular offices, in their official travels, according to the same customs.
Temporarily, on the national day of Romania and other national holidays, the flag of Romania may be hoisted in public places decided upon by the local authorities; and for official festivals and ceremonies with a local, national and international character, in the locations where these take place. Likewise, it must be raised for official visits undertaken in Romania by heads of state and of government, as well as by high political personalities representing the principal international intergovernmental bodies, at airports, rail stations, ports and on their various routes. The flag is also hoisted at sporting competitions, at stadiums and other sporting grounds, and during election campaigns, at the headquarters of electoral commissions and polling stations. During military ceremonies, the flag is hoisted according to military regulations.
The flag of Romania may be raised without restrictions by individuals at their domicile or residence, or by legal entities at their headquarters.
The Government is the only official body that fixes days of national mourning, on which the flag of Romania is lowered at half-staff.
The flags of other states may be hoisted on Romanian territory only together with the national flag and only on the occasion of visits with an official state character, international festivities and meetings, on official buildings and in public places specified in Law no. 75/1994. In such cases, the flag of Romania is hoisted in the place of honor, that is in the center, if the number of flags is odd, or to the right of the flag with which it occupies the center if the number of flags is even. In such cases, all flags must have the same dimensions (but not proportions, which are fixed by each respective country).
The flag of Europe is raised next to the flag of Romania, to the left of the latter.
The raising of the flag of Romania at events that take place under the aegis of international organizations is done according to international regulations and customs.
The military colors are removed from its display case for the solemn occasion of its presentation, at the ceremony for taking the military oath, at parades of troops and reviews on the front, at the giving or taking of command by the respective unit, at the granting of military honors during military funerals, or on other occasions if required.
When in formation and standing, the color bearer keeps the military colors near his foot, holding his right hand down on the rod and his left hand on the rod, at his chest level. The rod's low end must be in front of his right foot. When saluting from this position, the military colors are bowed at horizontal for the Romanian president and other heads of state and at 45 degrees for the other civil and military staff. When marching, the color bearer holds the military colors vertically. If the unit is walking more than 100 m, the rod is introduced inside the scarf's muff. When traveling by vehicle, the color bearer with the military color stands inside the unit commander's car. During the march, the color bearer salutes by bowing the military colors at 45 degrees, regardless the person. When two military units cross each other (either one or both of them are marching in formation) the military colors are bowed for salute at 45 degrees. In case of raining, snowing or strong winds, the military colors are protected by a transparent plastic cover.
The ensign of a Navy vessel must be raised daily on the stern flagpole at 8 a.m., and on holidays at 9 a.m. If the vessel is in motion, the ensign remains raised permanently where the boom meets the mast. Usually, the hoisting of a vessel's ensign takes place in the presence of the entire crew, which is not the case at the lowering, daily at sunset.
According to Governmental Decision no. 1157/2001, which details the rules of hoisting the flag of Romania, citizens must show respect to the Romanian flag and never offend it.
The hoisting of a Romanian flag of another shape, dimension, model or color than those regulated by law, or having an improper condition, is a violation and is punishable with a fine of between 500 and 1500 lei (US$120–362)
Not raising the national flag by public authorities and institutions, or in the mandatory situations stated by the law, the improper hoisting of the flag and the hoisting of the flag of another country outside the situations regulated by law, or with improper dimensions, is a violation and is punishable with a fine of between 2500 and 5000 lei. (US$604–1,208)
The violations are ascertained and sanctioned by mandataries of the minister of public administration, by the prefect or his mandataries, and are applied to the director of the public authority or institution, to the mayor, to the president of the county's council, or to the private individual or juridical person that committed the violations.
Until 2011, article 236 of the Penal Code of Romania stated that any display of contempt against the symbols of Romania was punishable by detention between 6 months and 3 years in prison. Article 344 of the same Penal Code provided that, in times of war, lowering the vessel's ensign during a battle in order to serve the enemy's cause is punishable by life in prison or detention between 15 and 25 years in prison and civil penalties. A new penal code adopted that year eliminates the provisions of article 236 and reduces the punishment provided by article 344 (renamed article 420) to between 10 and 20 years' imprisonment coupled with civil penalties.
Law no. 96 of 20 May 1998 proclaimed 26 June as the Day of the National Flag of Romania. It was on this day in 1848 that Decree no. 1 of the Wallachian Provisional Government was issued, making the red-yellow-blue tricolor the national flag.
On Flag Day, public authorities and other state institutions are obliged by law to organize cultural/educational programs and events, with a patriotic or scientific character, devoted to Romanian history, as well as specific military ceremonies, organized within units of the Ministry of National Defense and the Ministry of the Internal Affairs.
Other official flags of Romania
The publication Album des pavillons nationaux et des marques distinctives (2000) indicates that the flag of the president of Romania is a square tricolor with a white edge and a blue border. It is decorated on all sides with fringes of golden thread and, in the corners, tassels of the same material. The flag of the prime minister is similar to the one of the president, except that its border is yellow and it lacks fringes and tassels. The flag of the minister of national defense is almost identical to its interwar predecessor, being a square tricolor with the letter M written in white in the middle of the blue stripe. The Pilot ensign represents the national flag with a thick white border.
Military colours and ensigns
According to the Romanian General Staff, "The military colours are the symbol of military honour, bravery and glory. They evoke the past struggle of the Romanian people for national liberty and the traditions of unity, reminding each soldier of his sacred duty to serve the Fatherland with trust, and to defend at all costs the unity, sovereignty and independence of Romania".
The military colours are granted to military units by presidential decree, on the advice of the minister of national defence, the minister of internal affairs or the director of the Romanian Intelligence Service. According to the Ministry of National Defence, the complete description of this military insignia is as follows:
The military colours of Romania are made of double silk cloth and have dimensions of 100 × 66 cm (2:3 ratio). The canvas has the colours of the Romanian flag and its obverse is identical with the reverse. The national coat of arms, measuring 29 × 21.5 cm, is applied in the middle of the yellow stripe, 18 cm above its base. In each corner, 5 cm from the edge of the canvas, is sewed a wreath of oak leaves, which surrounds the weapon signs, all of golden thread:
- two crossed lands for land forces
- a helicopter blade juxtaposed over a pair of paper in downward flight, a radar and a crossed rocket and telescope for aerial forces
- an anchor for naval forces.
- the letter J in a rhombus over two crossed swords for gendarmerie units
- the emblem of the Romanian Intelligence Service for its units
The three sides of the flag not attached to the pole are decorated with fringes of golden thread (5–7 cm long) and tassels of the same material (10–12 cm long) hang from the corners of the fly. The flag is attached to the pole by an antioxidant metal rod 70 cm long.
The pole, of brown wood, is 240 cm high and 3.5 cm in diameter. A brass cylinder is at the base, 4 cm long and closed on the bottom. The rod is attached to the pole by a brass ring, gilt on its lower part, and a 6 cm high cylindrical protective tube of the same material and gilt on its upper part. The ring (3.2 cm high) is inscribed with the name of the unit. Another brass cylinder is placed on the tip of the pole, 6 cm long and of brass. The eagle, of gilt copper, sheet, 15 cm high and 11.5 cm wide, is placed over this. Looking rightward, the eagle's wings are pointed downward and it holds the thunderbolts of Jupiter in its talons. It is placed on a parallelepipedic support of the same metal (10 × 3.5 × 2 cm), which has a 3.4 cm high ornament on its lower part. The support is screwed onto the brass cylinder and has inscribed into the front the motto "Onoare și Patrie" ("Honour and Fatherland"). The name of the respective unit is engraved into the reverse.
Other features of the military colours are a tie for attaching decorations, six sashes for the troops in the flag's guard and a protective cover of impermeable fabric.
The military colours of navy vessels are identical to their ensign. The ensign is in turn identical to the national flag, being made of ordinary canvas in various dimensions, according to the ship's rank, size and place of hoisting.
At the beginning of the 2000s, four identifying flags were selected for the armed forces:
- The flag of the General Staff is light yellow. One side shows the coat of arms of the General Staff and four gold stars, with the symbols of the General Staff and the land, naval and air forces in the corners. On the reverse are the Prophet Elijah, the Virgin Mary and Saint George, patrons of the air force, navy and land forces respectively.
- The flag of the General Staff of the Land Forces is red. One side shows the coat of arms of the Staff, four gold stars, and the symbol of the land forces in the corners. The reverse depicts Saint George.
- The flag of the General Staff of the Air Force is light blue. One side shows the coat of arms of the Staff, four gold stars, and the symbol of the air force in the corners. The reverse depicts the Prophet Elijah.
- The flag of the General Staff of the Navy is sea blue. One side shows the coat of arms of the Staff, four gold stars, and the symbol of the navy in the corners. The reverse depicts the Virgin Mary.
Between 1995 and 1998, the Romanian naval jack was similar to the rank flags of Navy officers. Afterward, it was replaced with a 1:1 national flag with two crossed white anchors in the center of the blue stripe, similarly to the naval jack used between 1966 and 1989.
The standard of the Chief of the General Staff is a square Romanian tricolor with four white stars, one beneath the other, in the center of the blue stripe. It can be used both as car standard or as rank flag on Navy vessels.
The ships' pennant is a horizontal piece of canvas in the shape of an isosceles triangle, with a 1:10 ratio, on which is printed the Romanian national tricolor.
The Album des pavillons nationaux et des marques distinctives (2000) also depicts the rank flags of navy officers. These flags indicate that a commanding or leadership officer is on board. But one exception, they are rectangular light blue 2:3 canvases, on which are found a blue anchor, the Romanian flag in the canton and a number of five-pointed yellow stars, according to rank: four for the Chief of the Naval Forces Staff, three for the Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff, two for fleet or flotilla Commander and one for a major Naval unit Commander. The flag of a regular Navy unit Commander is, by exception, triangular and it lacks stars.
Former flags used by the Socialist Republic of Romania
Flags of the president, prime minister and minister of the armed forces
The president of the RSR (until 1974 the president of the Council of State) and the prime minister had their own standard, a square Romanian tricolor with a white edge and a red border beyond that; the RSR's coat of arms was in the center, 2⁄3 the height of the tricolor's width. The standard was decorated with fringes of golden thread and tassels of the same material. The flag of the minister of the armed forces of the RSR consisted of a white pennant in a 1:2 ratio. The flag of the RSR was placed in the canton, while two red five-pointed stars occupied the fly.
On 28 July 1950 the Great National Assembly issued Decree nr. 189 for the establishment of the military colors of the Romanian People's Army, as well as standards for the Military Air Force and the Naval Forces. Article 2 defined the units’ military colors as follows: “three silk stripes colored red, yellow and blue, arranged vertically with blue situated near the flagpole. On the edges the flag has golden metal fringes, while the fly corners each have a tassel of the same wire. On the side oriented from the flagpole to the right, in the middle, is placed the coat of arms of the R. P. R. in natural colors. Above the coat of arms, on the same side, in an arched line, is written with letters of golden wire: ‘Pentru Patria noastră’ (‘For our Fatherland’). On the other side and in the middle of the flag, the emblem worn on the uniforms of officers of the Armed Forces of the R. P. R. is applied. Under the emblem is written straight, with letters of golden wire, the unit's name. The flagpole ends in an ogive-shaped tip, within which is found a five-pointed star, in the center of which are written the initials RPR”. The law's annex also specified the dimensions of the flag (100 centimeter long by 60 centimeter wide), the coat of arms and the emblem (20 centimeter high), the fringes (5 centimeter long), the flagpole (250 centimeter long) and of the ogive (15 centimeter long by 7 centimeter wide).
Article 3 described the Air Force ensign: "it is made of sky-blue silk. The ensign is rectangular, with each face having applied to it 18 red silk strips in the form of sunrays. On the edges, the ensign has fringes and tassels the same as on the military colors. In the middle of the face oriented from the flagpole to the right is affixed the coat of arms of the R. P. R., while in the middle of the other face is affixed the emblem worn on the uniforms of officers belonging to the Armed Forces of the R. P. R. The coat of arms of the R. P. R., the emblem and the inscriptions are identical to those of the military colors". The annex specified the dimensions of the ensign and the decorative elements, which were identical to those of the military colors. In the center of the flag, a ray had an angle of 10˚. Also specified was the shade of blue to be used on the flag: "iron blue".
Military colors and standards adopted during the Romanian People's Republic were modified or completely changed by Decree nr. 106 of 24 December 1966 regarding regulations for granting the military colors of units and large units from all military branches, modifying the display protocol for ensigns and pennants of navy and Coast Guard ships, establishing a distinctive emblem and commanders’ emblems for navy and Coast Guard vessels, a jack for navy ships and a distinctive ensign for Coast Guard ships.
Article 4 described the Romanian Navy's ensign thus: "made of two pieces of white and blue silk, rectangular, laid horizontally, the blue one, beneath, having a width of 20 centimeter, while the white one, above, having a width of 40 centimeter. The coat of arms of the R. P. R. is applied to the middle of the white surface on the face oriented from the flagpole to the right, while on the other face, also in the middle of the while surface, the emblem worn on the uniforms of officers belonging to the Armed Forces of the R. P. R. is applied. The coat of arms, the emblem, the inscriptions, the fringes and the tassels are the same as those of the military colors". The annex specified the flag's dimensions (also 100 × 60 centimeter) and those of the coat of arms (also 20 centimeter high), as well as its distance to the edges of the white strip (11 centimeter above and 9 centimeter below). The words “Pentru Patria noastră” (“For our Fatherland”) were found on the white strip above the coat of arms, while "Republica Populară Română" and the unit's name were placed in the middle of the blue strip.
Decree nr. 190 of 1950, published in the same issue of Buletinul Oficial, established the design of Army soldiers’, officers’ and generals’ emblems. The officers’ emblem was a five-pointed, red-enamelled star 34 centimeter in diameter. In the center were two circles: the first, with a radius of 15 centimeter, was enamelled yellow and touched the star's interior angles, while the second, which had a radius of 11 centimeter, was enamelled blue and in the center had the golden initials “R. P. R.”
The following year, Decree nr. 124 of 20 July 1951 for the modification of art. 4 of Decree nr. 189 altered the Navy's ensign. The new regulation provided for three separate insignia: the flag of Navy land units, the flag of Navy ships and the flag of Coast Guard ships.
The Navy's land units had as their flag "two pieces of silk, colored white and blue, rectangular in shape, laid horizontally, the blue piece below, and the white one above. In the middle of the white area facing from the flagpole to the right is affixed the coat of arms of the Romanian People’s Republic, in natural colors, while on the other side, also in the middle of the white area, is affixed the symbol worn on the uniforms of officers belonging to the Armed Forces of the Romanian People’s Republic. The coat of arms, emblem, inscriptions, fringes and tassels are the same as those of the military colors described in article 2 [of Decree nr. 189 of 1950]". According to this decree's annex, the flag's dimensions were 100 × 60 centimeter, the blue strip being 20 centimeter wide and the white 40 centimeter, the coat of arms was 20 centimeter high and it was 11 centimeter away from the top edge of the white strip and 9 centimeter away from the bottom.
Navy ships had an ensign consisting of a "piece of ordinary rectangular canvas, with the colors white and blue printed on either side, in two stripes laid horizontally, the blue one below. The coat of arms of the Romanian People’s Republic, in natural colors, is affixed to the middle of the white area on both sides. The ensign does not have fringes or tassels [and] is supplied with cords and a mechanism for raising it on the stern beam or the mast". The ensign for Coast Guard ships was different from that of Navy ships only in the color of the lower stripe—Coast Guard green. The law's annex described proportions for the ensign's various elements; the actual dimensions were to be fixed by the Armed Forces Ministry and the Interior Ministry depending on the ship's size and the place where the ensign was raised. Thus, the flag was 0.6 times as wide as it was long, being divided thus: 1⁄3 colored stripe and 2⁄3 white stripe. The coat of arms was to be 1⁄3 the height of the flag's width, being placed 1⁄6 of this width away from the edges of the white stripe.
Between 1953 and 1964, due to a spelling reform, the country's name was written on flags as Romînia and not România.
Decree nr. 93 of 17 April 1954 for the modification of art. 4 of Decree nr. 189 established new vexillological devices: the ensign of auxiliary Navy ships (the previous ensign continuing in use only for battleships) and pennants for Navy battleships, auxiliary Navy ships and Coast Guard vessels.
The ensign of auxiliary Navy ships was made of an "ordinary canvas, rectangular and blue. In the upper corner on the side where it attaches to the cord, it has imprinted on both sides the colors white and light blue, in two horizontal stripes, the white one above. To the middle of the white area, on both sides, is affixed the coat of arms of the Romanian People’s Republic, in natural colors". This ensign's proportions were indicated in the annex. It was 0.6 times as wide as it was long: the upper left part of the standard was similar in proportion to the basic elements of the battleship standard, while its dimensions were 0.5 of the flag's length and 0.3 of its width.
Navy and Coast Guard vessels had a masthead pennant made of an “ordinary rectangular canvas, red for Navy battleships, blue for auxiliary Navy ships and green for Coast Guard ships [the width is 0.6 of the length]. At the edge near the cord, the colors white and light blue are imprinted on both sides, in two horizontal stripes, for Navy ships and white and light green on Coast Guard ships [in proportions of 2⁄3 and 1⁄3 respectively; this area’s length is 0.075 that of the pennant’s length]. In both cases white shall be above. The coat of arms of the Romanian People’s Republic, in natural colors is affixed to the middle of the white area on both sides [with a height 1⁄3 of the pennant’s width and located 1⁄4 and 1⁄6 of this width away from the edges of the white area]. At the other end, the pennant is cut in the form of a sharp angle pointing inward [the cut was 1.2 times as deep as the length of the white and colored area near the cord]. The ships’ pennany is provided with a cord and a mechanism for being raised on a tall mast”. The proportions of the pennant's component elements were indicated in the annex, with the actual dimensions remaining to be decided by the Armed Forces Ministry and the Interior Ministry.
Military colours, 1968 pattern
All the flags of the former 1950 pattern were replaced altogether in 1967 with a new national colours pattern for the Armed Forces and other uniformed services, wherein the emblem of the Socialist Republic was used. In the attached commentary, it was mentioned that the previous regulations were no longer valid, primarily because:
- military colors of naval land units no longer featured the national flag colors, but only white and blue;
- ensigns and pennants of the Navy and Coast Guard ships no longer featured the national flag colors and thus—even at close distances—Romanian ships could be confused with those of other nations;
- the air force flag was no longer necessary, as it did not correspond to the new organization of the air force within the armed forces.
The new design was a return to the Naval Forces and Air Force of the national flag design as the basis for unit colors, which were retained by the Land Forces.
Article 2 of the decree provided that “the military colors are granted by the Council of State of the Romanian Socialist Republic to units and large units from all military branches from the Armed Forces Ministry, as well as to units from the Internal Affairs Ministry, at their founding. The flag is granted, depending on the case, at the initiative of the armed forces minister or the internal affairs minister. The granting of the flag is done in the name of the Council of State of the Romanian Socialist Republic by a representative of the armed forces, respectively of the internal affairs minister”. The first clause of this article was modified thus by Decree nr. 150 of 19 June 1974 regarding the modification of certain laws and decrees: “the flag is granted by presidential decree to units and large units of all military branches from the Armed Forces Ministry, as well as to units from the Internal Affairs Ministry, at their founding”.
Ensigns of navy and Coast Guard vessels consisted of the military colors of the respective units.
The pennant was the device that indicated a ship was armed and commanded by a navy officer. It consisted of an “ordinary canvas, in the shape of an isosceles triangle, with the base toward the attaching mechanism and with the flag colors and coat of arms of the Romanian Socialist Republic printed on both sides”.
The jack was “an ordinary square canvas, having printed on both sides the flag colors and coat of arms of the Romanian Socialist Republic. Two crossed white anchors of the same size as the coat of arms are affixed to the blue area”.
The distinctive ensign of Coast Guard vessels consisted of “an ordinary white rectangular canvas, with the half near the attaching mechanism green, upon which is affixed a white anchor”.
The dimensions of these insignia, as well as their manner of use, were left to the Armed Forces Ministry to decide by regulation.
Decree nr. 1016 of 1966 created a legal framework for the establishment of distinctive rank flags and commanders’ rank flags, which were raised on Navy and Coast Guard ships, in accordance with the services’ sailing regulations.
A distinctive rank flag was raised when “the general secretary of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, the president of the Council of State of the Romanian Socialist Republic or the president of the Council of Ministers of the Romanian Socialist Republic [was] on an official visit” aboard ship.
The commanders’ rank flag was flown in similar situations for: “the minister of the armed forces of the Romanian Socialist Republic, the commander of the navy, the commander of a large unit of ships of the commander of a group of ships temporarily constituted”.
The form, colors and dimensions of the flags remained to be fixed by regulation.
Decree nr. 90 of 27 April 1977 regarding the establishment of military colors for the patriotic guards and the regulation of its bestowment created a special symbol for units of the Patriotic Guards. This was similar to military colors of military units, with the exception of the inscription on the flag's reverse side — “Gărzile patriotice” — in an arched line above the coat of arms, and the administrative unit in which the formation was located (the municipality or county), in a straight line beneath the coat of arms. Its dimensions were indicated in the annex: the canvas was 100 centimeter long and 66 centimeter wide, the text was 6 centimeter high, the fringes 5 centimeter long, the flagpole 240 centimeter long and 4 centimeter wide, while the ogive at the end of the flagpole was 15 centimeter high. According to the Decree, the flag was granted to a unit by commanders of county-level or Bucharest-level Patriotic Guards, or by representatives of the General Staff of the Patriotic Guards from the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, following a presidential decree for this purpose. Patriotic Guards that distinguished themselves in training exercises for national defense and that comprised at least 2000 fighters were eligible to receive their unit flags.
Laws, decrees, decisions and regulations
- Decree no. 1 of the provisional Government of Wallachia, published in Monitorul Român, no. 1 of 19 June/1 July 1848.
- Decree no. 252 of the provisional Government of Wallachia, published in Monitorul Român, no. 6 of 19/31 July 1848.
- The Law for establishing the coat of arms of Romania, adopted on 24 April 1867.
- The Law for modifying the coat of arms of Romania, published in Monitorul Oficial al României, no. 57 of 11/23 March 1872.
- Decree no. 3 from 8 January 1948, regarding the attributions of the Presidium of the People's Republic of Romania, published in Monitorul Oficial, no. 7 of 9 January 1948.
- Decree no. 972 from 5 November 1968 regarding the symbols of the Socialist Republic of Romania, published in Buletinul Oficial, no. 141 of 5 November 1968.
- Decree-Law no. 2/1989 regarding the membership, organization and functioning of the Council of the National Salvation Front and of the territorial councils of the National Salvation Front, published in Monitorul Oficial no. 4 of 27 December 1989.
- Law no. 75, of 16 July 1994, regarding the display of the Romanian flag, the singing of the national anthem and the use of insignia containing the Romanian coat of arms by public authority and institutions, published in Monitorul Oficial no. 237 of 26 August 1994.
- Law no. 96 from 20 May 1998 regarding the proclamation of the National Flag Day, in Monitorul Oficial no. 190 of 22 May 1998.
- Governmental Decision no. 1157/2001 for approving the Regulations regarding the display of the Romanian flag, the singing of the national anthem and the use of insignia containing the Romanian coat of arms, published in Monitorul Oficial no. 776 of 5 December 2001.
- Law no. 15 from 21 June 1968: the Penal Code of Romania.
- Căzănişteanu, Constantin, Trei culori cunosc pe lume... (I know only three colors in the world) in Magazin istoric, no. 8/1967.
- Dogaru, Maria, Tricolorul şi cocardele în contextul luptei revoluţionarilor paşoptişti (The tricolor and the cockades during the struggle of the 1848 revolutionaries), in Revista de istorie no. 5 of 31 May 1978 (extract).
- Mihalache, Marin, Cuza Vodă (Prince Cuza), Editura Tineretului, Bucharest, 1967.
- Năsturel, Petre Vasiliu, Steagul şi stema României. Perioada convenţională (The flag and the coat of arms of Romania. Conventional period), in Albina, year IV, 1900/1901, no. 10; no. 38; no. 151.
- Pălănceanu, Elena, Steaguri din colecţia Muzeului de Istorie al Republicii Socialiste România (Flags from the collection of the History Museum of the Socialist Republic of Romania), in Muzeul Naţional, vol. I, Bucharest, 1974.
- Velcu, Anton, Steagurile României (The flags of Romania) in Enciclopedia României, vol. I, Bucharest, 1938.
- Armand du Payrat, Daniel Roudaut, Album des pavillons nationaux et des marques distinctives, Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, Brest, 2000, ISBN 978-2-11-088247-9.
- ^ At article 12, clause 1
- ^ Law no. 75 of 16 July 1994, published in Monitorul Oficial no. 237 of 26 August 1994.
- ^ Governmental Decision no. 1157/2001, published in Monitorul Oficial no. 776 of 5 December 2001.
- ^ "'Identical flag' causes flap in Romania". 14 April 2004 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- ^ "Refworld | Romania: Update on the situation of Hungarians, including any recent legislation relating to minority rights".
- ^ Pălănceanu (1974), p. 138.
- ^ (in Romanian) Ioan Silviu Nistor, "Tricolorul românesc: simbol configurat de Mihai Viteazul", in Dacoromania, nr. 76/2015
- ^ Iscru, Gheorghe D., "Steagul Revoluţiei din 1821", in Revista Arhivelor no. 2/1981, p. 211.
- ^ Buletinul – Gazetă Oficială a Țării Românești, no. 34 of 14 October 1834, p. 144
- ^ Gazeta de Transilvania, year XI, no. 34 of 26 April 1848, p. 140.
- ^ Dogaru (1978), p. 862.
- ^ a b Căzănișteanu (1967), p. 36.
- ^ Dogaru (1978), p. 861.
- ^ a b Năsturel (1900/1901), p. 255.
- ^ Anul 1848 în Principatele Române, II, Bucharest, 1902, p. 477.
- ^ Căzănişteanu (1967), p. 36
- ^ a b c Dogaru (1978), p. 868.
- ^ Năsturel (1900/1901), p. 253
- ^ Pălănceanu (1974), p. 145.
- ^ Mihalache (1967), pp. 180–1.
- ^ Constituţia României, 1866, title VI, art. 124.
- ^ Năsturel (1900/1901), p. 257
- ^ a b Velcu (1938), p. 81
- ^ Năsturel (1900/1901), p. 257.
- ^ Decree-Law published in Monitorul Oficial no. 4 of 27 December 1989
- ^ "'World's biggest flag' covers field in Romania – Europe – World". The Independent. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- ^ "World's biggest flag unfurled in Romania | World news". The Guardian. Associated Press. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- ^ "BBC News – Romania village of Clinceni claims largest flag record". BBC.com. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- ^ "Romanian town unfurls world's largest flag". The Herald Sun. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- ^ (in Romanian) România are cel mai mare drapel din lume! Antena 3, în Guinness World Records™, antena3.ro, accessed 27 May 2013
- ^ Law published in Monitorul Oficial no. 776 of 5 December 2001.
- ^ Law published in Monitorul Oficial no. 237 of 26 August 1994.
- ^ a b c d e Military colors of Romania Archived 26 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Law published in Monitorul Oficial no. 776 of 5 December 2001.
- ^ Law published in Monitorul Oficial no. 190 of 22 May 1998.
- ^ a b Album des pavillons..., 2000.
- ^ "Galeria foto a Ministerului Apararii Nationale :: Steaguri (Flags)". www.mapn.ro.
- ^ Decree published in Buletinul Oficial, year II, nr. 66 of 2 August 1950, p. 763-767
- ^ Decree published in Buletinul Oficial, nr. 82 of 24 December 1966
- ^ Buletinul Oficial, year II, nr. 66 of 2 August 1950, p. 768-769
- ^ Decree published in Buletinul Oficial, year III, nr. 82 of 28 July 1951
- ^ Decree published in Buletinul Oficial, nr. 18 of 17 April 1954
- ^ Decree published in Buletinul Oficial nr. 83 of 19 June 1974
- ^ Decree published in Buletinul Oficial nr. 36 of 27 April 1977
- Năsturel, Petre Vasiliu, Steagul, stema română, însemnele domneşti, trofee (The Romanian flag [and] coat of arms; the princely insignias [and] trophies), Bucharest, 1903.
- Popescu, Elena and Căzănişteanu, Constantin, Piese din colecţia de drapele a Muzeului Militar Central (Specimens from the flag collection of the Central Military Museum [of Romania]), in Revista Muzeelor, year III, no. 2/1966.
- Potoschi, A. and Velcu, A., Catalogul colecţiilor de steaguri, stindarde şi fanioane (The catalog of the collection of flags, standards and pennants), manuscript, Biblioteca Muzeului Militar Central.
- Rosetti, Radu R., Când s-a adoptat steagul tricolor la noi (When we adopted the tricolor flag), in Memoriile secţiunii istorice, 3rd series, vol. XI, 1930.
- Sbierea, I. G., Ceva despre tricolorul român (On the Romanian tricolor), in Calendarul Minervei pe anul 1905, Bucharest, 1905.
- Vasile, Alexandru, Drapelul este istoria întreagă a României (The flag is the entire history of Romania) in Lupta întregului popor, no. 1 (3) of 1985.
- Romania at Flags of the World
- Military flags of Romania
- (in Romanian) Military colors of Romania and protocol
- (in Romanian) A history of the flag of Romania Archived 28 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine, by Adrian Roşian, in Alma Mater Militaris, year VII, no. 1 (13)/2006.