Flag of South Carolina
|Name||The Palmetto State|
|Use||Civil and state flag|
|Adopted||January 28, 1861|
|Design||White palmetto tree on an indigo field. The canton contains a white crescent (gorget).|
The flag of the U.S. state of South Carolina has existed in some form since 1775, being based on one of the first Revolutionary War flags. South Carolina's flag was ranked as the 10th best designed state or provincial flag in North America by the North American Vexillological Association in 2001.
The Moultrie Flag
In 1775, Colonel William Moultrie was asked by the Revolutionary Council of Safety to design a flag for the South Carolina troops to use during the American Revolutionary War. Moultrie's design had the blue of the militia's uniforms and the crescent. It was first flown at Fort Johnson. This flag was flown in the defense of a new fortress on Sullivan's Island, when Moultrie faced off against a British fleet that had not lost a battle in a century.
However, there is much debate about the significance of the crescent. In 1775 Colonel William Moultrie was asked by the "Revolutionary Council of Safety" to design a flag for the South Carolina troops. In his memoirs, Colonel Wiliam Moultrie tells us: "A little time after we were in possession of Fort Johnson, it was thought necessary to have a flag for the purpose of signals: (as there was no national or state flag at that time) I was desired by the council of safety to have one made, upon which, as the state troops were clothed in blue, and the fort was garrisoned by the first and second regiments, who wore a silver crescent on the front of their caps; I had a large blue flag made with a crescent in the dexter corner, to be in uniform with the troops ..."In the 16-hour battle on June 28, 1776, the flag was shot down, but Sergeant William Jasper ran out into the open, raising it and rallying the troops until it could be mounted again". This gesture was so heroic, saving Charleston, South Carolina, from conquest for four years, that the flag came to be the symbol of the Revolution, and liberty, in the state and the new nation.
Soon popularly known as either the Liberty Flag or Moultrie Flag, it became the standard of the South Carolinian militia, and was presented in Charleston, by Major General Nathanael Greene, when that city was liberated at the end of the war. Greene described it as having been the first American flag to fly over the South.
The palmetto was added in 1861, also a reference to Moultrie's defense of Sullivan's Island; the fortress he'd constructed had survived largely because the palmettos, laid over sand walls, were able to withstand British cannons.
Following its declaration of secession from the Union, the newly independent state of South Carolina considered many designs for its national flag, and selected an existing unofficial state flag with an upward facing gorget on a blue field, modifying it by adding a palmetto at the center of the field. On January 26, 1861, the South Carolina General Assembly adopted a new flag by adding a golden palmetto encircled with a white background. However, this flag has become known as the "2-day flag" because the golden palmetto was changed on January 28 to a simple white palmetto on the blue background. Less than three months later, a variation of the palmetto flag unfurled over Fort Sumter on April 14, 1861, the day it was surrendered to Confederate General Beauregard, making it likely the first Confederate flag flown over captured United States' territory. The flag consisted of a palmetto on an entirely white background with a red star in the upper left quadrant, and is commonly known as "The Palmetto Guard Flag"
The Sovereignty flag was never recognized as an official flag in South Carolina, but there are also claims that it was flown for a short period of time in South Carolina after its secession on December 20, 1860. Another significant flag is the "South Carolina Secession Flag"; the day after South Carolina seceded a red flag, with two tails, a large white star and an upside down crescent moon at the top by the flag staff was raised over the Charleston Custom House. It then spread to other cities as a symbol of secession.
A similar flag was flown by Cadets from The Citadel in 1861 as they manned defenses at Morris Island against Union supply ships. This flag (now known as "Big Red") featured a white palmetto on a red field with a reversed (inward-facing) crescent. After its recovery from storage in an Iowa warehouse, the flag is now flown by the Citadel's Corps of Cadets as their official spirit flag. 
Shirts, belts, shoes, wallets, koozies, holiday decorations and other accessories featuring the flag's palmetto and crescent are popular[examples needed] throughout South Carolina and other southeastern states as a symbol of the state's long-standing heritage. It is also customary[clarification needed] for alumni and supporters of the state's main universities (The University of South Carolina, Clemson University, Coastal Carolina University, Furman University, the College of Charleston, Winthrop University and The Citadel) to display the state flag in their school colors.
- "2001 State/Provincial Flag Survey - NAVA.org" (PDF). nava.org.
- "Fort Johnson/Powder Magazine, Charleston County (James Island)". National Register Properties in South Carolina. South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
- "South Carolina State Flag - About the South Carolina Flag, its adoption and history". netstate.com. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- "South Carolina State and Secession Flags.". freeuk.net. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- "Fort Sumter". nps.gov. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- "South Carolina State, and Secession Flags".
- "What Is That Red South Carolina Flag?".
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