|History and description of|
|Development of vowels|
|Development of consonants|
Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many varieties of English, especially North American, Ulster, Australian and New Zealand English, whereby the voiceless alveolar stop consonant phoneme /t/ is pronounced as a voiced alveolar flap [ɾ], a sound produced by briefly tapping the alveolar ridge with the tongue, when placed between vowels. In North American English, /d/, the voiced counterpart of /t/, in such positions is also frequently pronounced as a flap, making pairs of words like latter and ladder sound similar or identical. In similar positions, the combination /nt/ may be pronounced as a nasalized flap, making winter sound similar or identical to winner.
Flapping of /t/ is sometimes perceived as the replacement of /t/ with /d/; for example, the word butter pronounced with flapping may be heard as "budder".
In other dialects of English, such as South African English, Scottish English, some Northern England English (like Scouse), and older varieties of Received Pronunciation, the flap is a variant of /r/ (see Pronunciation of English /r/).
Terminology and articulation
The terms flap and tap are often used synonymously, although some authors make a distinction between them. When the distinction is made, a flap involves a rapid backward and forward movement of the tongue tip, while a tap involves an upward and downward movement. Linguists disagree on whether the sound produced in the present process is a flap or a tap, and by extension on whether the process is better called flapping or tapping, while flapping has traditionally been more widely used. Derrick & Gick (2011) identify four types of sounds produced in the process: alveolar tap, down-flap, up-flap, and postalveolar tap (found in autumn, Berta, otter, and murder, respectively).
Flapping of /t/ and /d/ is a prominent feature of North American English. Some linguists consider it obligatory for most American dialects to flap /t/ between a stressed and an unstressed vowel. Flapping of /t/ also occurs in Australian, New Zealand and (especially Northern) Irish English, and more infrequently or variably in South African English, Cockney, and Received Pronunciation.
The exact conditions for flapping in North American English are unknown, although it is widely understood that it occurs in an alveolar stop, /t/ or /d/, when placed between two vowels, provided the second vowel is unstressed (as in butter, writing, wedding, loader). Across word boundaries, however, it can occur between any two vowels, provided the second vowel begins a word (as in get over [ɡɛɾˈoʊvɚ]). This extends to morphological boundaries within compound words (as in whatever [ˌwʌɾˈɛvɚ]). In addition to vowels, segments that may precede the flap include /r/ (as in party) and occasionally /l/ (as in faulty). Flapping after /l/ is more common in Canadian English than in American English. Syllabic /l/ may also follow the flap (as in bottle). Flapping of /t/ before syllabic /n/ (as in button) is observed in Australian English, while [t] (with nasal release) and [ʔ] (t-glottalization) are the only possibilities in North American English.
Morpheme-internally, the vowel following the flap must not only be unstressed but also be a reduced one (namely /ə/, morpheme-final or prevocalic /i, oʊ/, or /ɪ/ preceding /ŋ/, /k/, etc.[a]), so words like botox, retail, and latex are not flapped in spite of the primary stress on the first syllables, while pity, motto, and Keating can be. The second syllables in the former set of words can thus be considered as having secondary stress.
Word-medial flapping is also prohibited in foot-initial positions. This prevents words such as militaristic, spirantization, and Mediterranean from flapping, despite capitalistic and alphabetization, for example, being flapped. This is known as the Withgott effect.
In North American English, the cluster /nt/ (but not /nd/) in the same environment as flapped /t/ may be realized as a nasal flap [ɾ̃]. Intervocalic /n/ is also often realized as a nasal flap, so words like winter and winner can become homophonous. According to Wells (1982), in the United States, Southerners tend to pronounce winter and winner identically, while Northerners, especially those from the east coast, tend to retain the distinction, pronouncing winter with [ɾ̃] or [nt] and winner with [n].
Exceptions include the preposition/particle to and words derived from it, such as today, tonight, tomorrow, and together, wherein /t/ may be flapped when intervocalic (as in go to sleep [ˌɡoʊɾəˈslip]). In Australian English, numerals thirteen, fourteen, and eighteen are often flapped despite the second vowel being stressed. In a handful of words such as seventy, ninety, and carpenter, /nt/ is frequently pronounced as [nd], retaining /n/ and voicing /t/, although it may still become [ɾ̃] in rapid speech.
Flapping is a specific type of lenition, specifically intervocalic weakening. It leads to the neutralization of the distinction between /t/ and /d/ in appropriate environments, a partial merger of the two phonemes, provided that both /t/ and /d/ are flapped. Some speakers, however, flap only /t/ but not /d/. For speakers with the merger, the following utterances sound the same or almost the same:
|/-t-, -nt-/||/-d-, -n-/||IPA||Notes|
|at 'em||add 'em||ˈæɾəm|
|center||sinner||ˈsɪɾ̃əɹ||With pen–pin merger.|
|don't it||doughnut||ˈdoʊɾ̃ət||With weak-vowel merger and toe-tow merger.|
|heated||heeded||ˈhiːɾɪ̈d||With meet-meat merger.|
|hurting||herding||ˈhɜːɹɾɪŋ||With fern-fir-fur merger.|
|liter||leader||ˈliːɾəɹ||With meet-meat merger.|
|manta||manner||ˈmæɾ̃ə||In non-rhotic accents.|
|manta||manor||ˈmæɾ̃ə||In non-rhotic accents.|
|Marty||Mardi||ˈmɑːɹɾi||In the term Mardi Gras.|
|meant it||minute||ˈmɪɾ̃ɪ̈t||With pen–pin merger.|
|minty||many||ˈmɪɾ̃i||With pen–pin merger.|
|neuter||nuder||ˈnuːɾəɹ, ˈnjuːɾəɹ, ˈnɪuɾəɹ|
|parity||parody||ˈpæɹəɾi||With weak-vowel merger|
|rated||raided||ˈɹeɪɾɪ̈d||With pane-pain merger.|
|router||ruder||ˈɹuːɾəɹ||With yod-dropping after /ɹ/.|
|seating||seeding||ˈsiːɾɪŋ||With meet-meat merger.|
|set it||said it||ˈsɛɾɪ̈t|
|traitor||trader||ˈtɹeɪɾəɹ||With pane-pain merger.|
|Tudor||tutor||ˈtuːɾəɹ, ˈtjuːɾəɹ, ˈtɪuɾəɹ|
|waiter||wader||ˈweɪɾəɹ||With pane-pain merger.|
|whiter||wider||ˈwaɪɾəɹ||With wine–whine merger.|
In accents characterized by Canadian raising, such words as riding and writing may be flapped yet still distinguished by the quality of the vowel: riding [ˈɹaɪɾɪŋ], writing [ˈɹʌɪɾɪŋ]. Vowel duration may also be different, with a longer vowel before /d/ than before /t/, due to pre-fortis clipping.
- Since North American English normally lacks the distinction between /ɪ/ and /ə/ in unstressed positions, there is variability among linguists and dictionaries in the treatment of unstressed vowels pronounced as /ɪ/ in other varieties of English that have the distinction. They are usually identified as /ɪ/ before palato-alveolar and velar consonants (/ʃ, tʃ, dʒ, k, ɡ, ŋ/) and in prefixes such as re-, e-, de-, and as /ə/ elsewhere.
- E.g. in Fox (2011:158).
- Ogden (2009), p. 92.
- Ladefoged & Johnson (2011), pp. 175–6.
- Wells (1982), p. 249.
- de Jong (1998), p. 284.
- Shockey (2003), p. 29.
- Derrick & Gick (2011), pp. 309–12.
- Goldsmith (2011), p. 191.
- Shockey (2003), p. 30.
- Trudgill & Hannah (2008), pp. 24, 30, 35, 104.
- Hickey (2007), p. 115.
- Goldsmith (2011), pp. 191–2.
- Hualde (2011), p. 2230.
- Hayes (2009), p. 143.
- Boberg (2015), p. 236.
- Jones (2011), p. xi.
- Brinton & Fee (2001), p. 428.
- Wells (1982), p. 248.
- Tollfree (2001), pp. 57–8.
- Wells (1982), p. 251.
- Wells (2000), p. xv. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFWells2000 (help)
- Hayes (1995), pp. 14–5.
- Wells (2011).
- Vaux (2000), p. 5.
- Bérces (2011), pp. 84–9.
- Ladefoged & Johnson (2011), pp. 74–5.
- Wells (1982), p. 252.
- Vaux (2000), pp. 4–5.
- Goldsmith (2011), p. 192.
- Horvath (2004), p. 635.
- Vaux (2000), p. 7.
- Vaux (2000), pp. 6–7.
- Iverson & Ahn (2007), pp. 262–3.
- Hayes (2009), p. 144.
- Wells (1982), p. 250.
- Hayes (2009), pp. 144–6.
- Gussenhoven & Jacobs (2017), p. 217.
- Bérces, Katalin Balogné (2011). "Weak and semiweak phonological positions in English". Journal of English Studies. 9: 75–96. doi:10.18172/jes.160.
- Boberg, Charles (2015). "North American English". In Reed, Marnie; Levis, John M. (eds.). The Handbook of English Pronunciation. Wiley. pp. 229–250. doi:10.1002/9781118346952.ch13. ISBN 978-1-11831447-0.
- Brinton, Laurel J.; Fee, Margery (2001). "Canadian English". In Algeo, John (ed.). The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume VI: English in North America. Cambridge University Press. pp. 422–440. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521264792.013. ISBN 0-521-26479-0.
- de Jong, Kenneth (1998). "Stress-related variation in the articulation of coda alveolar stops: flapping revisited". Journal of Phonetics. 26 (3): 283–310. doi:10.1006/jpho.1998.0077.
- Derrick, Donald; Gick, Bryan (2011). "Individual variation in English flaps and taps: a case of categorical phonetics". Canadian Journal of Linguistics. 56 (3): 307–319. doi:10.1017/S0008413100002024.
- Fox, Kirsten (2011). VCE English Language: Exam Guide (2nd ed.). Insight Publications. ISBN 978-1-92141193-9.
- Goldsmith, John (2011). "The Syllable". In Goldsmith, John; Riggle, Jason; Yu, Alan C. L. (eds.). The Handbook of Phonological Theory (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 164–196. doi:10.1002/9781444343069.ch6. ISBN 978-1-4051-5768-1.
- Gussenhoven, Carlos; Jacobs, Haike (2017). Understanding Phonology (4th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-35197471-4.
- Hayes, Bruce (1995). Metrical Stress Theory: Principles and Case Studies. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-22632104-5.
- Hayes, Bruce (2009). Introductory Phonology. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8411-3.
- Hickey, Raymond (2007). Irish English: History and Present-day Forms. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85299-9.
- Horvath, Barbara M. (2004). "Australian English: phonology". In Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Upton, Clive (eds.). A Handbook of Varieties of English. Volume 1: Phonology. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 625–644. doi:10.1515/9783110175325.1.625. ISBN 3-11-017532-0.
- Hualde, José Ignacio (2011). "Sound Change". In van Oostendorp, Marc; Ewen, Colin J.; Hume, Elizabeth; Rice, Keren (eds.). The Blackwell Companion to Phonology: Volume IV – Phonological Interfaces. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 2214–2235. ISBN 978-1-40518423-6.
- Iverson, Gregory K.; Ahn, Sang-Cheol (2007). "English voicing in dimensional theory" (PDF). Language Sciences. 29 (2–3): 247–269. doi:10.1016/j.langsci.2006.12.012. PMC 2390816. PMID 18496590. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2012.
- Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Johnson, Keith (2011). A Course in Phonetics (6th ed.). Wadsworth. ISBN 978-1-42823126-9.
- Ogden, Richard (2009). An Introduction to English Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2541-3.
- Shockey, Linda (2003). Sound Patterns of Spoken English. Blackwell. ISBN 0-63123079-3.
- Tollfree, Laura (2001). "Variation and change in Australian consonants: reduction of /t/". In Blair, David; Collins, Peter (eds.). English in Australia. John Benjamins. pp. 45–67. doi:10.1075/veaw.g26.06tol. ISBN 90-272-4884-2.
- Trudgill, Peter; Hannah, Jean (2008). International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English (5th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-340-97161-1.
- Vaux, Bert (2000). Flapping in English (PDF). Linguistic Society of America. Chicago. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2001.
- Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 1: An Introduction (pp. i–xx, 1–278). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52129719-2 .
- Wells, John C. (2000). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2nd ed.). Longman. ISBN 0-582-36467-1.
- Wells, John C. (25 March 2011). "strong and weak". John Wells's phonetic blog.