Modern flat Earth societies
Modern flat Earth societies date from the middle of the 20th century; some adherents are serious and some are not. These organisations are based on the archaic belief that the Earth is flat. The International Flat Earth Research Society (IFERS), the first such organization, was founded by Englishman Samuel Shenton in 1956 and was later led by American Charles K. Johnson. The belief lacked representation after Johnson’s death in 2001, until the name was reclaimed in 2004 by Johnson's self-proclaimed successor "Daniel Shenton", a man claiming to live in Hong Kong. Some adherents appear to be motivated by pseudoscience and some by religious literalism.
Modern flat Earth hypotheses originated with the English writer Samuel Rowbotham (1816–1884). Based on conclusions derived from the Bedford Level experiment, Rowbotham published a pamphlet Zetetic Astronomy, which he later expanded into a book Earth Not a Globe, proposing the Earth is a flat disc centered at the North Pole and bounded along its southern edge by a wall of ice, Antarctica, with the Sun and Moon 3,000 miles (4,800 km) and the "cosmos" 3,100 miles (5,000 km) above Earth. He also published a leaflet titled "The inconsistency of Modern Astronomy and its Opposition to the Scriptures!!", which argued that the "Bible, alongside our senses, supported the idea that the earth was flat and immovable and this essential truth should not be set aside for a system based solely on human conjecture" (see Biblical inerrancy).
Rowbotham and followers like William Carpenter gained attention by successful use of pseudoscience in public debates with leading scientists such as Alfred Russel Wallace. Rowbotham created a Zetetic Society in England and New York, shipping over a thousand copies of Zetetic Astronomy.
After Rowbotham's death, Lady Elizabeth Blount established a Universal Zetetic Society, whose objective was "the propagation of knowledge related to Natural Cosmogony in confirmation of the Holy Scriptures, based on practical scientific investigation". The society published a magazine, The Earth Not a Globe Review, and remained active well into the early 20th century. A flat Earth journal, Earth: a Monthly Magazine of Sense and Science, was published between 1901–1904, edited by Lady Blount.
International Flat Earth Society
In 1956, Samuel Shenton, a signwriter by trade, created the International Flat Earth Society as a successor to the Universal Zetetic Society and ran it as "organizing secretary" from his home in Dover, England. Given Shenton's interest in alternative science and technology, the emphasis on religious arguments was less than in the predecessor society.
When satellite images showed Earth as a sphere, Shenton remarked: "It's easy to see how a photograph like that could fool the untrained eye".
In 1969, Shenton persuaded Ellis Hillman, a Polytechnic of East London lecturer, to become president of the Flat Earth Society; but there is little evidence of any activity on his part until after Shenton's death, when he added most of Shenton's library to the archives of the Science Fiction Foundation he helped to establish.
Shenton died in 1971; Charles K. Johnson, inheriting part of Shenton's library from Shenton's wife, established and became president of the International Flat Earth Research Society of America and Covenant People's Church in California. Under his leadership, over the next three decades, the Flat Earth Society grew from a few members to a reported 3,500. Johnson gave newsletters, flyers, maps, and other publications to anyone who asked for them, and managed all membership applications together with his wife, Marjory. The most famous of these newsletters was Flat Earth News. Johnson paid for these publications through annual member dues costing US$6 to US$10 over the course of his leadership. Johnson's beliefs were based on the Bible, and he saw scientists as pulling a hoax which would replace religion with science.
The Flat Earth Society's most recent world model is that humanity lives on a disc, with the North Pole at its center and a 150-foot (45 m) high wall of ice, Antarctica, at the outer edge. The resulting map resembles the symbol of the United Nations, which Johnson used as evidence for his position. In this model, the Sun and Moon are each 32 miles (52 km) in diameter.
Flat Earth Society recruited members by speaking against the U.S. government and all its agencies, particularly NASA. Much of the society's literature in its early days focused on interpreting the Bible to mean that the Earth is flat, although they did try to offer scientific explanations and evidence.
Flat Earth News
Some headlines from Flat Earth News during the 1970s and early 1980s:
- "Whole World Deceived... Except the Very Elect" (Dec. 1977)
- "Australia Not Down Under" (May 1978)
- "Sun Is a Light 32 Miles Across" (Dec. 1978)
- "The Earth Has No Motion" (Jun. 1979)
- "Nikita Krushchev Father of NASA" (Mar. 1980)
- "Galileo Was a Liar" (Dec. 1980)
- "Science Insults Your Intelligence" (Sep. 1980)
- "World IS Flat, and That's That" (Sep. 1980)
- "The Earth Is Not a Ball; Gravity Does Not Exist" (Mar. 1981)
Peak and decline
The group rose to 3,500 members under Charles K. Johnson.
Eugenie Scott called them an example of "extreme Biblical-literalist theology: The earth is flat because the Bible says it is flat, regardless of what science tells us". The society was further affected by a fire at the house of Charles K. Johnson which destroyed all of the records and contacts of members of the Society. Johnson’s wife, who helped manage the database, died shortly thereafter. Johnson himself died on March 19, 2001.
In 2004, Daniel Shenton (not related to Samuel) resurrected the Flat Earth Society, basing it around a web-based discussion forum. This eventually led to the official relaunch of the society in October 2009, and the creation of a new Web site, featuring the world's largest public collection of Flat Earth literature and a user-edited encyclopedia. Moreover, the society began accepting new members for the first time since 2001, with musician Thomas Dolby becoming the first member to join the newly reconvened society. As of July 2014, over 500 people from all around the globe have become members. Shenton has also conducted several interviews since the society's relaunch, including in The Guardian newspaper.
Flat Earth Society of Canada was established on 8 November 1970 by philosopher Leo Ferrari, writer Raymond Fraser and poet Alden Nowlan; and was active until 1984. Their archives are held at the University of New Brunswick.
Calling themselves planoterrestrialists, their aims were quite different from other flat earth societies. With obvious humorous overtones, they claimed a prevailing problem of the new technological age was the willingness of people to accept theories "on blind faith and to reject the evidence of their own senses." The parodic intention of the Society appeared in the writings of Ferrari, as he attributed everything from gender to racial inequality on the globularist and the Spherical Earth model. Ferrari even claimed to have nearly fallen off "the Edge" of the Earth at Brimstone Head on Fogo Island.
Ferrari was interviewed as an "expert" in the 1990 flat earth mockumentary, In Search of the Edge by Pancake Productions (as in the expression "as flat as a pancake"). In the accompanying study guide, Ferrari is outed as a "globularist," a nonce word for someone who believes the earth is spherical. The real intent of the film, which was part-funded by the Ontario Arts Council and National Film Board of Canada, was to promote schoolchildren's critical thinking and media literacy by "[attempting] to prove in convincing fashion, something everyone knew to be false."
Multi-media artist Kay Burns has re-created the Flat Earth Society of Canada with her alter ego Iris Taylor as its president. Burns created an installation entitled the Museum of the Flat Earth, which included some artefacts from the 1970 group. It was exhibited in 2016 at the Flat Earth Outpost Café in Shoal Bay, Newfoundland.
In popular culture
- Richard A. Lupoff's novel Circumpolar! (1984) describes a flat Earth, with a hole at the centre instead of a North Pole, and the underside contains fictional lands such as Atlantis and Lemuria.
- In 1984, English musician Thomas Dolby released an album called The Flat Earth. This became the name for his fan club and subsequent website forums. Daniel Shenton credited this album as his introduction to the theory, and offered the first membership of the reopened Society. Dolby, while not a believer, accepted.
- In the 1980s, talk show host Wally George often ridiculed Flat Earth Society members on his show Hot Seat; and Australian talk show host Don Lane also had Flat Earth Society advocates on his show.
- California-based punk rock band Bad Religion include a song titled "Flat Earth Society", by Brett Gurewitz, on their album Against the Grain (1990). A prominent feature of the song is the refrain "lie, lie, lie," indicating a strong denunciation of the society and its theories.
- In 2010, investigative reporter Nick Davies published Flat Earth News, in which he investigates journalism itself. The title is an allusion not to cosmology but to to the book's main concerns, fake news and media manipulation generally: "the national news stories which turn out to be pseudo events manufactured by the PR industry and the global news stories which prove to be fiction generated by a new machinery of international propaganda."
- In 2013, while discussing the importance of acting on climate change, President Barack Obama said there was no time for "a meeting of the Flat-Earth Society" in reference to climate change deniers.
- Rapper B.o.B composed a song titled "Flatline", in which he claims the Earth is flat, and promotes other conspiracy theories. He was offered, and accepted, membership in the Flat Earth Society.
- In 2016, the television show Modern Family featured a song about the flat Earth.
- In 2016, the television show Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt featured a cult member who recanted her flat Earth beliefs.
- In 2017, former basketball player and rapper Shaquille O'Neal claimed on his podcast that the Earth was flat. A few days later, he stated that this was a joke: "this world we live in people take things too seriously".
Notes and references
- "Flat Earth Society". howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- Daniel. "Membership Register".
- https://twitter.com/Danielshenton/status/26692467358%7CTitle= Twitter response
- David Adam (February 23, 2010). "The Earth is flat? What planet is he on?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 4, 2013.
- Dan, Gilgoff (2013-11-24). "Bill Nye on creationism: It's like teaching the earth is flat". CNN. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- Falkenberg, Steve (2002). "Biblical Literalism". New Reformation. Archived from the original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- Schick, Theodore; Lewis Vaughn How to think about weird things: critical thinking for a new age Houghton Mifflin (Mayfield) (31 October 1995) ISBN 978-1-55934-254-4 p.197
- Garwood 2007, p. 46
- Nature April 7, 1870.
- "The Form of the Earth—A Shock of Opinions" (PDF). The New York Times. 1871-08-10. Retrieved 2007-11-02.
- Hampden, John (1870): The Bedford Canal swindle detected & exposed. A. Bull, London.
- Garwood 2007, p. 133
- Moore, Patrick (1972). "Better and Flatter Earths" (PDF). Can You Speak Venusian?. ISBN 0-352-39776-4.
- Garwood 2007, pp. 155–159
- "On the Level?". New York Times. June 12, 1960. p. 2.(subscription required)
- Garwood 2007, pp. 220–225
- Schadewald RJ. "Six "Flood" Arguments Creationists can't answer". National Center for Science Education. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- Garwood 2007, pp. 320
- "Documenting the Existence of "The International Flat Earth Society"". talk.origins. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- Martin, Douglas (25 March 2001). "Charles Johnson, 76, Proponent of Flat Earth". New York Times. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Schadewald RJ (July 1980). "The Flat-out Truth". Lhup.edu. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- Voliva, Wilbur Glenn (Mar 1979). "Is the Earth a Whirling Globe?" (PDF). Flat Earth News. Lancaster, CA: International Flat Earth Research Society. p. 2.
- Johnson, Charles K. (Dec 1978). "Flat Earth News: News of the World's Children" (PDF). Lancaster, CA: International Flat Earth Research Society. p. 2.
- Flat Earth News Dec 1978, p. 1.
- "Flat Earth Society Library". Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Scott, Eugenie (1997). "Antievolution and Creationism in the United States" (PDF). Annual Review of Anthropology. 26: 263–289. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.26.1.263. Retrieved Dec 8, 2011.
- Author(s): John R. Cole, Contributing Editor (2001). "Flat Earth Society President Dies | NCSE". National Center for Science Education. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- "Miedo a un planeta esférico". 2010-03-19. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
- "The Flat Earth Society forum". Retrieved 2014-07-24.
- "Relaunch of the Flat Earth Society (press release)" (PDF).
- "The Flat Earth Society Homepage". Retrieved 2014-07-24.
- Adam, David (February 23, 2010). "The Earth is flat? What planet is he on?". The Guardian.
- "The Flat Earth Society - Membership Register". theflatearthsociety.org. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- "The Flat Earth Society". Retrieved 2014-07-14.
- "Leo Charles Ferrari". New Brunswick Literary Encyclopedia. St. Thomas University. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Series No. 2 The Flat Earth Society of Canada". Leo C. Ferrari Fonds. UNB Archives and Special Collections. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Bird, Lindsay (20 May 2016). "Museum of the Flat Earth opens on (where else?) Fogo Island". CBC. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- "Dr. Ferrari and the Flat Earth Society by Alden Nowlan". Retrieved 2013-02-07.
- Colombo, John R (1984). Canadian Literary Landmarks. Dundurn. p. 19. ISBN 978-0888820730.
- Barrie, Scott (Director); Marsh, Robert (Narrator) (2005). In search of the edge : an inquiry into the shape of the earth and the disappearance of Andrea Barns (DVD). Toronto, Ontario: Pancake Productions. ISBN 9781594582295. OCLC 81094526.
- Barrie, Scott (Director); Marsh, Robert (Narrator) (2005). In search of the edge : an inquiry into the shape of the earth and the disappearance of Andrea Barns (DVD). Toronto, Ontario: Pancake Productions. ISBN 9781594582295. OCLC 810945
- Study Guide
- "In Search of the Edge An Inquiry into the Shape of the Earth and the Disappearance of Andrea Barns". Bullfrog Films. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- "Flat Earth Society". Iris Taylor Research. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- "Circumpolar! (Twin Planets, book 1) by Richard A Lupoff". Fantasticfiction.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-06-28.
- O'Brien, Michael (25 June 2013). "Obama: No time for 'flat-earth society' on climate change". NBC News. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Ellen Brait. "'I didn't wanna believe it either': Rapper BoB insists the Earth is flat". the Guardian.
- Manon, Tiannon. "Flat Earthers: Dumb, Crazy or Just Free Thinkers?". Open Mic. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- The Flat Earth Society. "The Flat Earth Society Welcomes B.o.B.". The Flat Earth Society. The Flat Earth Society. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Boult, Adam (March 20, 2017). "Shaquille O'Neal: 'The world is flat and satellite imagery is fake'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- Jones, Rhett (March 19, 2017). "Some Photos of Earth For Shaq, Who Thinks the Earth is Flat". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- Mandell, Nina (2017-03-24). "No, Shaq does not believe the world is flat: 'I'm joking, you idiots'". Retrieved 2017-03-27.
- Garwood, Christine (2007). Flat Earth: the History of an infamous idea. Macmillan.
- Raymond Fraser (2007). When The Earth Was Flat: Remembering Leonard Cohen, Alden Nowlan, the Flat Earth Society, the King James monarchy hoax, the Montreal Story Tellers and other curious matters. Black Moss Press, ISBN 978-0-88753-439-3
- Christine Garwood (2007) Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea, Pan Books, ISBN 1-4050-4702-X
- The International Flat Earth Research Society
- Website of the 2004/9 Flat Earth Society
- Website of the 2013 Flat Earth Society
- References to the Flat Earth Society by the Library of Congress
- "The Earth is flat? What planet is he on?... David Adam tries to make sense of its new president, Daniel Shenton"