Flat white

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A flat white with latte art

A flat white is a coffee beverage that originated in Australia. The beverage is prepared by pouring microfoam (steamed milk consisting of small, fine bubbles with a glossy or velvety consistency) over a single shot (AU) or double ristretto shot (NZ) of espresso. It is somewhat similar to the traditional 140 ml (5 imp fl oz) cappuccino or the latte although smaller in volume, therefore having a higher proportion of coffee to milk, and milk that is more velvety in consistency – allowing the espresso to dominate the flavour, while being supported by the milk.


A flat white is traditionally served in a ceramic 5 oz/140 ml vitrified cup with saucer. Milk is frothed as it would be for a Cappuccino but held back to around 20 mm/1 inch of microfoam, creating a meniscus (distinct textured surface). Key to the beverage is the crema being coaxed into the meniscus resulting in a uniform dark brown colour across the top of the beverage. Allowing the beverage to stand before drinking enhances the experience as the meniscus thickens and adds texture to each sip, resulting in distinct sip rings/tide marks as the beverage is consumed. A clean, vitrified ceramic cup is essential to allow the liquid to fall cleanly off the cup. Purists will not touch a flat white with a spoon or add sugar as this destroys the meniscus.[1][2] A flat white traditionally does not incorporate latte art.[3]

According to a survey of industry commentators, a flat white has several defining characteristics, chief among which is a thin layer of velvety microfoam (hence the ‘flat’ in flat white), as opposed to the significantly thicker layer of foam in a traditional cappuccino.[4][5]


The earliest references to the beverage date to Australia in the mid-1980s. The first documented appearance of the flat white is at Moors Espresso Bar in Sydney, where Alan Preston added the beverage to his permanent menu in 1985. Preston subsequently opened six more flat white outlets around Sydney's Chinatown area and this is most likely where the flat white gets its Sydney start. By early 1985, in Canberra, some cafes were displaying signs that read "flat white only," with baristas frustrated by the quality of milk produced by a drought-affected local dairy industry.[6] Alan Preston's seven flat white outlets around Sydney, starting in 1985, constitute the basis for the flat white's rapid take up.[7] Melbourne's claim to substantial influence on the Australian coffee industry follows significant immigration of Italians following the Second World War,[8] and the introduction of espresso coffee machines in the 1950s.

The Wellington claim tells the story of the flat white being invented as a result of a similar "failed cappuccino" at Cafe Bodega on Willis St in 1989.[9] The Auckland claim is attributed variously to Derek Townsend and Darrell Ahlers of Cafe DKD, developed in the "late summer" of 1989 as an alternative to the Italian latte.[2][10]

Similar beverages[edit]

It is essentially the opposite of a "dry cappuccino", which has dry frothy foam but no liquid milk. A flat white has milk (or microfoam) but no froth. The ‘milk should be velvety rather than fluffy ... therefore "stronger", which requires a shorter, "ristretto" [espresso shot] run to avoid harsh flavours’.[8] The earlier Australian flat white is similar to an original Italian cappuccino, which is a single espresso with microfoam served in a 150–160 ml (5.3–5.6 imp fl oz) cup.[11]

The Spanish café con leche is similar, but uses scalded milk. In a flat white, the milk is steamed without frothing typically to 70–80 °C (150–170 °F).[citation needed] Steaming the milk to this temperature retains the fats and proteins in the milk which retain a sweet flavour, lost when milk is steamed to scalding temperatures.[12] A Café con Leche also lacks the head of microfoam.

The flat white and the latte are also similar, with some people incorrectly suggesting that the only difference between the two drinks is the vessel in which they are presented. In Australia a flat white is served in a ceramic mug, usually of the same volume (200 ml [7.0 imp fl oz]) as a latte glass. However, some Australian cafés will top a latte with extra froth, while others may pour a flat white slightly shorter’.[13] New Zealand flat whites are more commonly served in a tulip shaped cup (165 ml [5.8 imp fl oz]). In both Australia and New Zealand, there is a generally accepted difference between lattes and flat whites in the ratio of milk to coffee and the consistency of the milk due to the way the milk is heated. The milk in a flat white should not be frothed.

A true flat white ought to have the same quantity of extracted coffee as any other beverage on the coffee menu (generally 30 ml [1.1 imp fl oz]) but because it is served in a smaller vessel (175 ml [6.2 imp fl oz]) it has stronger flavour than say a latte which is normally served in a 225 ml (7.9 imp fl oz) vessel and is subsequently milkier. The consistency of the milk is another point of difference between a flat white and a latte – a latte has a creamy, velvety layer of milk on the surface which can vary in depth depending on where you buy your coffee. A flat white has a thinner band of the textured milk, ideally with a shinier surface.


Outside of Australia and New Zealand, the style was exported to the United Kingdom by 2005, and by 2010 was being sold in Starbucks franchises there.[15] By 2013 the flat white was available in Australian cafés in New York City, with Hugh Jackman co-owning one of them and endorsing the product.[16]

With the flat white becoming increasingly well known globally, large coffee shop chains such as Starbucks, Costa Coffee, Caffè Nero and Pret a Manger added flat whites to their menus, with Starbucks releasing the flat white to American stores on 6 January 2015.[17]

The drink has also spread to Sweden, and is being sold by Espresso House as of 2014. [18]

Cultural Influence[edit]

The phrase flat white economy has been used to describe London's network of internet, media and creative businesses. [19]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Flat White History". flatwhitehistory.com.au. Retrieved 2016-01-07. 
  2. ^ a b Dixon, Greg (22 July 2008). "The birth of the cool". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  3. ^ "Spilling the beans", 29/01/2012, Michael Symons, The Dominion Post
  4. ^ "What is a flat white? – Coffee Hunter". Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  5. ^ "Cappuccino, Latte or Flat White?". Guide 2 Coffee. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Green, Roger (11 January 1985). "Cows Frustrate ACT's Espresso Artists". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  7. ^ Robertson, James (27 September 2015). "Australia and New Zealand culinary war in new front over flat white inventor". goodfood.com.au. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  8. ^ a b Symons, Michael. "Spilling the beans". Fairfax. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  9. ^ Hunt, Tom (13 January 2015). "Kiwi claims flat white invention". The Dominion Post. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  10. ^ Macdonald, Laura (13 January 2015). "Baristas battle to claim flat white as their own". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  11. ^ "L'Espresso Italiano e il Cappuccino Italiano Certificati" (PDF). Istituto Nazionale Espresso Italiano. Retrieved 2012-08-22. 
  12. ^ "Milk Frothing Guide – Hello Milk!". CoffeeGeek.com. Retrieved 2010-04-07. 
  13. ^ Carmody, Kathleen (20 April 2004). "Coffee culture". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2010-04-07. 
  14. ^ "New Zealand's dedicated coffee culture". Tourism New Zealand. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  15. ^ Wallop, Harry (5 December 2009). "Starbucks to sell 'flat white' for those who are fed up with milky coffee". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  16. ^ Jumpertz, Caroline (5 August 2013). "New Yorkers finally warm to the humble Aussie flat white". The Australian. Retrieved 2 January 2015. 
  17. ^ Frizell, Sam (2 January 2015). "Hipster Drink of Choice Gets Co-Opted by Starbucks". Time. Retrieved 3 January 2015. 
  18. ^ http://www.espressohouse.com/nyheter/nyheter-pressmeddelanden/2014/flat-white/
  19. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/mar/08/can-hipsters-save-the-world