Social distancing

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People maintaining social distance while waiting to enter a store. To allow shoppers to maintain distance within the store, only a limited number are allowed inside at one time.

Social distancing, or physical distancing,[1][2][3][4][5] is a set of infection control actions intended to stop or slow down the spread of a contagious disease. The objective of social distancing is to reduce the probability of contact between persons carrying an infection, and others who are not infected, so as to minimize disease transmission, morbidity and ultimately mortality.[6]

Social distancing is most effective when an infection can be transmitted via droplet contact (coughing or sneezing); direct physical contact, including sexual contact; indirect physical contact (e.g., by touching a contaminated surface); or airborne transmission (if the microorganism can survive in the air for long periods).[7]

Social distancing may be less effective in cases where an infection is transmitted primarily via contaminated water or food or by vectors such as mosquitoes or other insects and less frequently from person to person.[8] Drawbacks of social distancing can include loneliness, reduced productivity and the loss of other benefits associated with human interaction.

Historically, leper colonies and lazarettos were established as a means of preventing the spread of leprosy and other contagious diseases through social distancing,[9] until transmission was understood and effective treatments invented.

Measures[edit]

In this computer lab, every other workstation has been closed off to increase the distance between people working.
Taiwanese president Tsai Ing-wen giving a traditional Taiwanese greeting instead of shaking hands

Social distancing measures used to control the spread of contagious illnesses include:[10][7]

  • school closure (proactive or reactive)[11]
  • workplace closure,[12] including closure of "non-essential" businesses and social services ("Non-essential" means those facilities that do not maintain primary functions in the community, as opposed to essential services[13])
  • isolation
  • quarantine
  • cordon sanitaire
  • protective sequestration
  • cancellation of mass gatherings such as sports events, films or musical shows[14]
  • shutting down or limiting mass transit[15]
  • closure of recreational facilities (community swimming pools, youth clubs, gymnasiums)[16]
  • "self-shielding" measures for individuals include limiting face-to-face contacts, conducting business by phone or online, avoiding public places and reducing unnecessary travel[17][18]

Greetings[edit]

Social distancing practices, including gestures that avoid physical contact, reduce the risk of becoming infected during flu pandemics.[19]

The gesture of namaste, placing one's palms together, fingers pointing upwards, drawing the hands to the heart, is one non-touch alternative. During the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in the United Kingdom, this gesture was used by Prince Charles upon greeting reception guests, and has been recommended by the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[20] Other alternatives include the wave, the shaka (or "hang loose") sign, and placing a palm on your heart, as practiced in parts of Iran.[20]

History[edit]

1916 New York City polio epidemic[edit]

Floor markings can help people maintain distance in public places
New York City parks and playgrounds were closed during a 1916 polio epidemic.[21]

During the 1916 New York City polio epidemic, when there were over 27000 cases and more than 6000 deaths due to polio in the United States, with over 2000 deaths in New York City alone, movie theatres were closed, meetings were cancelled, public gatherings were almost non-existent, and children were warned not to drink from water fountains, and told to avoid amusement parks, swimming pools and beaches.[22][23]

Influenza pandemic of 1918[edit]

Passenger without mask being refused boarding of a streetcar (Seattle, Washington, 1918)

During the influenza pandemic of 1918, Philadelphia saw its first cases of influenza on 17 September.[24] The city continued with its planned parade and gathering of more than 200000 people and over the subsequent three days, the city's 31 hospitals became fully occupied. Over one week, 4500 people died.[25][26] Social distancing measures were introduced on 3 October, more than two weeks after the first case.[24] Unlike Philadelphia, St. Louis experienced its first cases of influenza on 5 October and the city took two days to implement several social distancing measures,[24] including closing schools, theatres, and other places where people get together. It banned public gatherings, including funerals. The actions slowed the spread of influenza in St. Louis and a spike in cases and deaths, as had happened in Philadelphia, did not occur.[27] The final death rate in St. Louis increased following a second wave of cases, but remained overall less than in other cities.[28]

SARS 2003[edit]

During the SARS outbreak of 2003, social distancing measures such as banning large gatherings, closing schools and theaters, and other public places, supplemented public health measures such as finding and isolating affected people, quarantining their close contacts, and infection control procedures. This was combined with wearing masks for certain people.[29]

2019–2020 coronavirus pandemic[edit]

During the 2019–2020 coronavirus pandemic, social distancing and related measures were emphasised by several governments as alternatives to an enforced quarantine of heavily affected areas. According to UNESCO monitoring, over 100 countries have implemented nationwide school closures in response to COVID-19, impacting over half the world’s student population.[30] In the United Kingdom, the government advised the public to avoid public spaces, and cinemas and theatres voluntarily closed to encourage the government's message.[31]

Some teens and young adults refused to voluntarily adopt social distancing practices. In Belgium, media reported a rave was attended by at least 300 before it was broken up by local authorities. In France teens making nonessential trips are fined up to US$150. Beaches were closed in Florida and Alabama to disperse partygoers during spring break.[32] Weddings were broken up in New Jersey and an 8 p.m. curfew was imposed in Newark. New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Pennsylvania were the first states to adopt coordinated social distancing policies that closed down non-essential businesses and restricted large gatherings. Shelter in place orders in California were extended to the entire state on 19 March. On the same day Texas declared a public disaster and imposed statewide restrictions.[33]

Social media campaigns[edit]

In early March 2020, the sentiment "Stay The Fuck Home" was coined by Florian Reifschneider, a German engineer and was quickly echoed by notable celebrities such as Taylor Swift, Ariana Grande[34][35] and Busy Philipps[36] in hopes of flattening the curve. Facebook, Twitter and Instagram also joined the campaign with similar hashtags, stickers and filters under #staythefhome, #stayhome, #staythefuckhome and began trending across social media.[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48]

Effectiveness[edit]

Social distancing helps prevent a sharp peak of infections ("flattens the epidemic curve") to keep healthcare services from being overwhelmed.[49][50]

Knowing that a disease is circulating may trigger a change in behaviour by people choosing to stay away from public places and other people. When implemented to control epidemics, such social distancing can result in benefits but with an economic cost. Research indicates that measures must be applied rigorously and immediately in order to be effective.[51] During the 1918 flu pandemic, authorities in the US implemented school closures, bans on public gatherings, and other social distancing interventions in Philadelphia and in St. Louis, but in Philadelphia the delay of five days in initiating these measures allowed transmission rates to double three to five times, whereas a more immediate response in St. Louis was significant in reducing transmission there.[52]

Bootsma and Ferguson analyzed social distancing interventions in 16 US cities during the 1918 epidemic and found that time-limited interventions reduced total mortality only moderately (perhaps 10–30%), and that the impact was often very limited because the interventions were introduced too late and lifted too early. It was observed that several cities experienced a second epidemic peak after social distancing controls were lifted, because susceptible individuals who had been protected were now exposed.[53]

School closures[edit]

Swine flu cases per week in the United Kingdom in 2009; schools typically close for summer in mid-July and re-open in early September.[54]

Mathematical modeling has shown that transmission of an outbreak may be delayed by closing schools. However, effectiveness depends on the contacts children maintain outside of school. Often, one parent has to take time off work, and prolonged closures may be required. These factors could result in social and economic disruption.[55][11]

School closures were shown to reduce morbidity from the Asian flu by 90% during the 1957–1958 outbreak,[56] and up to 50% in controlling influenza in the US, 2004–2008.[57] Similarly, mandatory school closures and other social distancing measures were associated with a 29% to 37% reduction in influenza transmission rates during the 2009 flu epidemic in Mexico.[58]

During the swine flu outbreak in 2009 in the UK, in an article titled "Closure of schools during an influenza pandemic" published in the The Lancet Infectious Diseases, a group of epidemiologists endorsed the closure of schools in order to interrupt the course of the infection, slow further spread and buy time to research and produce a vaccine.[59] Having studied previous influenza pandemics including the 1918 flu pandemic, the influenza pandemic of 1957 and the 1968 flu pandemic, they reported on the economic and workforce effect school closure would have, particularly with a large percentage of doctors and nurses being women, of whom half had children under the age of 16. They also looked at the dynamics of the spread of influenza in France during French school holidays and noted that cases of flu dropped when schools closed and re-emerged when they re-opened. They noted that when teachers in Israel went on strike during the flu season of 1999–2000, visits to doctors and the number of respiratory infections dropped by more than a fifth and more than two fifths respectively.[60]

During the 2019–2020 coronavirus pandemic, preventive measures such as social-distancing and self-isolation prompted the widespread closure of primary, secondary, and post-secondary schools in over 120 countries. As of 23 March 2020, over 1.2 billion learners were out of school due to school closures in response to COVID-19.[30] Given low rates of COVID-19 infection among children, the effectiveness of school closures has been called into question.[61] Even when school closures are temporary, it carries high social and economic costs.[62] However, the significance of children in spreading COVID-19 is unclear.[63][64] While the full impact of school closures during the coronavirus pandemic are not yet known, initial evidence suggests school closures have had negative impacts on local economies and learning outcomes for students.[65][66]

Workplace closures[edit]

Modeling and simulation studies based on US data suggest that if 10% of affected workplaces are closed, the overall infection transmission rate is around 11.9% and the epidemic peak time is slightly delayed. In contrast, if 33% of affected workplaces are closed, the attack rate decreases to 4.9%, and the peak time is delayed by one week.[67]

Quarantine of possible cases[edit]

During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Singapore, approximately 8000 people were subjected to mandatory home quarantine and an additional 4300 were required to self-monitor for symptoms and make daily telephone contact with health authorities as a means of controlling the epidemic. Although only 58 of these individuals were eventually diagnosed with SARS, public health officials were satisfied that this measure assisted in preventing further spread of the infection.[68] Voluntary self-isolation may have helped reduce transmission of influenza in Texas in 2009.[69] Short and longterm negative psychological effects have been reported.[70]

Cordon sanitaire[edit]

The Lazzaretto of Ancona was constructed in the 18th century on an artificial island to serve as a quarantine station and leprosarium for the port town of Ancona, Italy.

In 1995, a cordon sanitaire was used to control an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Kikwit, Zaire.[71][72][73] President Mobutu Sese Seko surrounded the town with troops and suspended all flights into the community. Inside Kikwit, the World Health Organization and Zaire medical teams erected further cordons sanitaires, isolating burial and treatment zones from the general population and successfully containing the infection.[74] During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Canada, "community quarantine" was used to reduce transmission of the disease with moderate success.[75]

Protective sequestration[edit]

Two lepers denied entrance to town. Woodcut by Vincent of Beauvais, 14th century.

During the 1918 influenza epidemic, the town of Gunnison, Colorado, isolated itself for two months to prevent an introduction of the infection. Highways were barricaded and arriving train passengers were quarantined for five days. As a result of the isolation, no one died of influenza in Gunnison during the epidemic.[76] Several other communities adopted similar measures.[77]

Canceling mass gatherings[edit]

Evidence suggesting that mass gatherings increase the potential for infectious disease transmission is inconclusive.[78] Anecdotal evidence suggests that certain types of mass gatherings may be associated with increased risk of influenza transmission, and may also "seed" new strains into an area, instigating community transmission in a pandemic. During the 1918 influenza pandemic, military parades in Philadelphia[25] and Boston[79] may have been responsible for spreading the disease by mixing infected sailors with crowds of civilians. Restricting mass gatherings, in combination with other social distancing interventions, may help reduce transmission.[80]

Travel restrictions[edit]

Border restrictions or internal travel restrictions are unlikely to delay an epidemic by more than 2–3 weeks unless implemented with over 99% coverage.[81] Airport screening was found to be ineffective in preventing viral transmission during the 2003 SARS outbreak in Canada[82] and the US.[83] Strict border controls between Austria and the Ottoman Empire, imposed from 1770 until 1871 to prevent persons infected with the bubonic plague from entering Austria, were reportedly effective, as there were no major outbreaks of plague in Austrian territory after they were established, whereas the Ottoman Empire continued to suffer frequent epidemics of plague until the mid-nineteenth century.[84]

A Northeastern University study published in March 2020 found that "travel restrictions to and from China only slow down the international spread of COVID-19 [when] combined with efforts to reduce transmission on a community and an individual level. […] Travel restrictions aren't enough unless we couple it with social distancing."[85] The study found that the travel ban in Wuhan only delayed the spread of the disease to other parts of mainland China by three to five days, although it did reduce the spread of international cases by as much as 80 percent. A primary reason that travel restrictions were less effective is that many people with COVID-19 do not show symptoms during the early stages of infection.[86]

Drawbacks[edit]

Simulations comparing rate of spread of infection, and number of deaths due to overrun of hospital capacity, when social interactions are "normal" (left, 200 people moving freely) and "distanced" (right, 25 people moving freely).
Green = Healthy, uninfected individuals
Red = Infected individuals
Blue = Recovered individual
Black = Dead individuals

There are concerns that social distancing can have adverse affects on participants' mental health.[87] It may lead to stress, anxiety, depression or panic, especially for individuals with preexisting conditions such as anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders, and paranoia.[88] Widespread media coverage about a pandemic, its impact on economy, and resulting hardships may create anxiety. Change in daily circumstances and uncertainty about the future may add onto the mental stress of being away from other people.[89]

Theoretical basis[edit]

From the perspective of epidemiology, the basic goal behind social distancing is to decrease the basic reproduction number, , which is the average number of secondary infected individuals generated from one primary infected individual in a population where all individuals are equally susceptible to a disease. In a basic model of social distancing,[90] where a proportion of the population engages in social distancing to decrease their interpersonal contacts to a fraction of their normal contacts, the new effective reproduction number is given by:[90]

For example, 25% of the population reducing their social contacts to 50% of their normal level gives an effective reproduction number about 81% of the basic reproduction number. A seemingly small reduction has a profound effect in delaying the exponential growth and spread of a disease.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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