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^Dolphin CT, Riley JH, Smith RL, Shephard EA, Phillips IR (February 1998). "Structural organization of the human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 gene (FMO3), the favored candidate for fish-odor syndrome, determined directly from genomic DNA". Genomics. 46 (2): 260–7. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.5031. PMID9417913.
^ abcdefghijklm"Trimethylamine monooxygenase (Homo sapiens)". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. July 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016. trimethylaminuria (fish-odor syndrome) is associated with defective hepatic N-oxidation of dietary-derived trimethylamine catalyzed by flavin-containing monooxygenase ... FMO3 deficiency results in trimethylaminuria or the fish-like odour syndrome ... isozyme FMO3 regulates the conversion of N,N,N-trimethylamine into its N-oxide and hence controls the release of volatile N,N,N-trimethylamine from the individual
^ abcdeCashman JR (September 2000). "Human flavin-containing monooxygenase: substrate specificity and role in drug metabolism". Curr. Drug Metab. 1 (2): 181–191. doi:10.2174/1389200003339135. PMID11465082. Human FMO3 N-oxygenates primary, secondary and tertiary amines whereas human FMO1 is only highly efficient at N-oxygenating tertiary amines. Both human FMO1 and FMO3 S-oxygenate a number of nucleophilic sulfur-containing substrates and in some cases, does so with great stereoselectivity. ... For amines with smaller aromatic substituents such as phenethylamines, often these compounds are efficiently N-oxygenated by human FMO3. ... (S)-Nicotine N-1'-oxide formation can also be used as a highly stereoselective probe of human FMO3 function for adult humans that smoke cigarettes. Finally, cimetidine S-oxygenation or ranitidine N-oxidation can also be used as a functional probe of human FMO3. With the recent observation of human FMO3 genetic polymorphism and poor metabolism phenotype in certain human populations, variant human FMO3 may contribute to adverse drug reactions or exaggerated clinical response to certain medications.
^ abZhou S, Kestell P, Paxton JW (July 2002). "6-methylhydroxylation of the anti-cancer agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) by flavin-containing monooxygenase 3". Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 27 (3): 179–183. doi:10.1007/bf03190455. PMID12365199. Only FMO3 formed 6-OH-MXAA at a similar rate to that in cDNA-expressed cytochromes P-450 (CYP)1A2. The results of this study indicate that human FMO3 has the capacity to form 6-OH-MXAA, but plays a lesser important role for this reaction than CYP1A2 that has been demonstrated to catalyse 6-OH-MXAA formation.
^Tang WH, Hazen SL (October 2014). "The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease". J. Clin. Invest. 124 (10): 4204–4211. doi:10.1172/JCI72331. PMC4215189. PMID25271725. In recent studies each of the FMO family members were cloned and expressed, to determine which possessed synthetic capacity to use TMA as a substrate to generate TMAO. FMO1, FMO2, and FMO3 were all capable of forming TMAO, though the specific activity of FMO3 was at least 10-fold higher than that the other FMOs (54). Further, FMO3 overexpression in mice significantly increased plasma TMAO levels, while silencing FMO3 decreased TMAO levels (54). In both humans and mice, hepatic FMO3 expression was observed to be reduced in males compared with females (25, 54) and could be induced by dietary bile acids through a mechanism that involves FXR (54).
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