Flavonoid biosynthesis

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Flavonoids are synthesized by the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in which the amino acid phenylalanine is used to produce 4-coumaroyl-CoA.[1] This can be combined with malonyl-CoA to yield the true backbone of flavonoids, a group of compounds called chalcones, which contain two phenyl rings. Conjugate ring-closure of chalcones results in the familiar form of flavonoids, the three-ringed structure of a flavone. The metabolic pathway continues through a series of enzymatic modifications to yield flavanonesdihydroflavonolsanthocyanins. Along this pathway, many products can be formed, including the flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins (tannins) and a host of other various polyphenolics.

Biosynthesis of catechin

Flavanoids can possess chiral carbons. Methods of analysis should take this element into account[2] especially regarding bioactivity or enzyme stereospecificity.[3]

Enzymes[edit]

The biosynthesis of flavonoids involves several enzymes.

Methylation[edit]

Glycosylation[edit]

Further acetylations[edit]

References[edit]