|Phyllotreta vittula with characteristic feeding damage to Brassicaceae leaf|
Spinola, 1844[verification needed]
Many, see text
Flea beetle is a general name applied to the small, jumping beetles of the leaf beetle family (Chrysomelidae). They make up the tribe Alticini, which is a part of the subfamily Galerucinae, though they were historically classified as a subfamily in their own right. Though most tribes of the Galerucinae are suspect of rampant paraphyly in the present delimitation, the Alticini seem to form a good clade at least for the most part.
Description and ecology
The adults are very small to moderately sized Chrysomelidae (i.e. among beetles in general they are on the smallish side). They are similar to other leaf beetles, but characteristically have the hindleg femora greatly enlarged. These enlarged femora allow for the springing action of these insects when disturbed. Flea beetles can also walk normally and fly. Many flea beetles are attractively coloured; dark, shiny and often metallic colors predominate.
Adult flea beetles feed externally on plants, eating the surface of the leaves, stems and petals. Under heavy feeding the small round holes caused by an individual flea beetle's feeding may coalesce into larger areas of damage. Some flea beetle larvae (e.g. of Phyllotreta species) are root feeders.
In adverse weather conditions (rain, for example) some flea beetles seek shelter in the soil. Some species, such as Phyllotreta cruciferae and P. striolata, prefer to leave their hideouts only during warm and dry weather. The German name Erdflöhe (literally "earth fleas") refers to their jumping ability and this behavior of hiding in the soil.
Relationship with humans
Flea beetles may be beneficial or may be pests, depending on the species.
Many major agricultural crops are attacked by flea beetles, including various cruciferous plants such as mustard and rapeseed (particularly canola in north western North America). Numerous garden plants are also subject to flea beetle feeding, such as flowers of Gardenia and Rothmannia by Altica species.
Flea beetles execute their most severe attacks during dry weather and are most active on sunny days. The larvae are known to chew roots.
Flea beetles can be deterred by a number of different companion plants, that can be grown intercropped in a garden to benefit neighboring plants. For example, thyme, catnip, and other kinds of mint cover up the scent of nearby plants
Radishes, on the other hand, can be grown as a trap crop, luring the flea beetles away from more important crops. Since the root isn't harmed by the beetles, they remain useful, themselves. A number of natural predators can be employed to keep flea beetles in check, including two that parasitize it: Braconid wasps and tachinid flies. In both cases, the larval stage feeds on the flea beetle, while the adults feed on nectar and pollen; some species are even important pollinators.
To encourage Braconid wasps and Tachinid flies, some types of flowers can be planted between crops: umbels such as caraway, herb fennel, coriander and Ammi majus, and simple open flowers such as California poppies and pot marigolds, as well as yarrows.
Other flea beetle species are beneficial, feeding on weeds and similar nuisance plants. A few species have even been introduced to various locations as biological control agents against some weeds. One important example is in the control of Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula), an invasive weed in the United States. It has a toxic latex and is generally avoided by herbivores. Flea beetles of the genus Aphthona have been successfully introduced to control this plant.
This genus list is not complete. It is also partially from ITIS and might include genera placed elsewhere in other sources.
- Acallepitrix J.Bechyné, 1956
- Acrocyum Jacoby, 1885
- Agasicles Jacoby, 1904
- Altica Geoffroy, 1762
- Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860
- Asphaera Duponchel & Chevrolat, 1842
- Blepharida Chevrolat in Dejean, 1836
- Capraita J.Bechyné, 1957
- Cerataltica Crotch, 1873
- Chaetocnema Stephens, 1831
- Crepidodera Chevrolat in Dejean, 1836
- Derocrepis Weise, 1886
- Dibolia Latreille, 1829
- Disonycha Chevrolat in Dejean, 1836
- Distigmoptera Blake, 1943
- Dysphenges Horn, 1894
- Epitrix Foudras in Mulsant, 1859
- Glenidion H.Clark, 1860
- Glyptina J.L.LeConte, 1859
- Hemiglyptus Horn, 1889
- Hemiphrynus Horn, 1889
- Hippuriphila Foudras in Mulsant, 1859
- Hornaltica Barber, 1941
- Kuschelina J.Bechyné, 1951
- Longitarsus Berthold, 1827
- Luperaltica Crotch, 1873
- Luprea Jacoby, 1885
- Lysathia J.Bechyné, 1957
- Mantura Stephens, 1831
- Margaridisa J.Bechyné, 1958
- Monomacra Chevrolat in Dejean, 1836
- Neocrepidodera Heikertinger, 1911
- Nesaecrepida Blake, 1964
- Omophoita Chevrolat in Dejean, 1836
- Orthaltica Crotch, 1873
- Pachyonychis H.Clark, 1860
- Pachyonychus F.E.Melsheimer, 1847
- Parchicola J.Bechyné and B.Springlová de Bechyné, 1975
- Phydanis Horn, 1889
- Phyllotreta Chevrolat in Dejean, 1836
- Pseudodibolia Jacoby, 1891
- Pseudolampis Horn, 1889
- Pseudorthygia Csiki in Heikertinger and Csiki, 1940
- Psylliodes Berthold, 1827
- Strabala Chevrolat in Dejean, 1836
- Syphrea Baly, 1876
- Systena Chevrolat in Dejean, 1836
- Trichaltica Harold, 1876
- Squire, David (2007). The Garden Pest & Diseases Specialist: The Essential Guide to Identifying and Controllong Pests and Diseases of Ornamentals, Vegetables and Fruits. New Holland Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 1845374851. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Garden Toad's Companion Plant Guide
- 5 Secrets to Vegetable Garden, Companion Planting Revealed
- Alys Fowler: flea beetle
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alticinae.|
- Flea beetle description at Kansas State University
- Flea Beetles, Kansas State University, July 2008
- The Handbook of Palearctic Flea Beetles - identification of Palearctic flea beetle genera, along with morphology, host plant information, and literature references
- "Flea Beetles" by W.S. Cranshaw, Colorado State University Extension entomologist and professor