Flea treatments

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Flea treatments are procedures used to treat flea infestations in human or animal populations. They may treat both the itching caused by bites and may remove or kill the fleas themselves.

For humans[edit]

The itching associated with flea bites can be treated with anti-itch creams, usually antihistamines or hydrocortisone.[1] Calamine lotion has been shown to be effective for itching.[2]

For pets[edit]

Flea and tick repellant powder being applied to a dog.

Modern flea control is approached using integrated pest management (IPM) protocols at the host (pet) level. IPM is achieved by targeting fleas during at least two separate life stages, with at least two separate molecules. This is typically achieved using an adulticide to kill adult fleas and an insect development inhibitor (IDI), such as lufenuron, or insect growth regulator (IGR), such as methoprene, to prevent development of immature stages. Natural flea and tick repellants may also be used to help prevent initial infestations from occurring.[3]

Flea adults, larvae, or eggs can be controlled with insecticides. Lufenuron is a veterinary preparation (known as Program) that attacks the larval flea's ability to produce chitin, necessary for the adult's hard exoskeleton, but does not kill fleas. Flea medicines need to be used with care because many of them also affect mammals.

Flea treatments meant for dogs can be hazardous to cats.[4] Flea and tick ointment is also hazardous to humans; the label of a commercial preparation warns: “First aid: If on skin or clothing, take off contaminated clothing, rinse skin immediately with plenty of water for 15 – 20 minutes; call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice. . . Although (the product is) applied only between the shoulder blades and at the base of the tail, the dog’s skin and hair oils carry the product over the entire body . . . Wash thoroughly with soap and water after handling . . .”[5]

Since more than three-quarters of a flea's life is spent somewhere other than on the host animal, it is not adequate to treat only the host; it is important also to treat the host's environment. Thorough vacuuming, washing linens in hot water, and treating all hosts in the immediate environment (the entire household, for example) are essential and if possible must be performed on a regular basis.[6]

Contemporary commercial products for the topical treatment of flea infestations on pets contain pesticides such as imidacloprid, permethrin, and (S)-methoprene. All flea-control products are recommended to be used at least half-yearly because the lifecycle of flea and tick can last to up to 6 months, and by using one of the flea and tick control products for so long, the infestation is highly prevented and, in the end, stopped. Although all these products are effective in fighting against flea and tick infestations, they have different active ingredients and, because cats cannot metabolize some of the compounds of the product, care must be taken in their use.

For the home[edit]

Flea infestation in the home are treated in various ways. A spot-on insecticide kills the fleas on the pet and in turn the pet itself collects and mops up newly hatched fleas. A fogger or spray insecticide containing an insect growth regulator, such as pyriproxyfen or methoprene can kill eggs and pupae, which are quite resistant to insecticides.

Flea fecal material, coiled larva, and fleas in the pupal stage combed from a cat, are also called flea dirt.

Frequent and thorough vacuuming is also helpful. The vacuum must be used around everything the animal frequents, to pick up all the larvae and eggs. Traditional advice recommends disposing of the bag after each vacuuming. One very limited experiment (only one vacuum sweeper used on a single type of carpeted surface) found that vacuuming killed 96% of adult fleas and 100% of younger fleas. This preliminary study's applicability to other circumstances is unclear.[7]

Diatomaceous earth can also be used as a home flea treatment in lieu of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory treatments or insecticides which carry with them a risk of poisoning for both humans and other animals. However, diatomaceous earth dust is harmful to pets and people when inhaled, requiring use of a dust mask to apply.[8][9]

Bathing dramatically reduces the flea population on a badly infested animal, especially when in combination with a mild detergent or shampoo, and brushing or combing.

Dried pennyroyal leaves has been suggested as a traditional and natural flea control,[10] but the essential oil is toxic to mammals and should not be ingested.[11]

Borax can be used to treat flea infestations. It kills fleas by dehydrating them, but its safety for pets is untested.

Fleas cannot withstand high temperatures, so a turn through the dryer on medium or high kills fleas on clothing.[12]

Fleas can be drowned by immersion for about 24 hours; they may appear to be dead if immersed for shorter times, but can revive after some hours.[13] Soaps and surfactants can facilitate the death of fleas in bathing. The process of washing the flea (and the pet) removes integumental waxes on the flea's body and it dies from dehydration.[14][15][16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Scott, Susan; Thomas, Craig (2000). Pests of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaii's Animals. University of Hawaii Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8248-2252-1. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  2. ^ Jacoby, David B.; Youngson, R.M. (2004). Encyclopedia of Family Health. Marshall Cavendish. p. 647. ISBN 978-0-7614-7486-9. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  3. ^ "EcoBug™ Insect-Repelling Flea & Tick Spray for Dogs, 8-oz bottle". Vet Organics. Retrieved 2018-09-17.
  4. ^ Educational Staff, Drs. Foster and Smith. "The Important Difference Between Dog & Cat Flea Products". Retrieved 2013-10-17.
  5. ^ Label of Bio Spot spot on flea and tick control for dogs. 2007, 2010. Phoenix, AZ: Farnam Companies, Inc.
  6. ^ "Discover Entomology at Texas A&M University - Extension Publication E-433: Controlling Fleas". Insects.tamu.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-05-16. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
  7. ^ "Cat Fleas' Journey Into The Vacuum Is A "One-Way Trip"". Researchnews.osu.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
  8. ^ "Silica, amorphous". Niosh Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
  9. ^ Dugdale, David C.; et al. "Silicosis". Medical Encyclopedia. MedlinePlus. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
  10. ^ How to Use Pennyroyal for Fleas, 2017, Garden Guides, Retrieved 2018-6-10
  11. ^ Warnings About Essential Oils Archived June 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Darr; et al. "School IPM". University of Florida. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
  13. ^ Forensic Entomology: An Introduction By Dorothy Gennard; John Wiley & Sons, Apr 30, 2013; section 4.3
  14. ^ Gary R. Mullen, Lance A. Durden (April 22, 2009). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press.
  15. ^ Rockstein, Morris, ed. (2012). The Physiology of Insecta. 6. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-323-16157-2.
  16. ^ Potter, Daniel (1998). Destructive Turfgrass Insects: Biology, Diagnosis, and Control. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-57504-023-3.

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