Flickingeria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Flickingeria
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Dendrobieae
Subtribe: Dendrobiinae
Genus: Flickingeria
A. D. Hawkes
Synonyms
  • Desmotrichum Blume
  • Ephemerantha Summerh.

Flickingeria, abbreviated as Flkga in horticultural trade, is a genus of orchids (although no longer an accepted one [1]) consisting of more than 60 species found from the Himalaya to Southeast Asia, Indonesia through New Guinea, which are now correctly placed in the genus Dendrobium. It (Flickingeria) possesses not only ornamental, but also medicinal value. Named by botanist Alex Drum Hawkes after horticulturalist Edward Flickinger of Coconut Grove, Florida.

List of species[edit]

  1. Flickingeria abhaycharanii Phukan & A.A.Mao, Orchid Rev. 113: 22 (2005).
  2. Flickingeria agamensis (J.J.Sm.) J.B.Comber, Orchids: 694 (2001).
  3. Flickingeria albopurpurea Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 48 (1980).
  4. Flickingeria angulata (Blume) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 301 (1965).
  5. Flickingeria angustifolia (Blume) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 301 (1965).
  6. Flickingeria appendiculata (Blume) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 302 (1965).
  7. Flickingeria aureiloba (J.J.Sm.) J.J.Wood, Orchadian 7: 145 (1982).
  8. Flickingeria bancana (J.J.Sm.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 302 (1965).
  9. Flickingeria bicarinata (Ames & C.Schweinf.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 302 (1965).
  10. Flickingeria bicolor Z.H.Tsi & S.C.Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33: 204 (1995).
  11. Flickingeria bicostata (J.J.Sm.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 302 (1965).
  12. Flickingeria calocephala Z.H.Tsi & S.C.Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33: 203 (1995).
  13. Flickingeria calopogon (Rchb.f.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 302 (1965).
  14. Flickingeria candoonensis (Ames) Fessel & Lückel, Orchidee (Hamburg) 49: 252 (1998).
  15. Flickingeria celebensis (J.J.Sm.) S.Thomas, Schuit. & de Vogel, Lindleyana 17: 34 (2002).
  16. Flickingeria chrysographata (Ames) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 302 (1965).
  17. Flickingeria clementsii D.L.Jones, Orchadian 14(8: Sci. Suppl.): ix (2004).
  18. Flickingeria comata (Blume) A.D.Hawkes, Orchid Weekley 2(46): 453 (1961).
  19. Flickingeria compressa Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 31 (1980).
  20. Flickingeria concolor Z.H.Tsi & S.C.Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33: 204 (1995).
  21. Flickingeria convexa (Blume) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 303 (1965).
  22. Flickingeria crenicristata (Ridl.) J.J.Wood, Lindleyana 5: 101 (1990).
  23. Flickingeria dahlemensis (Schltr.) J.B.Comber, Orchids: 693 (2001).
  24. Flickingeria denigrata (J.J.Sm.) J.J.Wood, Lindleyana 5: 101 (1990).
  25. Flickingeria dimorpha (J.J.Sm.) S.Thomas, Schuit. & de Vogel, Lindleyana 17: 35 (2002).
  26. Flickingeria dura (J.J.Sm.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 303 (1965).
  27. Flickingeria eurorum (Ames) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 303 (1965).
  28. Flickingeria fimbriata (Blume) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 303 (1965).
  29. Flickingeria flabelliformis (Schltr.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 303 (1965).
  30. Flickingeria flabelloides (J.J.Sm.) J.J.Wood, Lindleyana 5: 101 (1990).
  31. Flickingeria forcipata (Kraenzl.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 303 (1965).
  32. Flickingeria fugax (Rchb.f.) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 46 (1980).
  33. Flickingeria grandiflora (Blume) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 303 (1965).
  34. Flickingeria guttenbergii (J.J.Sm.) J.B.Comber, Orchids: 693 (2001).
  35. Flickingeria hesperis Seidenf., Nordic J. Bot. 2: 16 (1982).
  36. Flickingeria heterobulba (Schltr.) S.Thomas, Schuit. & de Vogel, Lindleyana 17: 35 (2002).
  37. Flickingeria homoglossa (Schltr.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 304 (1965).
  38. Flickingeria insularis Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 31 (1980).
  39. Flickingeria integrilabia (J.J.Sm.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 304 (1965).
  40. Flickingeria interjecta (Ames) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 304 (1965).
  41. Flickingeria junctiloba Fessel & Lückel, Orchidee (Hamburg) 49: 254 (1998).
  42. Flickingeria labangensis (J.J.Sm.) J.J.Wood, Lindleyana 5: 101 (1990).
  43. Flickingeria laciniosa (Ridl.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 305 (1965).
  44. Flickingeria lonchigera (Schltr.) Schuit. & de Vogel, Blumea 48: 510 (2003).
  45. Flickingeria luxurians (J.J.Sm.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 305 (1965).
  46. Flickingeria macraei (Lindl.) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 39 (1980).
  47. Flickingeria nativitatis (Ridl.) J.J.Wood, Orchadian 7: 145 (1982).
  48. Flickingeria nazaretii P.O'Byrne & J.J.Verm., Malayan Orchid Rev. 37: 92 (2003).
  49. Flickingeria nodosa (Dalzell) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 41 (1980).
  50. Flickingeria pallens (Kraenzl.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 305 (1965).
  51. Flickingeria pardalina (Rchb.f.) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 35 (1980).
  52. Flickingeria parietiformis (J.J.Sm.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 306 (1965).
  53. Flickingeria parishii Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 29 (1980).
  54. Flickingeria paucilaciniata (J.J.Sm.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 306 (1965).
  55. Flickingeria pemae (Schltr.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 306 (1965).
  56. Flickingeria pseudoconvexa (Ames) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 306 (1965).
  57. Flickingeria puncticulosa (J.J.Sm.) J.J.Wood, Kew Bull. 41: 819 (1986).
  58. Flickingeria purpureostelidia (Ames) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 306 (1965).
  59. Flickingeria quadriloba (Rolfe) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 306 (1965).
  60. Flickingeria rhipidoloba (Schltr.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 307 (1965).
  61. Flickingeria rhodobalion (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 742 (1981).
  62. Flickingeria ritaeana (King & Pantl.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 307 (1965).
  63. Flickingeria schinzii (Rolfe) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 307 (1965).
  64. Flickingeria schistoglossa (Schltr.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 307 (1965).
  65. Flickingeria scopa (Lindl.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 742 (1981).
  66. Flickingeria sematoglossa (Schltr.) J.B.Comber, Orchids: 691 (2001).
  67. Flickingeria shihfuana T.P.Lin & Kuo Huang, Taiwania 50: 292 (2005).
  68. Flickingeria simplicicaulis (J.J.Sm.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 307 (1965).
  69. Flickingeria stenoglossa (Gagnep.) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 65 (1980).
  70. Flickingeria tairukounia (S.S.Ying) T.P.Lin, Native Orchids Taiwan 3: 85 (1987).
  71. Flickingeria tetralobata P.O'Byrne & J.J.Verm., Malayan Orchid Rev. 39: 80 (2005).
  72. Flickingeria tricarinata Z.H.Tsi & S.C.Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33: 201 (1995).
  73. Flickingeria trifurcata (Carr) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 307 (1965).
  74. Flickingeria unibulbis Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 34: 54 (1980).
  75. Flickingeria unicornis (Ames) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 307 (1965).
  76. Flickingeria usterii (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 742 (1981).
  77. Flickingeria vietnamensis Seidenf., Opera Bot. 114: 205 (1992).
  78. Flickingeria xantholeuca (Rchb.f.) A.D.Hawkes, Orquídea (Rio de Janeiro) 27: 307 (1965).

Chemistry, with particular reference to F. fimbriata [edit]

The genus has been reported to contain phenanthrenoids.[2] The species Flickingeria fimbriata (now known correctly as Dendrobium plicatile[3]) has yielded three phenanthrenes in a study undertaken in the year 2000, the structures of these being 2,5-dihydroxy-4,9,10-trimethoxyphenanthrene, 2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenanthrene and 2,5,9-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene. These molecules have been given the names plicatol A, B and C. [4] F. fimbriata has also been found to contain norditerpenoids and to possess hepatoprotective properties. [5]

Entheogenic Use of Flickingeria macraei[edit]

Under the older name of Ephemerantha macraei, Flickingeria macraei,now known correctly as Dendrobium macraei [6][7][8]has been reported to have been employed by tantric magicians, in the course of religious rituals, as a psychoactive aid to divination, the tubers of the orchid being ingested for this purpose. The fleshy roots of another orchid, Vanda tessellata were also used in the same way and for the same purpose.[9]

Medicinal Uses of F. macraei[edit]

F. macraei (= Dendrobium macraei) has long been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes in the traditional Indian medical system of Ayurveda.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/search?q=Flickingeria
  2. ^ Natural phenanthrenes and their biological activity. Adriána Kovács, Andrea Vasas, Judit Hohmann, Phytochemistry, March 2008, Volume 69, Issue 5, Pages 1084–1110, doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.12.005
  3. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-58729
  4. ^ Honda, Chie; Yamaki, Masae (2000). "Phenanthrenes from Dendrobium plicatile". Phytochemistry 53 (8): 987–990. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00497-5.
  5. ^ Norditerpenoids from Flickingeria fimbriata and their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in mouse macrophages. Chen JL, Zhong WJ, Tang GH, Li J, Zhao ZM, Yang DP and Jiang L, Molecules, 6 May 2014, volume 19, issue 5, pages 5863-5875, doi:10.3390/molecules19055863
  6. ^ http://www.orchidspecies.com/flickmacraei.htm
  7. ^ http://www.orchidspecies.com/orphotdir/flickmacraei.jpg
  8. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-58304
  9. ^ The Dictionary of Sacred and Magical Plants by Rätsch, Dr.Christian, pub. Prism Press, Bridport UK 1992.

External links[edit]