Flight airspeed record

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The SR-71 Blackbird is the current record-holder for a manned airbreathing jet aircraft.

An air speed record is the highest airspeed attained by an aircraft of a particular class. The rules for all official aviation records are defined by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI),[1] which also ratifies any claims. Speed records are divided into multiple classes with sub-divisions. There are three classes of aircraft: landplanes, seaplanes, and amphibians; then within these classes, there are records for aircraft in a number of weight categories. There are still further sub-divisions for piston-engined, turbojet, turboprop, and rocket-engined aircraft. Within each of these groups, records are defined for speed over a straight course and for closed circuits of various sizes carrying various payloads.

Timeline[edit]

Flight speed records over time, taken from the table below.

Records in "gray" font color are unofficial, including unconfirmed or unpublicized (wartime) secrets.

Date Pilot Airspeed Location Notes
mph km/h Aircraft
17 December 1903 Wilbur Wright 6.82 10.98 Wright Flyer Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, USA
1905 Wilbur Wright 37.85 60.23 Wright Flyer III Huffman Prairie, Ohio, USA
12 November 1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont 25.65 41.292 Santos-Dumont 14-bis Bagatelle Castle, Paris, France First officially recognized airspeed record.[2][3]:7
26 October 1907 Henry Farman 32.73 52.700 Voisin-Farman I Issy-les-Moulineaux, France 9}
25 May 1909 Paul Tissandier 34.04 54.810 Wright Model A Pau, France [2][3]:11
23 August 1909 Glenn Curtiss 44.367 69.821 Curtiss No. 2 Reims, France 1909 Gordon Bennett Cup.[2][4]:37-38
24 August 1909 Louis Blériot 46.160 74.318 Blériot XI Reims, France [2][3]:13
28 August 1909 Louis Blériot 47.823 76.995 Blériot XI Reims, France [2][3]:13
23 April 1910 Hubert Latham 48.186 77.579 Antoinette VII Nice, France [2][3]:18
10 July 1910 Léon Morane 66.154 106.508 Blériot Reims, France [2][3]:13
29 October 1910 Alfred Leblanc 68.171 109.756 Blériot XI New York, New York, USA [2][3]:13
12 April 1911 Alfred Leblanc 69.442 111.801 Blériot Blériot Pau, France [2][3]:14
11 May 1911 Édouard Nieuport 73.385 119.760 Nieuport IIN Châlons, France [2][3]:25
12 June 1911 Alfred Leblanc 77.640 125.000 Blériot [2]
16 June 1911 Édouard Nieuport 80.781 130.057 Nieuport IIN Châlons, France [2][3]:25
21 June 1911 Édouard Nieuport 82.693 133.136 Nieuport IIN Châlons, France [2][3]:25
13 January 1912 Jules Védrines 87.68 145.161 Deperdussin Monocoque (1912) Pau, France [2][3]:27
22 February 1912 Jules Védrines 100.18 161.290 Deperdussin monoplane Pau, France [2][3]:27
29 February 1912 Jules Védrines 100.90 162.454 Deperdussin Monocoque Pau, France [2][3]:27
1 March 1912 Jules Védrines 103.62 166.821 Deperdussin Monocoque Pau, France [2][3]:27
2 March 1912 Jules Védrines 104.29 167.910 Deperdussin Monocoque Pau, France [2][3]:27
13 July 1912 Jules Védrines 106.07 170.777 Deperdussin Monocoque Reims, France [2][3]:27
9 September 1912 Jules Védrines 108.14 174.100 Kanav Wason (1912) Chicago, Illinois, USA [2][3]:27
17 June 1913 Maurice Prévost 111.69 179.820 Deperdussin Monocoque (1913) Reims, France [2][3]:31
27 September 1913 Maurice Prévost 119.19 191.897 Deperdussin Monocoque (1913) Reims, France [2][3]:31
29 September 1913 Maurice Prévost 126.61 203.850 Deperdussin Monocoque (1913) Reims, France [2][3]:31
1914 Norman Spratt 134.5 216.5 Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.4 Unofficial
August 1918 Roland Rohlfs 163 262.3 Curtiss Wasp Not officially recognised.[4]:140
1919 Joseph Sadi-Lecointe 191.1 307.5 Nieuport-Delage NiD 29V Not officially recognised.
7 February 1920 Joseph Sadi-Lecointe 171.0 275.264 Nieuport-Delage NiD 29V Villacoublay, France. [5] First official record post World War 1.[2][3]:33
28 February 1920 Jean Casale 176.1 283.464 Spad-Herbemont 20 bis Villacoublay, France [2][6][3]:37
9 October 1920 Bernard de Romanet 181.8 292.682 Spad-Herbemont 20 bis Buc, France [2][3]:37[7]
10 October 1920 Joseph Sadi-Lecointe 184.3 296.694 Nieuport-Delage NiD 29V Buc, France [2][3]:33
20 October 1920 Joseph Sadi-Lecointe 187.9 302.529 Nieuport-Delage NiD 29V Villacoublay, France [2][3]:33
4 November 1920 Bernard de Romanet 191.9 309.012 SPAD S.XX Buc, France [2][8]
12 December 1920 Joseph Sadi-Lecointe 194.4 313.043 Nieuport-Delage NiD 29V Villacoublay, France [2][3]:33
26 September 1921 Joseph Sadi-Lecointe 205.2 330.275 Nieuport-Delage Sesquiplane Ville Sauvage, France [9][3]:39
13 October 1922 Billy Mitchell 222.88 358.836 Curtiss R Detroit, Michigan, USA [2][10]
18 October 1922 Billy Mitchell 224.28 360.93 Curtiss R-6 Selfridge Field, Detroit, Michigan, USA [4]:232-3[11][3]:41
15 February 1923 Joseph Sadi-Lecointe 232.91 375.00 Nieuport-Delage Istres, France [10]
29 March 1923 1st Lt. Russell L. Maughan 236.587 380.74 Curtiss R-6 Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, USA [3]:41[4]:233[12]
2 November 1923 Lt. Harold J. Brow 259.16 417.07 Curtiss R2C-1 Mineola, New York, USA [4]:235[3]:43
4 November 1923 Lt. Alford J. Williams 266.59 429.02 Curtiss R2C-1 Mineola, New York, USA [4]:235[3]:43[13]
11 November 1924 Florentin Bonnet 278.37 448.171 Bernard-Ferbois V.2 [2]
4 November 1927 Mario de Bernardi 297.70 479.290 Macchi M.52 seaplane Venice, Italy Database ID 11828 [1][2]
30 March 1928 Mario de Bernardi 318.620 512.776 Macchi M.52bis seaplane Venice, Italy Database ID 11827 [1][14]
August 1929 Giuseppe Motta 362.0 582.6 Macchi M.67 seaplane Unofficial
10 September 1929 George H. Stainforth 336.3 541.4 Gloster VI seaplane Calshot, UK Database ID 11829[1][15]
12 September 1929 Augustus Orlebar 357.7 575.5 Supermarine S.6 seaplane Calshot, UK Database ID 11830 [1][16]
13 September 1931 George H. Stainforth 407.5 655.8 Supermarine S.6B seaplane Lee-on-the-Solent, UK Database ID 11831 [1][17]
10 April 1933 Francesco Agello 423.6 682.078 Macchi M.C.72 seaplane Desenzano del Garda, Italy Database ID 11836 [1][2]
23 October 1934 Francesco Agello 440.5 709.209 Macchi M.C.72 seaplane Desenzano del Garda, Italy Database ID 4497, current piston-engined seaplane speed record.[1][2]
13 September 1935 Howard Hughes 354.4 567.12 Hughes H-1 Racer landplane Santa Ana, CA (USA) FAI Database ID 8748 [18]
11 November 1937 Dr.Hermann Wurster 379.63 610.95 Bf 109 V13 landplane Augsburg, Germany FAI Database ID 8747 [19]
30 March 1939 Hans Dieterle 466.6 746.60 He 100 V8 Oranienburg (Germany) FAI Database ID 8744 [20]
26 April 1939 Fritz Wendel 469.220 755.138 Me 209 V1 Augsburg, Germany Piston-engined record until 1969 [21]
2 October 1941 Heini Dittmar 623.65 1003.67 Messerschmitt Me 163A V4 Peenemünde, Germany Rocket powered – World War II secret, not an Official FAI record but over the 3 km FAI distance[22]:122[23][24]
1944 Heinz Herlitzius 624 1004 Messerschmitt Me 262 S2 Leipheim, Germany World War II secret, not an Official FAI record [22]:122
6 July 1944 Heini Dittmar 702 1130 Messerschmitt Me 163B V18 Lagerlechfeld, Germany Rocket powered – World War II secret, not an Official FAI record [22]:122
7 November 1945 H. J. Wilson 606.4 975.9 Gloster Meteor F Mk 4 Herne Bay, UK EE455 Britannia, first official record post World War II.[25][3]:107
7 September 1946 Edward Mortlock Donaldson 615.78 990.79 Gloster Meteor F Mk 4 Littlehampton, UK [25] EE530, a long-span Mk 4.[3]:107
19 June 1947 Col. Albert Boyd 623.74 1003.60 Lockheed P-80R Shooting Star Muroc, California, US [26]
20 August 1947 Cmdr. Turner Caldwell 640.663 1031.049 Douglas Skystreak Muroc, California, US First record flight to exceed secret October 1941 Me 163A V4 figure[27]
25 August 1947 Major Marion Eugene Carl USMC 650.796 1047.356 Douglas Skystreak Muroc, California, US [27]
14 October 1947 Chuck Yeager 670.0 1078 Bell X-1 (flight #50) Muroc, California, US Rocket powered – Cold War secret, not an official FAI C-1 record
6 November 1947 Chuck Yeager 891.0 1434 Bell X-1 (flight #58) Muroc, California, US Rocket powered – Cold War secret, not an official FAI C-1 record, first record to exceed secret July 1944 Me 163B V18 figure
15 September 1948 Maj. Richard L. Johnson, USAF 670.84 1079.6 North American F-86A-3 Sabre Cleveland, US [2][28]
18 November 1952 J. Slade Nash 698.505 1,124.13 North American F-86D Sabre Salton Sea, US [29]
16 July 1953 William Barnes 715.745 1,151.88 North American F-86D Sabre Salton Sea, US [30]
7 September 1953 Neville Duke 727.6 1,171 Hawker Hunter Mk.3 Littlehampton, UK [31]
26 September 1953 Mike Lithgow 735.7 1,184 Supermarine Swift F4 Castel Idris, Tripoli, Libya [32]
3 October 1953 James B. Verdin, US Navy 752.9 1,211.5 Douglas F4D Skyray Salton Sea, US [33]
29 October 1953 Frank K. Everest USAF 755.1 1,215.3 North American F-100 Super Sabre Salton Sea, US
20 August 1955 Horace A. Hanes 822.1 1,323 North American F-100C Super Sabre Palmdale, US
10 March 1956 Peter Twiss 1,132 1,822 Fairey Delta 2 Chichester, UK [34]
12 December 1957 USAF 1,207.6 1,943.5 McDonnell F-101A Voodoo Edwards Air Force Base, US [35]
18 May 1958 Cap. WW Irwin, USAF 1,404 2,259.5 Lockheed YF-104A Starfighter Edwards Air Force Base, US [3]:147
31 October 1959 Col. Georgi Mosolov 1,484 2,388 Ye-6/3, a.k.a. Ye-66 (Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21) USSR [36]
15 December 1959 Maj. Joseph Rogers, USAF 1,525.9 2,455.7 Convair F-106 Delta Dart Edwards Air Force Base, US The record should have gone to Charles Myers, who flew a Delta Dart at 1544 mph in 1959, but Cold War pressures dictated that the award should go to a military pilot.[37][38][39]
22 November 1961 Robert G. Robinson, US Navy 1,606.3 2,585.1 McDonnell-Douglas F4H-1F Phantom II Edwards Air Force Base, US [40][3]:165
7 July 1962 Col. Georgi Mosolov 1,665.9 2,681 Mikoyan Gurevich Ye-166 – name adopted for the record attempt, originally a version of a Ye-152 USSR [41][42] a.k.a. E-166.[3]:179
1 May 1965 Robert L. Stephens
and Daniel Andre
2,070.1 3,331.5 Lockheed YF-12A Edwards AFB, US [43]
28 July 1976 Capt. Eldon W. Joersz and Maj. George T. Morgan 2,193.2 3,529.6 Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird #61-7958 Beale AFB, US [44]

Official records versus unofficial[edit]

The Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird holds the official Air Speed Record for a manned airbreathing jet aircraft with a speed of 3,530 km/h (2,193 mph). It was capable of taking off and landing unassisted on conventional runways. The record was set on 28 July 1976 by Eldon W. Joersz and George T. Morgan Jr. near Beale Air Force Base, California, US.[45] SR-71 pilot Brian Shul reported in The Untouchables that he flew in excess of Mach 3.5 on April 15, 1986 over Libya in order to avoid a missile.[46]

Although the official record for fastest piston-engined aeroplane in level flight is held by a Grumman F8F Bearcat, the Rare Bear, with a speed of 528.31 mph (850.24 km/h), the unofficial record for fastest piston-engined aeroplane in level flight is a held by a British Hawker Sea Fury at 547 mph (880 km/h). Whereas these were both demilitarised, modified fighters, the fastest piston-engined aeroplane in stock (original, factory-built) condition was the German Dornier Do 335 Pfeil, with a maximum speed of 474 mph (765 km/h) in level flight. The unofficial record for fastest piston-engined aeroplane (not in level flight) is held by a Supermarine Spitfire Mk IXX, which was calculated to have achieved a speed of 690 mph (1,110 km/h, Mach 0.96) in a dive on 5 February 1952.

The last new speed record ratified before the outbreak of World War II was set on 26 April 1939 with a Me 209 V1, at 755 km/h (469 mph). The chaos, and secrecy, of World War II meant that new speed breakthroughs were not publicized nor ratified. In October 1941, an unofficial speed record of 1004 km/h (624 mph) was secretly set by a Messerschmitt Me 163 AV4 rocket aircraft. Continued research during the war extended the secret, unofficial speed record to 1130 km/h (702 mph) by July 1944, achieved by a Messerschmitt Me 163B V18. The first new official record in the post-war period was achieved by a Gloster Meteor in November 1945, at 976 km/h (606 mph). The first aircraft to exceed the unofficial October 1941 record of the Me 163 AV4 was the Douglas Skystreak, which achieved 1031 km/h (641 mph) in August 1947. The July 1944 unofficial record of the Me 163B V18 was officially surpassed in November 1947, when Chuck Yeager flew the Bell X-1 to 891 mph (1434 km/h).

The official speed record for a seaplane moved by piston engine - still valid today - is 709.209 km/h, from the seaplane ("idrocorsa") Macchi-Castoldi M.C.72, attained on October 23, 1934 by Francesco Agello.[47] It was equipped with the Fiat AS.6 engine (version 1934) developing a power of 3100 hp at 3300 rpm, with coaxial counter-rotating propellers. The original Macchi-Castoldi MC72 MM.181 seaplane that holds the record is kept in the Air Force Museum at Vigna di Valle in Italy.

On 12 November 1981, Space Shuttle mission STS-2 was flown through its gliding re-entry from Mach 24 through its entire approach and landing, so as to test the limits of the shuttle's stability and controls.[48] The fastest manned atmospheric vehicle of all time was the Apollo Command Module, reaching speeds of around Mach 30 during re-entry. While different from most people's idea of an 'aircraft', the capsule did have a lift to drag ratio of around 0.368, which was used to control the flight trajectory.[49]

Other air speed records[edit]

Year Pilot Airspeed Aircraft Comments
mph km/h
24 March 1960 Ivan Sukhomlin, B. Timochuk & 4 crew 541.45 871.38 Tupolev Tu-114 Four-engined Turboprop powered Soviet airliner, fastest-ever record speed for a propeller-driven aircraft of any type.[50][51]
3 October 1967 William 'Pete' Knight 4,519 7,274 North American X-15 Rocket plane; incapable of breathing air[52]
14 November 1981 Joe H. Engle 17,500 28,000 Space Shuttle Columbia Fastest manually controlled flight in atmosphere during atmospheric reentry of STS-2 mission.
15 April 1969 316 509 Bell 533 Compound jet helicopter[53][54]
11 August 1986 Trevor Egginton 249 400.87 Westland Lynx Fastest helicopter[55][56][57]
11 June 2013 Hervé Jammayrac 293 472 Eurocopter X3 Fastest propeller compound helicopter[58]
20xx 316 509 Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey [59][60] Tiltrotor
31 December 1988 L.P. Krantov 258.8 415 Tupolev Tu-134A Fastest landing speed record (76 passengers aboard, no one harmed)[61]
21 August 1989 Lyle Shelton 528 850 F8F Bearcat Rare Bear Fastest straight-line piston-engined aircraft
22 April 2010 Unmanned 13,201 21,245 HTV-2 Falcon Air-launched hypersonic glider; fastest unmanned aerial vehicle[62]
16 November 2004 Unmanned 7,546 12,144 NASA X-43A Air-launched hypersonic scramjet; fastest free-flying air breathing vehicle.
22 December 2006 Klaus Ohlmann & Matias Garcia Mazzaro 190.6 306.8 Schempp-Hirth Nimbus-4DM Fastest glider (sailplane) over 500 km[63]
12 June 2009 Robin Shrestha 155 250 SkySpark Fastest electric only aircraft[64][65]
14 October 2012 Felix Baumgartner 844 1358 None Fastest unpowered descent[66][67]
2 October 1985 Holger Rochelt 27.54 44.32 Musculair 2 Fastest human-powered aircraft[68]

Flying between any two airports allow a large number of combinations, so setting a speed record ("speed over a recognised course") is fairly easy with an ordinary aircraft; it does require some paperwork.[69][70][71]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Cooper Flight 25 May 1951, p. 619.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Munson, Kenneth (1978). Jane's Pocket Book of Record-breaking Aircraft (First Collier Books Edition 1981 ed.). New York, New York, USA: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-080630-2. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Bowers 1979
  5. ^ The Royal Aero Club of the U.K.: Official Notices to Members". Flight, No. 625 Volume XII 16 December 1920. p. 1274.
  6. ^ "Speed Records in France". Flight, 4 March 1920.
  7. ^ "Meeting at Buc". Flight, 14 October 1920, pp. 1090–1091.
  8. ^ "De Romanet Breaks Records". Flight, 11 November 1920, p. 1166.
  9. ^ "Some Records Homologated". Flight, 3 November 1921, p. 710.
  10. ^ a b Flight 7 February 1924, p. 75.
  11. ^ "American World's Speed Record Homologated". Flight, 11 January 1923, p. 26.
  12. ^ "Records Homologated". Flight, 28 June 1923, p. 356.
  13. ^ Flight. 27 December 1923, p.776.
  14. ^ Robertson, F.A. de V. "The Attempt on the World's Speed Record". Flight, 8 November 1928, pp. 965–967.
  15. ^ James 1971, p.188.
  16. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1987, p.194.
  17. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1987, p. 201.
  18. ^ [1] FAI record No.8748
  19. ^ [2] FAI Record No.8747
  20. ^ [3] FAI Record No.8744
  21. ^ [4] FAI Record No.8743
  22. ^ a b c Käsmann, Ferdinand C.W., Die schnellsten Jets der Welt, ISBN 3-925505-26-1, 1994
  23. ^ Heini Dittmar
  24. ^ Wolfgang Späte, Der streng geheime Vogel Me 163 p.32,33 ISBN 3-89555-142-2, 1983
  25. ^ a b Mason 1992, p. 340.
  26. ^ Young, James O. (2007). "Milestones in Aerospace History at Edwards AFB" (PDF). Air Force Flight Test Center History Office. Retrieved 14 July 2008. 
  27. ^ a b Francillon 1979, p.438.
  28. ^ Jackson, Robert (1994). F-86 Sabre: The Operational Record. Smithsonian Institution Press. 
  29. ^ Allward 1978, p. 24.
  30. ^ Allward 1978, pp. 24–25.
  31. ^ Mason 1992, p. 370.
  32. ^ Mason 1992, p. 366.
  33. ^ Francillon 1979, p.476.
  34. ^ Taylor 1974, p. 432.
  35. ^ Francillon 1979, p. 544.
  36. ^ Belyakov and Marmain 1994, pp. 298, 300.
  37. ^ Taylor, Michael. "Obituary Colonel Joseph 'Joe' W. Rogers, USAF (Ret) Record-breaking Famed Aviator Dies At Age 81". F-106 Delta Dart – The Ultimate Interceptor. Retrieved 28 June 2016. 
  38. ^ Grazier, Dan. "POGO Remembers Chuck Myers, "Fighter Mafia" Veteran". www.POGO.org. Retrieved 28 June 2016. 
  39. ^ Samuel, Wolfgang (2015). In Defense of Freedom: Stories of Courage and Sacrifice of World War II Army Air Forces Flyers. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-62846-217-3. Retrieved 28 June 2016. 
  40. ^ Francillon 1979, p. 572.
  41. ^ Taylor 1965, p. 346.
  42. ^ Belyakov and Marmain 1994, pp. 274–275.
  43. ^ Taylor 1976, p. 72.
  44. ^ Taylor 1988, p. [51].
  45. ^ "Current air speed record". Retrieved 18 October 2006. 
  46. ^ Shul, Brian (1994). The Untouchables. Mach One. p. 173. ISBN 0929823125. 
  47. ^ "Agello Airspeed record, Air Force portal". Retrieved 31 August 2015. 
  48. ^ "Joe H. Engle". NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. 3 June 2004. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  49. ^ Hillje, Ernest R., "Entry Aerodynamics at Lunar Return Conditions Obtained from the Flight of Apollo 4 (AS-501)," NASA TN D-5399, (1969).
  50. ^ "FAI official database" Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Retrieved: 5 September 2007.
  51. ^ "Aircraft Speed Records." Aerospaceweb. Retrieved: 5 September 2007.
  52. ^ "Fastest Plane in the World". FlyFighterJet.com - Fly a Jet, Fighter Jet Rides in Supersonic MiG-29. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  53. ^ Robb, Raymond L. (2006). Hybrid helicopters: Compounding the quest for speed, page 43. Vertiflite, Summer 2006. American Helicopter Society. Size: 25 pages in 2MB
  54. ^ Spenser, Jay P. "Bell Helicopter". Whirlybirds, A History of the U.S. Helicopter Pioneers, p. 274. University of Washington Press, 1998. ISBN 0-295-98058-3.
  55. ^ "Lynx – The World's Fastest Helicopter 20 Years On". SBAC. 2006-08-11. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  56. ^ "Rotorcraft Absolute: Speed over a straight 15/25 km course". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Note search under E-1 Helicopters and "Speed over a straight 15/25 km course". Accessed: 26 April 2014.
  57. ^ "Westland Lynx AH.Mk1, G-LYNX/ZB500". Friends of The Helicopter Museum. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  58. ^ Jason Paur. "X3 Helicopter Sets Speed Record At Nearly 300 MPH". Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  59. ^ Wall, Robert. "U.S. Marines See MV-22 Improvements." Aviation Week, 24 June 2010.
  60. ^ Norton, Bill. Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey, Tiltrotor Tactical Transport, page 111. Earl Shilton, Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-85780-165-2.
  61. ^ Л.Л. Селяков. "Человек, среда, машина" Самолет Ту-134А №65011
  62. ^ "Falcon HTV-2". Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  63. ^ "Open Class Gliders: Speed over an out-and-return course of 500 km" Accessed: 28 November 2013.
  64. ^ Grady, Mary (June 2009). "Italian Electric Airplane Reaches 155 MPH". Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  65. ^ DigiSky Srl (June 2009). "250 km/h: 100% eco-friendly aircraft sets world record". Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  66. ^ "Baumgartner's Records Ratified by FAI !" Record FAI, 14 October 2012. Accessed: 18 November 2013.
  67. ^ "Governing Body 'FAI' Officially Confirms Red Bull Stratos World Records". Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  68. ^ "FAI Record File Num #389". FAI. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  69. ^ "Any Pilot Can Set a Speed Record". Flying Magazine. Retrieved 4 October 2015. 
  70. ^ "FAI Record ID #17439 - Albuquerque - Amarillo, C-1b (Landplanes: take off weight 500 to 1000 kg)" Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Record date 8 April 2015. Accessed: 4 October 2015.
  71. ^ Records Downloads NAA

External links[edit]