A manifest or customs manifest or "cargo document" is a document listing the cargo, passengers, and crew of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle, for the use of customs and other officials. Where such a list is limited to identifying passengers, it is a passenger manifest or passenger list; conversely, such a list limited to identifying cargo is a cargo manifest or cargo list. The manifest may be used by people having an interest in the transport to ensure that passengers and cargo listed as having been placed on board the transport at the beginning of its passage continue to be on board when it arrives at its destination.
Cargo manifest vs. bill of lading
A cargo manifest and a bill of lading may carry similar information and the concepts are not always clearly distinguished. In some cases, a single document may serve both purposes. In general, a bill of lading serves as a legal instrument focusing on and documenting such issues as ownership, whereas a cargo manifest is often more concerned with physical aspects of the cargo, such as weight and size. When the cargo is being shipped by several different shipping companies on the same vessel, there will usually be separate bills of lading for each company, but only a single consolidated cargo manifest. On the other hand, if the cargo contains dangerous goods, there may be a separate dangerous cargo manifest.
Customs and excise
Immigration authorities may require passenger-carrying vessels or vehicles to provide a passenger manifest listing information such as names and ports of embarkation and disembarkation.
Manifests can be useful tools for archaeology. For example, researchers used old ship's manifests to recreate the available amenities in their restoration of the historic Custom House Plaza in Monterey, California, which was built in 1821 and remains the oldest public building in California.
- Business Dictionary.com, "Manifest", retrieved 23 May 2013
- "14 CFR Part 243 - Passenger Manifest Information, §243.1 Purpose". Code of Federal Regulations.
- "Domestic Passenger Manifest Information – Advance notice of proposed rulemaking". Federal Register. 62 (49). March 13, 1997. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- "Customer Support – Marine Cargo Claims / Documents Required". ECICS Limited. 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- Maxine Cass, Northern California Off the Beaten Path, 8th: A Guide to Unique Places (2009), p. 78.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Manifest.|
- Passenger name record, a document recording the transit of an individual passenger (computer reservation system for air travel)
- Flight manifest (documentation)
- Shipping list, a document accompanying an individual package
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