Flightless fruit fly
Flightless fruit flies (Order Diptera) encompasses a variety of different species of fly, such as Drosophila melanogaster, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Drosophila hydei, with genetic mutations that cause them to be flightless. These genetic mutations may have different results such as the development of muscles that cannot support flight or even result in the lack of wings entirely. Flightless fly models have been especially useful for the study of human neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, spinobulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, dystrophinopathies and other inherited neuromuscular diseases. Other applications of flightless flies include using them as convenient feeders for a variety of companion animals and even as test subjects in aeronautical research 
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- McCOMBS, SUSAN D.; SAUL, STEPHEN H. Flightless Mutants in the Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Possible Role in the Sterile Insect Release Method. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 85, Number 3, May 1992, pp. 344-347(4)
- Rajendra, T.K. et al . 2007. A Drosophila melanogaster model of spinal muscular atrophy reveals a function for SMN in striated muscle. J. Cell Biol. 176: 831–841.
- Bloomquist, J. R. and Miller, T. A. (1986), Neural correlates of flight activation and escape behavior in houseflies recovering from pyrethroid poisoning. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol., 3: 551–559. doi: 10.1002/arch.940030606.
- "ALL ABOUT FLIGHTLESS FRUIT FLIES." The Fruit Fly Shop. Web 29 May 2013.
- Kathy Barnstorff. "FRUIT FLIES IMPROVING FLIGHT." 15 May 2013 NASA. Web 30 May 2013.