Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park

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Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park
South Australia
IUCN category II (national park)
Flinders Ranges NP SA.jpg
Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park
Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park is located in South Australia
Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park
Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park
Nearest town or city Hawker
Coordinates 31°25′20″S 138°42′18″E / 31.42222°S 138.70500°E / -31.42222; 138.70500Coordinates: 31°25′20″S 138°42′18″E / 31.42222°S 138.70500°E / -31.42222; 138.70500
Established 1 January 1945 (1945-01-01)[1]
Area 933.97 km2 (360.6 sq mi)[1]
Managing authorities Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources
Website Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park
See also Protected areas of South Australia

The Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park[2] is situated approximately 400 km north of Adelaide in the northern central part of South Australia's largest mountain range, the Flinders Ranges. The park covers an area of 912 km², northeast of the small town of Hawker. The Heysen Trail and Mawson Trails pass through the park.

The park's most characteristic landmark is Wilpena Pound, a large, sickle-shaped, natural amphitheatre covering nearly 80 km², containing the range's highest peak, St Mary Peak (1,170 metres).[3] On 12 February 2016 the park was renamed to include the Adnyamathanha word, Ikara, "meeting place", referring to the traditional name for Wilpena Pound.[2]

The park centre at Wilpena Pound is accessible by sealed road from Hawker. Other areas in the park can be reached by un-sealed roads, which are mostly accessible by two-wheel drive vehicles except in bad weather or after heavy rain. There are many lookouts, scenic vistas, small canyons and unusual rock formations located in the park. These include Wilpena Pound, Wilkawillina Gorge, Hucks Lookout, Brachina Gorge, Bunyeroo Gorge and Arkaroo Rock. The park has some stone ruins from early European settlement and Aboriginal rock art sites. A rock formation called the Great Wall of China is located just outside the park. Camping is permitted at many locations in the park.[3]

Geology[edit]

The Flinders Ranges are largely composed of folded and faulted sediments of the Adelaide Geosyncline. This very thick sequence of sediments were deposited in a large basin during the Neoproterozoic on the passive margin of the ancient continent of Rodinia. During the Cambrian, approximately 540 million years ago, the area underwent the Delamerian orogeny where the geosynclinal sequence was folded and faulted into a large mountain range. Since this time the area has undergone erosion resulting in the relatively low ranges today.

Most of the high ground and ridgetops in the Flinders are sequences of quartzites that outcrop along strike. The high walls of Wilpena Pound are formed by the outcropping beds of the eponymous Pound Quartzite in a synclinal structure. The same formation forms many of the other high parts of the Flinders, including the high plateau of the Gammon Ranges and the Heysen Range. Cuesta forms are also very common in the Flinders.

Flora and fauna[edit]

The flora of the Flinders Ranges is composed largely of species adapted to a semi-arid environment such as cypress-pine, mallee, and black oak. Moister areas near Wilpena Pound support grevilleas, Guinea flowers, lilies and ferns. Reeds and sedges grow near permanent water sources such as springs and waterholes.

Since the eradication of dingos and the establishment of permanent waterholes for stock, the numbers of red kangaroos, western grey kangaroos and euros in the Flinders Ranges have increased. The yellow-footed rock-wallaby, which neared extinction after the arrival of Europeans due to hunting and predation by foxes, has now stabilized. Other endemic marsupials include dunnarts, planigales. Echidnas are the sole monotreme species in the park. Insectivorous bats make up significant proportion of mammals in the area. Reptiles include goannas, snakes, dragon lizards, skinks and geckos. The streambank froglet is an endemic amphibian.[3]

Birds[edit]

There are a large number of bird species including various parrots, emus, the wedge-tailed eagles and small numbers of waterbirds. The land within the national park has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area (IBA) because it contains an apparently sustainable population of the range-restricted short-tailed grasswren.[4]

Heritage listings[edit]

There are a number of heritage-listed sites within the national park:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "CAPAD 2012 South Australia Summary (see 'DETAIL' tab)". CAPAD 2012. Australian Government - Department of the Environment. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Flinders Ranges to be renamed in recognition of traditional Aboriginal owners ABC News, 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Reader's Digest Illustrated Guide to Australian Places. Sydney, NSW: Reader's Digest. 1993. p. 526. ISBN 0-86438-399-1. 
  4. ^ "IBA: Flinders Ranges". Birdata. Birds Australia. Retrieved 2011-06-22. 
  5. ^ "Eddie Pumpa Outstation including Outbuilding, Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  6. ^ "Hayward Homestead (Ruin), Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  7. ^ "Impact Ejecta Horizon Late Precambrian Shales Geological Site, Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  8. ^ "Mail Station & Rubbish Dump, Enorama Site (Ruin), Aroona Station, Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  9. ^ "Oraparinna Diapir Locality (designated place of geological significance), Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  10. ^ "http://apps.planning.sa.gov.au/HeritageSearch/HeritageItem.aspx?p_heritageno=62". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016.  External link in |title= (help)
  11. ^ "Wilpena Pound Geological Landform, Flinders Ranges National Park (designated place of geological significance)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  12. ^ "Stromatolites in the Precambrian Trezona Formation, Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  13. ^ "Wills Homestead Complex (Ruins), Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  14. ^ "Appealinna Mine Ruins & Miner's Hut, Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  15. ^ "Wilkawillina Archaeocyathae Geological Site, partly located within Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  16. ^ "Dingley Dell Homestead (Ruin) (including Stable/Pen, Retaining Wall, Lime Kilns, Meat and Smoke House), Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  17. ^ "http://apps.planning.sa.gov.au/HeritageSearch/HeritageItem.aspx?p_heritageno=42". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016.  External link in |title= (help)
  18. ^ "Enorama Diapir Locality - Diapir Reef Complex (designated place of geological significance) Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  19. ^ "Former Blacksmith's Shop, Oraparinna Station, Flinders Ranges National Park". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 

External links[edit]