Flint Boroughs (UK Parliament constituency)

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Flint Boroughs
Former District of Boroughs constituency
for the House of Commons
Preserved county Flintshire
1542–1918
Number of members One
Replaced by Flintshire

Flint Boroughs (sometimes known as Flint or the Flint District of Boroughs) was a parliamentary constituency in north-east Wales which returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and its predecessors, from 1542 until it was abolished for the 1918 general election.

Boundaries[edit]

From its first known general election in 1542 until 1918, the constituency consisted of a number of boroughs within the historic county of Flintshire in north-east Wales. The seat should not be confused with the county constituency of Flintshire, which existed from the 16th century until 1950.

After 1918 Flintshire was represented in Parliament by the single member county constituency, which included all the boroughs formerly in the Flint District of Boroughs.

Flint 1535–1832[edit]

On the basis of information from several volumes of the History of Parliament, it is apparent that the history of the borough representation of Wales and Monmouthshire is more complicated than that of the English boroughs.

The Laws in Wales Act 1535 (26 Hen. VIII, c. 26) provided for a single borough seat for each of 11 of the 12 Welsh counties and Monmouthshire. The legislation was ambiguous as to which communities were enfranchised. The county towns were awarded a seat, but these seats in some way represented all the ancient boroughs of the county, as the boroughs other than county towns were also required to contribute to the members' wages. It is not clear whether the burgesses of the contributing boroughs could vote in the election. The only election under the original scheme was that for the 1542 Parliament. It seems that only burgesses from the county towns actually took part. An Act of 1544 (35 Hen. VIII, c. 11) confirmed that the contributing boroughs could send representatives to take part in the election at the county town. As far as can be told from surviving indentures of returns, the degree to which the out boroughs participated varied, but by the end of the 16th century all the seats had some participation from them at some elections at least.

The original scheme was modified by later legislation and decisions of the House of Commons (which were sometimes made with no regard to precedent or evidence: for example in 1728 it was decided that only the freemen of the borough of Montgomery could participate in the election for that seat, thus disenfranchising the freemen of Llanidloes, Welshpool and Llanfyllin).

In the case of Flintshire, the county town was Flint. The out boroughs were Caergwrle, Caerwys, Overton and Rhuddlan.

In 1690–1715 the freemen of the five boroughs were entitled to vote. The exact number is unknown, but in the only poll of the period (a by-election in 1697) there were 760 voters.

Between 1715 and 1754 the House of Commons changed the franchise of the constituency. In 1727 there were about 1000 freemen entitled to vote. Thereafter the inhabitants of the five boroughs, paying scot and lot (a local tax), formed the electorate. They numbered about 600.

From 1754 to 1790, there were still about 600 voters. Namier and Brooke point out that the constituency was controlled by local squires. No election went to a poll in that period.

Flint Boroughs 1832–1918[edit]

The Flint Boroughs was a district of boroughs constituency, which grouped a number of parliamentary boroughs in Flintshire into one single member constituency. The voters from each participating borough cast ballots, which were added together over the whole district to decide the result of the poll. The enfranchised communities in this district, from 1832, were the eight boroughs of Flint, Caergwrle, Caerwys, Holywell, Mold, Overton, Rhuddlan and St Asaph.

The boundaries of the parliamentary boroughs in the district were altered by the Parliamentary Boundaries Act 1868, but the general nature of the constituency was unchanged. There were no further boundary changes in the 1885 redistribution of parliamentary seats.

Members of Parliament[edit]

Members of Parliament 1542–1640[edit]

As there were sometimes significant gaps between Parliaments held in this period, the dates of first assembly and dissolution are given. Where the name of the member has not yet been ascertained or is not recorded in a surviving document, the entry unknown is entered in the table.

Elected Assembled Dissolved Member Note
1542 16 January 1542 28 March 1544 unknown
1545 23 November 1545 31 January 1547 Thomas Salusbury
1547 4 November 1547 15 April 1552 Robert Massey
1553 1 March 1553 31 March 1553 Edward Stanley
1553 5 October 1553 5 December 1553 Edward Stanley
1554 2 April 1554 3 May 1554  ?Robert Massey
1554 12 November 1554 16 January 1555 Robert Massey
1555 21 October 1555 9 December 1555 Edward Stanley II
1558 20 January 1558 17 November 1558 Peter Mostyn
1559 23 January 1559 8 May 1559 John Hanmer [1]
1562/3 11 January 1563 2 January 1567 John Conway [1]
1571 2 April 1571 29 May 1571 John Hanmer [1]
1572 8 May 1572 19 April 1583 Humphrey Hanmer [1]
1584 23 November 1584 14 September 1585 Richard Lloyd [1]
1586 13 October 1586 23 March 1587 Michael Doughty [1]
1588 4 February 1589 29 March 1589 John Edwards [1]
1593 18 February 1593 10 April 1593 Thomas Griffith [1]
1597 24 October 1597 9 February 1598 Edward Morgan [1]
1601 27 October 1601 19 December 1601 John Price [1]
1604 19 March 1604 9 February 1611 Roger Brereton
1614 5 April 1614 7 June 1614 John Eyton
1620 16 January 1621 8 February 1622 William Ravenscroft
1624 12 February 1624 27 March 1625 William Ravenscroft
1625 17 May 1625 12 August 1625 William Ravenscroft
1626 6 February 1626 15 June 1626 John Salusbury
1628 17 March 1628 10 March 1629 William Ravenscroft
1640 13 April 1640 5 May 1640 Sir Thomas Hanmer, Bt

Members of Parliament 1640–1660[edit]

This sub-section includes the Long Parliament and the Rump Parliament, together with the Parliaments of the Commonwealth and the Protectorate (before the Convention Parliament of 1660).

Elected Assembled Dissolved Member Note
1640 3 November 1640 5 December 1648 John Salusbury
Disabled 1643
Thomas Myddelton
1646–1648
Long Parliament
... 6 December 1648 20 April 1653 unrepresented Rump Parliament
... 4 July 1653 12 December 1653 unrepresented Barebones Parliament
1654 3 September 1654 22 January 1655 unrepresented First Protectorate Parliament
1656 17 September 1656 4 February 1658 unrepresented Second Protectorate Parliament
1658/59 27 January 1659 22 April 1659 John Hanmer Third Protectorate Parliament
... 7 May 1659 20 February 1660 unrepresented Rump Parliament restored
... 21 February 1660 16 March 1660 unknown Long Parliament restored

Members of Parliament 1660–1918[edit]

First Election Member Party Note
1660, November 12 Roger Whitley
1681, March 7 Thomas Whitley
1685, April 3 Sir John Hanmer, Bt
1690, March 17 Thomas Whitley Whig
1695, October 28 Sir Roger Puleston Whig Died 28 February 1697
1697, April 8 Thomas Ravenscroft Whig Died 3 May 1698
1698, August 13 Thomas Mostyn Tory
1701, December 13 Sir Thomas Hanmer, Bt Tory Elected to sit for Thetford
1702, February 2 Sir John Conway, Bt Tory
1702, August 1 Sir Roger Mostyn, Bt Tory Elected to sit for Cheshire
1702, December 2 Thomas Mostyn Tory
1705, May 29 Sir Roger Mostyn, Bt Tory
1708, May 20 Sir John Conway, Bt Tory
1713, September 21 Sir Roger Mostyn, Bt Tory
1715, February 18 Sir John Conway, Bt Died 27 April 1721
1721, June 10 Thomas Eyton
1727, August 31 Salusbury Lloyd A double return. The House of Commons seated Lloyd.
1734, May 16 Sir George Wynne, Bt Unseated on petition
1742, March 22 Richard Williams Declared duly elected, on petition
1747, July 3 Kyffin Williams Died 30 October 1753
1753, November 28 Sir John Glynne, Bt Died 1 June 1777
1777, June 26 Watkin Williams
1806, November 11 Sir Edward Pryce Lloyd, Bt
1807, May 27 William Shipley
1812, October 10 Sir Edward Pryce Lloyd, Bt Whig Created the Lord Mostyn 1831
1831, September 22 Henry Glynne Whig Resigned
1832, February 25 Sir Stephen Richard Glynne, Bt Whig Deemed re-elected as a Liberal candidate
1832 Liberal 1
1837, August 1 Charles Whitley Deans Dundas Liberal 1
1841, June 30 Sir Richard Bulkeley Williams-Bulkeley, Bt Liberal 1
1847, July 31 Sir John Hanmer, Bt Conservative Re-elected as a Liberal candidate
1852 Liberal 1 Created the Lord Hanmer 1872
1872, October 16 Sir Robert Alfred Cunliffe, Bt Liberal
1874, February 6 Peter Ellis Eyton Liberal Died 19 June 1878
1878, July 5 John Roberts Liberal
1892, July (John) Herbert Lewis Liberal
1906, January 20 Thomas Howell Williams Idris Liberal
1910, January 19 James Woolley Summers Liberal Died 1 January 1913
1913, January 21 Thomas Henry Parry Liberal
1918 Constituency abolished

Supplemental Notes:-

  • 1 F. W. S. Craig, in his compilations of election results for Great Britain, classifies Whig, Radical and similar candidates as Liberals from 1832. The name Liberal was gradually adopted as a description for the Whigs and politicians allied with them, before the formal creation of the Liberal Party shortly after the 1859 general election.

Election results 1690-1713[edit]

Sources 1690–1715: Cruickshanks et al.; 1715–1754: Stooks Smith; 1754–1784: Namier and Brooke; 1784–1832 Stooks Smith. Positive swing is from Whig to Tory. Source 1832–1918: Craig. Positive swing is from Liberal to Conservative.

General Election 17 March 1690: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Thomas Whitley Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig gain from ? Swing N/A
General Election 28 October 1695: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Sir Roger Puleston Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Puleston
By-Election 8 April 1697: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Thomas Ravenscroft 510 N/A
Tory Sir John Hanmer, Bt 250 N/A
Majority 260 N/A
Turnout 760 N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
  • Seat vacant at dissolution, on the death of Ravenscroft
General Election 13 August 1698: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Thomas Mostyn Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory gain from Whig Swing N/A
General Election 11 January 1701: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Thomas Mostyn Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
General Election 13 December 1701: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Sir Thomas Hanmer, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
  • Hanmer was also returned by and elected to sit for Thetford
By-Election 2 February 1702: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Sir John Conway, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
General Election 1 August 1702: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Sir Roger Mostyn, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
  • Mostyn was also returned by and elected to sit for Cheshire
By-Election 2 December 1702: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Thomas Mostyn Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
General Election 29 May 1705: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Sir Roger Mostyn, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
General Election 20 May 1708: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Sir John Conway, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
General Election 17 October 1710: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Sir John Conway, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
General Election 21 September 1713: Flint
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Sir Roger Mostyn, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A

Election results 1885-1918[edit]

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

Flint Boroughs by-election, 1878[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Roberts 1,636
Conservative Philip Pennant Pennant 1,511
Majority 125
Turnout
Liberal hold Swing

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1885: Flint Boroughs [3][4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Roberts 1,835 51.7
Conservative Philip Pennant Pennant 1,713 48.3
Majority 122 3.4
Turnout 94.0
Liberal hold Swing
General Election 1886: Flint Boroughs [5][6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Roberts 1,827 56.6 +4.9
Liberal Unionist Sir Henry Mather Jackson 1,403 43.4 -4.9
Majority 424 13.2 +9.8
Turnout 85.6 -8.4
Liberal hold Swing +4.9

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

Herbert Lewis
General Election 1892: Flint Boroughs [7][8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Herbert Lewis 1,883 55.3
Conservative Philip Pennant Pennant 1,524 44.7
Majority 359 10.6
Turnout 91.8
Liberal hold Swing
General Election 1895: Flint Boroughs [9][10][11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Herbert Lewis 1,828 52.4 -2.9
Conservative Philip Pennant Pennant 1,663 47.6 +2.9
Majority 165 4.8 -5.8
Turnout 90.6 -1.2
Liberal hold Swing -2.9

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

General Election 1900: Flint Boroughs [12][13][14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Herbert Lewis 1,760 55.5
Conservative John Lloyd-Price 1,413 44.5
Majority 347 11.0
Turnout 88.6
Liberal hold Swing
Howell Idris
General Election 1906: Flint Boroughs [15][16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Howell Williams Idris 1,899 55.5 +0.0
Conservative John Eldon Banks 1,523 44.5 +0.0
Majority 376 11.0 +0.0
Turnout 93.5 +4.9
Liberal hold Swing +0.0

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election January 1910: Flint Boroughs [17][18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Woolley Summers 2,150 55.5
Conservative H.A. Tilby 1,723 44.5
Majority 427 11.0
Turnout 95.4
Liberal hold Swing
General Election December 1910: Flint Boroughs [19][20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Woolley Summers 2,098 56.9 +1.4
Conservative Henry Richard Lloyd Howard 1,589 43.1 -1.4
Majority 509 13.8 +2.8
Turnout 90.8 -4.6
Liberal hold Swing +1.4
Thomas Parry
Flint Boroughs by-election, 1913
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Henry Parry 2,152 52.6 -4.3
Unionist J. Hamlet Roberts 1,941 47.4 +4.3
Majority 211 5.2 -8.6
Turnout 94.1 +3.3
Liberal hold Swing -4.3

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2011-11-27. 
  2. ^ "Flint Boroughs Election". South Wales Daily News. 6 July 1878. Retrieved 13 October 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (subscription required (help)). 
  3. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  4. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  5. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  6. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  7. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  8. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  9. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  10. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  11. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  12. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  13. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  14. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  15. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  16. ^ The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  17. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  18. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  19. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  20. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  21. ^ Cheshire Observer 1 Aug 1914
  • Boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies 1885–1972, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Parliamentary Reference Publications 1972)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Macmillan Press 1977)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1885–1918, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Macmillan Press 1974)
  • The House of Commons 1509–1558, by S.T. Bindoff (Secker & Warburg 1982)
  • The House of Commons 1558–1603, by P.W. Hasler (HMSO 1981)
  • The House of Commons 1690–1715, by Eveline Cruickshanks, Stuart Handley and D.W. Hayton (Cambridge University Press 2002)
  • The House of Commons 1715–1754, by Romney Sedgwick (HMSO 1970)
  • The House of Commons 1754–1790, by Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke (HMSO 1964)
  • The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith (1st edition published in three volumes 1844–50), second edition edited (in one volume) by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1973)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "F" [self-published source][better source needed]