Floating production storage and offloading

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FPSO Mystras at work off the shore of Nigeria
FPSO Crystal Ocean moored at the Port of Melbourne
The circular FPSO Sevan Voyageur moored at Nymo yard at Eydehavn, Norway.

A Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) unit is a floating vessel used by the offshore oil and gas industry for the production and processing of hydrocarbons, and for the storage of oil. An FPSO vessel is designed to receive hydrocarbons produced by itself or from nearby platforms or subsea template, process them, and store oil until it can be offloaded onto a tanker or, less frequently, transported through a pipeline. FPSOs are preferred in frontier offshore regions as they are easy to install, and do not require a local pipeline infrastructure to export oil. FPSOs can be a conversion of an oil tanker or can be a vessel built specially for the application. A vessel used only to store oil (without processing it) is referred to as a Floating Storage and Offloading vessel (FSO). There are also under construction (as at 2015) floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) vessels, which extracts and liquefy natural gas on board.

History[edit]

Oil has been produced from offshore locations since the late 1940s. Originally, all oil platforms sat on the seabed, but as exploration moved to deeper waters and more distant locations in the 1970s, floating production systems came to be used.

The first oil FPSO was the Shell Castellon, built in Spain in 1977. Today, over 270 vessels are deployed worldwide as oil FPSOs.

On July 29, 2009, Shell and Samsung announced an agreement to build up to 10 LNG FPSOs,[1] at same Samsung Yard Flex LNG appeared to construct smaller units.[2]

On May 20, 2011, Royal Dutch Shell announced the planned development of a floating liquefied natural gas facility (FLNG), called Prelude with 488 m long and 74 m wide, which is to be situated 200 km off the coast of Western Australia and is due for completion in around 2016, the largest vessel man-made ever.[3] Royal Dutch Shell (2013), LNG FPSO (Liquefied Natural Gas Floating production Storage and Offloading), Samsung Heavy Industries at a cost of $12 Billion. [4]

On June 2012, Petronas made a contract of procurement engineering, construction, installation and commissioning, a project with the Technip and DSME consortium.[5] The unit is destined for the Kanowit gas field off Sarawak, Malaysia. It is expected to be the World's First Floating Liquefaction Unit in operation when completed in 2015.[6]

At the opposite (discharge and regasification) end of the LNG chain, the first ever conversion of an LNG carrier, (Golar LNG owned Moss type LNG carrier into an LNG floating storage and regasification unit was carried out in 2007 by Keppel shipyard in Singapore. [7]

Mechanisms[edit]

FPSO diagram

Oil produced from offshore production platforms can be transported to the mainland either by pipeline or by tanker. When a tanker is chosen to transport the oil, it is necessary to accumulate oil in some form of storage tank, such that the oil tanker is not continuously occupied during oil production, and is only needed once sufficient oil has been produced to fill the tanker. [8]

Advantages[edit]

Floating production, storage and offloading vessels are particularly effective in remote or deep water locations, where seabed pipelines are not cost effective. FPSOs eliminate the need to lay expensive long-distance pipelines from the processing facility to an onshore terminal. This can provide an economically attractive solution for smaller oil fields, which can be exhausted in a few years and do not justify the expense of installing a pipeline. Furthermore, once the field is depleted, the FPSO can be moved to a new location. [9]

Types[edit]

A Floating Storage and Offloading unit (FSO) is essentially a simplified FPSO, without the capability for oil or gas processing. Most FSOs are converted single hull supertankers. An example is Knock Nevis, ex Seawise Giant, which for many years was the world's largest ship, it has been converted to an FSO for use offshore. The vessel was sold to Indian ship breakers and renamed Mont for her final journey in December 2009. After clearing Indian customs, she was sailed to, and intentionally beached at Alang, Gujarat, India for demolition.

At the other end of the LNG logistics chain, where the natural gas is brought back to ambient temperature and pressure, specially modified ships may also be used as floating storage and regasification units (FSRUs). A LNG floating storage and regasification unit receives liquefied natural gas (LNG) from offloading LNG carriers, and the on board regasification system provides natural gas exported to shore through risers and pipelines.

1. FSO, Floating Storage and Offloading
2. FPSO, Floating Production, Storage and Offloading
3. FDPSO, Floating, Drilling and Production, Storage and Offloading
4. FLNG, Floating Liquified Natural Gas.

Vessels[edit]

Records[edit]

FPSO Firenze moored at Hellenic Shipyards, 2007

Besides in history mentioned already historical Records, it is added in this section a few more.

The FPSO operating in the deepest waters is the FPSO BW Pioneer, built and operated by BW Offshore on behalf of Petrobras Americas INC. The FPSO is moored at a depth of 2,600 m in Block 249 Walker Ridge in the US Gulf of Mexico and is rated for 80,000 bbl/d (13,000 m3/d). The EPCI contract was awarded in October 2007 and production started in early 2012. The FPSO conversion was carried out at Keppel Shipyard Tuas in Singapore, while the topsides were fabricated in modules at various international vendor locations. The FPSO has a disconnectable turret (APL). The vessel can disconnect in advance of hurricanes and reconnect with minimal down time. [10] A contract for an FPSO to operate in even deeper waters (2,900 m) for Shell's Stones field in the US Gulf of Mexico was awarded to SBM Offshore in July 2013. [11]

One of the world's largest FPSO is the Kizomba A, with a storage capacity of 2.2 million barrels (350,000 m3). Built at a cost of over US$ 800 million by Hyundai Heavy Industries in Ulsan, Korea, it is operated by Esso Exploration Angola (ExxonMobil). Located in 1200 meters (3,940 ft) of water at Deep water block 200 statute miles (320 km) offshore in the Atlantic Ocean from Angola, Central Africa, it weighs 81,000 tonnes and is 285 meters long, 63 meters wide, and 32 meters high (935 ft by 207 ft (63 m) by 105 ft). [12]

The first FSO in the Gulf of Mexico, The FSO Ta'Kuntah, has been in operation since August 1998. The FSO, owned and operated by MODEC, is under a service agreement with PEMEX Exploration and Production. The vessel was installed as part of the Cantarell Field Development. The field is located in the Bay of Campeche, offshore Mexico's Yucatán peninsula. It is a converted ULCC tanker with a SOFEC external turret mooring system, two flexible risers connected in a lazy-S configuration between the turret and a pipeline end manifold (PLEM) on the seabed, and a unique offloading system. The FSO is designed to handle 800,000 bbl/d (130,000 m3/d) with no allowance for downtime. [13]

The Skarv FPSO, developed and engineered by Aker Solutions for BP Norge, is one of the most advanced and largest FPSO deployed in the Norwegian Sea, offshore Mid Norway. Skarv is a gas condensate and oil field development. The development ties in five sub-sea templates, and the FPSO has capacity to include several smaller wells nearby in the future. The process plant on the vessel can handle about 19,000,000 cubic metres per day (670,000,000 cu ft/d) of gas and 13,500 cubic metres per day (480,000 cu ft/d) of oil. [14] An 80 km gas export pipe ties in to Åsgard transport system. Aker Solutions (formerly Aker Kvaerner) developed the front-end design for the floating production facility as well as the overall system design for the field and preparation for procurement and project management of the total field development. [15] The hull is an Aker Solutions proprietary "Tentechtm975" design. [16] BP also selected Aker Solutions to perform the detail engineering, procurement and construction management assistance (EPcma) for the Skarv field development. The EPcma contract covers detail engineering and procurement work for the FPSO topsides as well as construction management assistance to BP including hull and topside facilities. The production started in field on August 2011. [17] BP awarded the contract for fabrication of the Skarv FPSO hull to Samsung Heavy Industries in South Korea and the Turret contract to SBM. The FPSO has a length of 292 m, beam of 50.6 m and is 29 m deep, accommodates about 100 people in single cabins. The hull is delivered in January 2010. [15]

Current FSOs, FPSOs, FDPSO & FLNG[edit]

(If you are going to Add something, Please do it Alphabetically in order)

As of July 2015, there are more than 277 Floating Production Units in use around the world, of which 62% are FPSOs.[18] Largest User of them is Petrobrás as of January 2015. [19]

Just 201 mentioned in this table

Item Vessel Name Type Oilfield Current Location Field Operator Newbuild or
Conversion
Startup
year
Vessel Designer
/Operator
001 Abo FSO Abo, Gulf of Guinea Nigeria Nigeria Agip Conversion 2003 BW Offshore
002 Abu FSO Abu Cluster, South China Sea Peninsular
Malaysia Malaysia
Petronas Carigali Conversion 2005 MISC / FPSO Ventures
003 Agbami FPSO Nigeria Nigeria Star Deep Water Petroleum Newbuild 2008 Chevron
004 Akpo FPSO Akpo, Gulf of Guinea Nigeria Nigeria Total Newbuild 2009 Total
005 Alvheim FPSO Vetco
006 Al Zaafarana, 55,935 t, ex-mv Camar Nusantara 04.1991 Asoka Nusantara 01.1985 Kavo Longos 01.1976 Golar Ron 1969 tanker FSO Warda, Gulf of Suez Egypt Egypt Aker Solutions Conversion 1994 Gemsa Petroleum Co
007 Anasuria, length 234.2 m beam 44.8 m draft 23.8 m FPSO Teal, Teal South, Guillemot A, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Shell Newbuild 1996
008 Anoa Natuna FPSO Anoa field, Natuna Sea Indonesia Indonesia Premier Oil 1990 Premier Oil,KN, Natuna Sea BV
009 Angsi FPSO Angsi, South China Sea Peninsular
Malaysia Malaysia
Talisman Conversion 2005 MISC / FPSO Ventures
010 Aoka Mizu, 66,426 t FPSO Ettrick, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Nexen Newbuild 1999 Bluewater Energy Services
011 Apollo Spirit, 89,421 t length 284 m beam 42 m draft 8 m, ex-mv Nordic Apollo 01.1991 Coastal Jade 01.1991 Jade Phoenix 01.1991 Coast Jade 1983 El Paso Cove Point 1983 tanker FSO North Sea Norway Norway Teekay Petrojarl Conversion 2006 Teekay Petrojarl
012 Arco Ardjuna FPSO Ardjuna Oil field, West Java Sea Indonesia Indonesia Pertamina Hulu Energy 1973 Pertamina
013 Arendal Spirit, the second and third unit are delayed in China Floating Accommodation Vessel Rio de Janeiro Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Newbuild 2015 Teekay as Logitel Offshore Holdings with Norway’s Sevan Marine
014 Armada Claire FPSO Balnaves field Western
Australia Australia
Bumi Armada Berhad Conversion 2014 Bumi Armada Berhad
015 Armada Intrepid, ex-Schiehallion, 86,074 t FPSO ex-Schiehallion, North Atlantic United Kingdom United Kingdom BP Newbuild, under refit 2015, 1998 Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries, Belfast, UK
016 Armada Perdana FPSO Oyo Nigeria Nigeria Allied Energy / Agip 2010 Bumi Armada Berhad
017 Armada Perkasa FPSO Okoro Setu Nigeria Nigeria Afren / AMNI Conversion 2009 Bumi Armada Berhad
018 Armada Perwira FPSO Te Giac Trang field (TGT) Vietnam Vietnam Bumi Armada Berhad Conversion 2011 Bumi Armada Berhad
019 Armada Sterling, 58,510 t, ex-mv Umbe 08.2011 Monte Umbe 12.2004 Toula Z 1997 tanker FPSO D1 field India India Bumi Armada Singapore Conversion 2012 Bumi Armada Berhad
020 Armada Sterling II, ex-mv Albany 08.02.2003 Eagle Albany 1998, 57,929 t tanker FPSO Forbes Bumi Armada Conversion 2014 Keppel Tuas Shipyard
Bumi Armada Berhad
021 Aseng, 144,072 t, ex-mv Bauhinia 01.2008 Island Bauhinia 09.2001 C Frontier 1997 Yukong Frontier 1988 tanker FPSO Aseng Equatorial
Guinea Guinea
JV (SBM Offshore / GE Petrol)
Single Buoy Moorings Marly, Switzerland
Conversion 2011 SBM Offshore
022 Asgard A (Åsgard A), 89,013 t FPSO Åsgard, North Sea Norway Norway Statoil Newbuild 1998 Nagasu Hitachi Shipbuilding & Engineering Shibushi, Japan
023 Azurite FDPSO (first floating, drilling, production, storage and offloading) Azurite, Atlantic Republic of the Congo Congo Hyundai Heavy Industries,Keppel Corporation for Prosafe and Murphy Oil (Drilling) Conversion from VLCC 2009 Prosafe
024 Balder FPU (Spu 380), 47,244 t FPSO North Sea Norway Norway Esso Norge Stavanger, Norway Newbuild 1996 Far East Shipbuilding Industries Singapore
025 Baobab Ivoirien MV10 FPSO Baobab field Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire CNR International S.A.R.L. 2005 MODEC
026 Ba Vi, 75,366 t, ex-mv Nuri Cerrahoglu 1985 Bralanta 1976 tanker FSO Vung Tau field Vietnam Vietnam Vietsovpetro 1994 Gotaverken Cityvarvet, Gothenburg, Sweden
027 Belanak FPSO Belanak field, South Natuna Sea Indonesia Indonesia ConocoPhillips 2004 KBR / J. Ray McDermott
028 Belokamenka, 188,728 t, ex-mv Berge Pioneer 1980 tanker FSO Kola Bay, Murmansk, North Atlantic Ocean Russia Russia Oil Terminal "Belokamenka" L.L.C Rosnefteflot, Moscow, Russia Conversion 2004 BW Offshore
Mitsui Ichihara Engineering & Shipbuilding, Japan
029 Berge Helene FPSO Chinguetti, North Atlantic Ocean Mauritania Mauritania Woodside Petroleum 2006 [20] BW Offshore
030 Berge Hus FPSO Vetco
031 Bertam ex Ikdam, 68,438 t, ex-mv Northia 02.1980 Oceanic Renown 09.1979 Kronoland 1971 FPSO Malaysia Malaysia Lundin Services Labuan, Malaysia Conversion 2015, 2001 Jurong, Singapore
032 Bleo Holm FPSO Ross, Blake, Parry, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Talisman-Sinopec Energy UK 1999 [21] Bluewater Energy Services
033 Bo hai Ming Zhu Hao, 38,688 t, ex 1993 tanker FPSO Penglai19-3, Bohai China China ConocoPhillips Conversion 2003 [22] CNOOC
034 Bonga, 174,662 t length 305.1 m beam 58 m draft 23.4 m FPSO Bonga, Gulf of Guinea Nigeria Nigeria Shell 2005 [23] Samsung Heavy Industries
035 Brasil, 120,545 t, ex-mv Moscliff 1993 Esso Freeport 1987 Esso Saba 1974 tanker FPSO Roncador field, Campos Basin Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2002 [24] SBM Offshore
036 Brotojoyo, 37,987 t length 202.5 m beam 38.4 draft 11.8 m, ex-mv Ladon 03.1999 Ionio 04.1998 Chiba Spirit 06.1991 Sea Silkroad 1980 tanker FPSO Indonesia Indonesia Emerald Maritime Jakarta, Indonesia Conversion 2005
037 Bunga Kertas, 52,206 t, ex-mv Neptune Otome 1986 tanker FPSO North Lukut & Penara, South China Sea Peninsular
Malaysia Malaysia
Petronas Carigali
Misc Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Conversion 1993 [25] DPS / FPSO Ventures
038 BW Athena FPSO Athena, North Sea UK United Kingdom United Kingdom BW Offshore for Ithaca Energy Conversion 2012 BW Offshore
039 BW Cidade de São Vicente FPSO Lula field, Brazil Brazil Brazil BW Offshore for Petrobras Conversion 2009 BW Offshore Petrobras
040 BW Joko Tole FPSO Terang Sirasun Batur (TSB) Indonesia Indonesia BW Offshore for Kangean Energy Conversion 2012 BW Offshore
041 BW Pioneer FPSO Cascade & Chinook, Gulf of Mexico United States USA Petrobras America Conversion 2012 BW Offshore
042 Capixaba, 137,452 t, ex-mv Stena Congress 16.05.1990 Peconic 01.1980 Universe Mariner 1974 tanker FPSO Golfinho, Espírito Santo Basin Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2005 [26] SBM Offshore
043 Captain FPSO Captain, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Chevron Newbuild 1996 [27]
044 Cendor FSO Cendor, South China Sea Peninsular
Malaysia Malaysia
Petrofac Conversion 2006 [28] MISC / FPSO Ventures
045 Cendor Phase 2 FPSO Cendor field, PM304, South China Sea Peninsular
Malaysia Malaysia
E&P O&M Services Sdn Bhd, EPOMS Conversion 2014 MISC / E&P O&M Services Sdn Bhd EPOMS
046 Cidade de Anchieta, 273,000 t length 344 m beam 51 m height 28 m FPSO Baleia Azul field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Keppel shipyard in Singapore for Petrobras Conversion 2009 [29] SBM Offshore Petrobras
047 Cidade de Angra dos Reis MV22 FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion Petrobras
048 Cidade de Ilha Bela, 160,842 t, ex-mv Anne 12.2010 Hyundai Banner 1996 tanker FPSO Sapinhoá field, Santos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil QGOG (Queiroz Galvão Óleo e Gás)
SBM (Single Buoy Moorings Inc.) Marly, Switzerland for Petrobras
Conversion 2013 [30] SBM Offshore
Petrobras
Hyundai Heavy Industries
049 Cidade de Itaguaí MV26, 82,000 t length 332 m beam 58 m height 31 m FPSO Iracema Norte, Santos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil MODEC for Petrobras Conversion 2015 [31] MODEC
050 Cidade de Itajaí, 57,516 t, ex-mv Arc Ii 24.10.2011 Archon 12.2009 Arc 05.2007 Archon 11.2004 Spectrum 1985 tanker FPSO Santos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrojarl for Petrobras
Capital Shipmanagement Athens, Greece
Conversion 2012 Petrojarl
Hyundai Heavy Industries Ulsan, South Korea
051 Cidade de Mangaratiba, crew 110 members FPSO Iracema South area of the Lula field, Santos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil MODEC for Petrobras in partnership with BG E&P Brasil Ltda. (25%) and Petrogal Brasil S.A. (10%) Conversion 2014 [32] MODEC
052 Cidade de Maricá, 159,187 t length 346.5 m beam 58 m height 32.6 m, ex-mv Eli 2011 Eli Maersk 2000 tanker FPSO Lula Alto BM-S-11 field, Santos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras
Tupi BV
Newbuild, in build 2015 [33] SBM Offshore
Petrobras
CXG China
Estaleiro Brasa
053 Cidade de Niteroí, 144,898 t length 304.5 crew 100 members, ex-mv Apollo Shoju 09.2005 Shoju Maru 1986 tanker FPSO Marlim Leste field, Santos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil MODEC for Petrobras Conversion 2008 [34] MODEC
054 Cidade de Paraty, 148,661 t length 328 m beam 56 m, Theseus 05.08.2010 Ciadade De Paraty 12.2008 Titan Aries 06.2005 World Prelude 1988 tanker FPSO Brazil Brazil Brazil SBM (Single Buoy Moorings Inc.) Marly, Switzerland for Petrobras Conversion 2012 SBM Offshore Petrobras
055 Cidade do Rio de Janeiro MV14 FPSO Espadarte Sul field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil MODEC for Petrobras Conversion 2007 [35] MODEC
056 Cidade do Santos MV20, 118,273 t, ex-mv Bateau 09.2005 Bon Bateau 01.1983 Amoco Singapore 1973 tanker FPSO Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras
Gas Opportunity Mv2 Amsterdam, Netherlands
Conversion 2010 Petrobras
057 Cidade de São Mateus FPSO Camarupim, Brazil Brazil Brazil BW Offshore for Petrobras Conversion [36] Petrobras
058 Cidade de São Paulo MV23, 160,508 t length 332 m beam 58 m draft 12 m, ex-mv Jewel 2010 Radiant Jewel 2001 Golar Glasgow 1992 tanker FPSO Brazil Brazil Brazil MODEC for Petrobras Conversion 2011 MODEC
059 Cidade de Saquarema FPSO Brazil Brazil Brazil Newbuild, in build 2016 SBM Offshore Petrobras
060 Cidade de Vitória, 134,606 t, ex-mv Margaux 10.1996 Star Veraguas 10.1990 Texaco Veraguas 1976 tanker FPSO Golfinho II, Espírito Santo Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Saipem Portugal Comercio Maritimo Funchal, Madeira for Petrobras Conversion 2006 Saipem Portugal Comercio Maritimo Funchal, Madeira
061 Chinguetti FPSO Vetco
062 Cuulong MV9 FPSO Su Tu Den field Vietnam Vietnam Cuulong Joint Operating Company (CLJOC) Newbuild 2003 MODEC
063 Crystal Ocean FPSO Rubicon Offshore International with Langstein Slip Conversion 1994 [37] Roc Oil Company, Anzon Australia
064 Crystal Sea FPSO India India Kværner Conversion 1999 Discovery Enterprise
065 Dalia, 190,217 t FPSO Block 17, Dalia Oil field, South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola Total
Sonangol Luanda, Angola
Newbuild 2006 Total
Samsung Shipbuilding & Heavy Industries Geoje, South Korea
066 Dhirubhai 1 FPSO MA-D6, Bay of Bengal India India Reliance Industries Limited Conversion 2008 AFP
067 Didon, 37,166 t, ex-mv New Orleans 14.07.1993 Exxon New Orleans 1965 FSO Tunisia Tunisia Pa Resources Tunisia Tunis, Tunisia Conversion 1997 Newport News Shipbuilding Newport News Va, United States of America
068 Dynamic Producer, 73,641 t length 256 m beam 46 m draft 10 m, ex-mv Ragnhild Knutsen 1987 tanker FPSO Buzios field, Campos Basin Brazil Brazil Brazil Petroserv Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Conversion 2007 Dalian New Shipbuilding Heavy Industry Dalian, China
069 EnQuest Producer, 53,176 t, ex-Uisge Gorm (Bluewater Energy Services), ex-mv Dirch Maersk 1983 tanker, length 248.31 m beam 29.9 m FPSO Alma (Formerly Ardmore) Oil field and Galia Tie-Back, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom EnQuest Conversion 2013 reconstruction, 1995 [38] Blohm + Voss, OGN Shipyard UK
070 EPV Balai Mutiara, ex-mv Stena Caribbean 2002 8,441 t tanker FPSO Malaysia Malaysia BC Petroleum Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Thome Oil & Gas Singapore
Conversion 2013
071 Espadarte FPSO Espadarte, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2000 SBM Offshore
072 Espirito Santo BC-10, 138,160t, ex-Fso Xv Domy 07.1993 ex-Fso Xv 06.1992, ex-mv Nielstor 05.1991 Knock Ville 1988 Azuro 1987 Kazuko 1985 tanker FPSO Parque das Conchas (BC10), Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Shell Americas
Brazilian Deepwater Production Bermuda
Conversion 2009 SBM Offshore MISC Bhd
073 Espoir Ivorien FPSO Espoir, Gulf of Guinea Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire CNR Conversion 2002 Prosafe
074 Ettrick FPSO Vetco
075 Falcon FPSO Johor River Malaysia Malaysia ExxonMobil Conversion SBM Offshore
076 Farwah FPSO Al-Jurf, Mediterranean Libya Libya Total 2003
077 Firenze, 59,491 t, ex-mv Betatank Ii 09.2004 Betatank 02.1993 Shoshone Spirit 1989 tanker FPSO Aquila field, Italy Italy Italy Saipem Portugal Comercio Maritimo Funchal, Madeira Conversion 2011 [39] ENI Agip
078 Fluminense FPSO Bijupira, Salema, Atlantic Brazil Brazil Shell Conversion 2003 [40] Modec
079 Four Vanguard FPSO Woollybutt, Indian Ocean Australia Australia ENI Conversion 2003 Premuda
080 Frade FPSO Frade, Campos Basin Brazil Brazil SBM Offshore Conversion 2009 SBM Offshore
081 Front Puffin FPSO Rubicon Offshore International Conversion [41] Rubicon Offshore International
082 FSRU Toscana, 117,916 t length 288 m beam 48 m draft 12 m, ex-mv Golar Frost 2003 LNG tanker FLNG Italy Italy Olt Offshore Lng Toscana Milano, Italy Conversion 2003 Hyundai Heavy Industries Ulsan, South Korea
083 Gimboa FPSO Gimboa, South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola Sonangol Conversion 2009 Saipem
084 Girassol FPSO Block 17, Girassol, Jasmine & Rosa [42] Oil fields, South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola Total Newbuild 2001 Total
085 Glas Dowr, 56,924 t, ex-mv Nissos Heraclia 1996 tanker FPSO JPDA, Timor Sea Indonesia Indonesia ENI Conversion 1997 Bluewater Energy Services
086 Glen Lyon, 98,973 t FPSO South Korea South Korea BP Newbuild 2014 Hyundai Heavy Industries Ulsan, South Korea
087 Global Producer III, 54,631 t, ex-Kerr Mcgee Global Producer III (Spu 550) FPSO Dumbarton field Block 15/20, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Maersk Oil North Sea Aberdeen, United Kingdom Newbuild 2006, 2000 Maersk
Mitsui Ichihara Engineering & Shipbuilding Ichihara, Japan
088 Goliat FPSO Newbuild 2013
089 Greater Plutonio FPSO Block 18 Greater Plutonio, South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola BP Newbuild 2007 BP
090 Griffin Venture FPSO Griffin, Chinook, Scindian, Indian Ocean Australia Australia BHP Billiton Newbuild 1994
091 Gryphon A, 66,830 t FPSO Gryphon, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Maersk 1993
092 Hæwene Brim, 66,538 t length 252 m beam 41 m draft 12 m, ex-mv Berge Hugin 1997 tanker FPSO Pierce, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Shell Conversion 2001 Bluewater Energy Services
Samsung Heavy Industries Geoje, South Korea
093 Hai Yang Shi You 115, 75,484 t FPSO South China Sea China China CNOOC Tianjin, China Newbuild Beihai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry Qingdao, China
094 Hai Yang Shi You 118 FPSO South China Sea China China CNOOC Tianjin, China Newbuild
095 Hummingbird Spirit FPSO Chestnut field, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Newbuild 2008 [43] Teekay for Centrica Energy Upstream
096 Jorunn Knutsen (Åsgard C), 72,651 t FSO North Sea Norway Norway Knutsen Oas Shipping Haugesund, Norway Newbuild 2000 Astillero La Naval Sestao, Spain
097 Jasmine Venture MV7 FPSO Jasmine field Thailand Thailand PEARL Energy Pte Ltd. Conversion 2004 MODEC
098 Jotun A, 65,420 t length 232 m beam 41.5 m FPSO Jotun, North Sea Norway Norway ExxonMobil Norge Stavanger, Norway Newbuild 1999 Bluewater Energy Services
Kvaerner Masa-Yards Inc Turku
099 Kakap Natuna FPSO Kakap KH field Indonesia Indonesia ConocoPhillips (Kakap) Ltd. Conversion 1986 MODEC
100 Khalij & Fars, 190,612 t FSO Soroosh Iran Iran Iranian Offshore Oil Tehran, Iran Newbuild 2011 Stx Offshore & Shipbuilding Jinhae Shipyard Jinhae, South Korea
101 Kikeh, 135,244 t, ex-Atlas, ex-mv Stena Conductor 23.01.1990 Stena Explorer 01.1986 Universe Explorer 1974 tanker FPSO Kikeh, Sabah Malaysia Malaysia Murphy Oil
Malaysia Deepwater Production Contractors Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Conversion 2006, 2004 SBM Offshore MISC Bhd
102 Kizomba A Hungo, Chocalho, South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola ExxonMobil Newbuild 2004 SBM Offshore
103 Kizomba B Kissanje, Dikanza, South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola ExxonMobil Newbuild 2005 SBM Offshore
104 Kuito FPSO Kuito, Cabinda Angola Angola Chevron Conversion 1999 SBM Offshore
105 Kwame Nkrumah FPSO Jubilee fields, Gulf of Guinea Ghana Ghana Tullow Oil & Others Conversion 2010 MODEC
106 Langsa Venture MV8 FPSO Langsa field, Malacca Strait Indonesia Indonesia MEDCO MOECO Langsa Ltd. Conversion 2001 MODEC
107 Layang ex-Deep Producer 1, 42,575 t, ex-mv Laurita 13.07.2006 Nordic Laurita 01.1997 Nordic Challenger 10.1989 Houston Accord 1981 tanker FPSO Malaysia Malaysia Ramunia Fabricators Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Conversion 2007
108 Maersk Curlew, 52,175 t, ex-mv Maersk Curlew 1997 Maersk Dorset 12.1995 Bin He 05.1992 Dorthe Maersk 1983 tanker FPSO Curlew, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Shell Conversion 2002 Maersk [44]
109 Maersk Ngujima-Yin FPSO Vincent, Exmouth Sub-basin Australia Australia Woodside Petroleum Conversion 2008 Maersk
110 Maersk Peregrino FPSO Peregrino, Campos Basin Brazil Brazil Maersk
111 Marlim Sul FPSO Marlim Sul, Campos Basin Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2004 SBM Offshore
112 Mondo FPSO Block 15, South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola ExxonMobil Conversion 2008 SBM Offshore
113 Munin, 66,662 t, ex-Navion Munin FPSO Lufeng, Xijiang, South China Sea China China CNOOC Newbuild 2001, 1997 Bluewater Energy Services
Samsung Heavy Industries Geoje, South Korea
114 Mystras FPSO Okono, Okpoho, Gulf of Guinea Nigeria Nigeria Agip Conversion 2004 Saipem
115 Nabarima Corocoro Oil field, Gulf of Paria Venezuela Venezuela PDVSA PETROSUCRE S.A Newbuild 2004 Samsung Heavy Industries
116 Nanhai Shengkai, 62,041 t, ex-mv Sea Queen 1975 tanker FSO Lefeng Oil field, Southern China Sea China China CNOOC Tianjin, China Conversion 1993
117 N'Goma ex-Xikomba, 125,027 t, ex-mv Atlantic 2002 Mosocean 11.1996 Amazon Glory 01.1993 Esso Bahamas 1985 Esso Bonn 1974 FPSO Block 15, Xikomba,South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola ExxonMobil Conversion 2014, 2003 SBM Offshore
118 Nganhurra FPSO Enfield, Exmouth Sub-basin Australia Australia Woodside Petroleum Newbuild 2006
119 Njord Bravo, 60,750t, ex-mv Njord B Fsu 2001 Njord B 1997 tanker FSO North Sea Norway Norway Statoil Conversion 2001
120 Noble Seillean, ex-Seillean, 50,928 t FPSO Cachalote, Espirito Santo Basin Brazil Brazil Petrobras, but built for BP Newbuild 2010, 1988 Noble Corporation
Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries Belfast, United Kingdom
121 Norne FPSO Norne, North Sea Norway Norway Statoil Newbuild 1997 Vetco
122 North Sea Producer FPSO MacCulloch, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom ConocoPhillips Conversion 1997 [44] Maersk
123 Northern Endeavour FPSO Laminaria, Corallina, Timor Sea Indonesia Indonesia Woodside Petroleum Newbuild 1999 Kvaerner
SBM Offshore
124 Okha, 85,351 t length 274 m beam 48 m draft 16.89 m FPSO Cossack, Wanaea, North West Shelf Australia Australia Woodside Petroleum Conversion 2011 SBM Offshore
Woodside Petroleum
125 OPL 209 Erha FSO Gulf of Benin, Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria ExxonMobil Newbuild 2006 [45] Saipem [46]
126 Opportunity, 96,896 t, ex-mv Cossack Pioneer 10.1991 Chevron London 1972 Johor river Malaysia Malaysia Conversion 2011
127 OSX 1, 94,626 t length 271.75 m beam 46 m draft 6 m FPSO Tubarão Azul, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil OSX Conversion 2011 OSX
128 OSX 2, 144,851 t, ex-mv Concorde Spirit 2009 Dec 14 Episkopi 2004 Jun 29 Stena Episkopi 2001 Sep World Pendant 1989 tanker FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil OSX Conversion 2012 OSX, Keppel Shipyard
129 OSX 3, 160,257 t length 370 m beam 57 m height 31 m, ex-mv Tar II 2011 Jul Star II 2005 Jan Columba Star 1990 Jun Golar Klementine 1989 FPSO Tubarão Martelo, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil OSX Conversion 2013 OSX
Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Geoje, South Korea
130 Pazflor FPSO Pazflor, South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola Total Newbuild 2011 DSME
131 Peregrino FPSO Peregrino, South Atlantic Ocean Brazil Brazil Statoil Conversion 2013 Petrobras
132 Perintis FPSO MASA field, South China Sea Peninsular
Malaysia Malaysia
Petronas Carigali Conversion 1999 Aker Kvaerner / M3Nergy
133 Perisai Kamelia, ex-Lewek Arunothai, ex-Lewek Fpso 1, 63,994 t, ex-mv Kitty Knutsen 11.2003 Norrisia 01.1987 Gerina 1980 tanker FPSO Malaysia Malaysia Emas Offshore Oslo, Norway Conversion 2013, 2008, 2007
134 Petrobrás 10000, 60,331 t length 227 m beam 40 m draft 14.5 m FDPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2009 Petrobras
135 Petrojarl Banff, 18,488 t, ex-Ramform Banff FPSO Banff, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom CNR Newbuild 2006, 1997 Teekay Petrojarl Trondheim, Norway
Hyundai Mipo Dockyard Ulsan, South Korea
136 Petrojarl Cidade Rio das Ostras, ex-mv Che Guevara 2004 St. Michaelis 1981 tanker, 26,940 t FPSO Badejo, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2007 [47] Teekay Petrojarl
137 Petrojarl Foinaven, 43,279 t, ex-mv Anadyr 1988 tanker FPSO Foinaven, North Atlantic United Kingdom United Kingdom BP Conversion 1997 [48] Teekay Petrojarl
138 Petrojarl I, 30,742 t length 208 m beam 32 m FPSO Atlanta oil field QGEP Undergoing Refit, Damen Shiprepair 1986 (2016) [49] Teekay Petrojarl
139 Petrojarl Knarr, 95,418 t FPSO North Sea Norway Norway Teekay Petrojarl Newbuild 2014 [50] Samsung Shipyard Geoje, South Korea
140 Petrojarl Varg FPSO Varg, North Sea Norway Norway Talisman Energy Newbuild 1999 [51] Teekay Petrojarl
141 Petroleo Nautipa Etame, South Atlantic Ocean Gabon Gabon Vaalco Energy Conversion 2002 Yinson Production, Prosafe
142 PFLNG Satu (PFLNG 1), length 365 m, first of this type FLNG 180 km off Sarawak field Peninsular
Malaysia Malaysia
Petronas Carigali Newbuild 2015 [52]
143 PFLNG 2 FLNG Peninsular
Malaysia Malaysia
Petronas Carigali Newbuild 2018 [53]
144 Piranema Spirit FPSO Piranema field, Brazil Brazil Brazil Rubicon Offshore International Newbuild 2007 [54] Teekay for Petrobras
145 Polvo FPSO Polvo, South Atlantic Ocean Brazil Brazil Devon Energy Conversion 2007 HRT
146 Prelude, ~ 300,000 t length 488 m beam 74 FLNG Australia Australia Shell Australia Newbuild 2016 Shell Samsung Heavy Industries
147 PSVM Block 31 Plutao, Saturno, Venus, Marte, South Atlantic Ocean Angola Angola BP Conversion 2012 MODEC / BP
148 Puteri Dulang Dulang field, South China Sea Peninsular
Malaysia Malaysia
Petronas Carigali Conversion Petronas Carigali / FPSO Ventures
149 Pyrenees Ravensworth, Crosby, Stickle Fields, Exmouth Sub-basin Australia Australia BHP Billiton Petroleum Newbuild 2010 BHP Billiton / MODEC
150 P-31, 138,015 t FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 1974 Petrobras
151 P-32, 137,086 t length 337.09 m beam 54.49 m height 27.79 m draft 21.59 m, ex-mv Cairu 1974 Transpetro tanker FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 1996 Petrobras
152 P-33 FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion Petrobras
153 P-34, ex-mv Juscelino Kubitcheki 1966, Presidente Prudente De Moraes 1959 27,643 t Transpetro tanker, one of the first FPSO in the world FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 1968 Petrobras
154 P-35, 137,950 t, ex-mv José Bonifácio 1974 tanker FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 1997 Petrobras
155 P-37, 130,608 t length 330 m beam 75 m FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 1976 Petrobras
156 P-43 FPSO Barracuda field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2005 KBR
157 P-47, 131,242 t length 386 m draft 14 m, ex-mv Eastern Strength 1987 Calamus 1987 World Heritage 1976 tanker FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 1997 Petrobras
158 P-48, 135,729 t, ex-mv Stena Concordia 1973 tanker FPSO Caratinga field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2001 KBR
159 P-50, 146,901 t, ex-mv Felipe Camarão 1980 Transpetro tanker FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2004 Petrobras
160 P-52 FPSO Roncador field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion Petrobras
161 P-53, 157,574 t length 346.24 m beam 52.36 m draft 16 m Speed 15 kn FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 1986 Petrobras
162 P-54, 146,177 t, ex-mv Barão De Mauá 1979 Transpetro tanker FPSO Roncador field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2003 Petrobras
163 P-55 FPSO Roncador field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion Petrobras
164 P-57, 144,145 t, ex-mv Accord 11.01.2008 Island Accord 07.2001 C Commander 09.1997 Yukong Commander 1988 tanker FPSO Jubarte field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras
Single Buoy Moorings Marly, Switzerland
Conversion 2009 SBM Offshore
Hyundai Heavy Industries Ulsan, South Korea
165 P-58, 153,971 t crew 110 members, ex-mv Roncador 03.2008 Welsh Venture 1991 63,300 t tanker FPSO Parque das Baleias field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2011 [55] Petrobras
166 P-61 FPSO Papa Terra field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2013 [56] Petrobras
167 P-62 in conjunction with production platforms P-52, P-54 and P-55, 60,500 t FPSO Roncador field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Newbuild 2013 [57] Petrobras
168 P-63, length 340 m beam 53 m h 28 m cr 110, ex-mv SW Nisa tanker FPSO Papa Terra field, Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Newbuild 2013 [58] Petrobras
169 P-66, 353,500 t length 288 m beam 54 m height 31.5 m draft 23.1 m crew 110 members, the first platform in a series of eight “replicant” FPSOs being constructed to meet oil production demands in Brazil, completely entirely built in the country. FPSO Lula field, Santos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Newbuild 2014 [59] Petrobras
170 P-74, ex-mv Titan Seema 1992 tanker, in parallel to the completion of the P-76 hull conversion. FPSO Buzios III field, Santos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Newbuild 2015 [60] Inhaúma shipyard in Rio de Janeiro for Petrobras
161 P-75, 149,945 t length 322.07 m beam 56.05 m height 21.62 m draft 10.5 m Speed 15 kn, ex-mv Titan Orion 2010 Front Duke 1996 Sea Duke 1992 tanker FPSO Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 2012 Petrobras
172 P-76, 82,000 t length 332 m beam 58 m height 31 m, in parallel to the completion of the P-74 hull conversion. FPSO Buzios III field, Santos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Newbuild 2015 [61] Inhaúma shipyard in Rio de Janeiro for Petrobras
173 P-77, 149,945 t length 322.07 m beam 56.05 m height 21.62 m draft 10.5 m Speed 15 kn, ex-mv Ticen Ocean 2009 Front Lady 1996 Sea Lady 1991 tanker FPSO Campos Basin, Brazil Brazil Brazil Petrobras Conversion 1976 Petrobras
174 Rang Dong 1 Rang Dong, South China Sea Vietnam Vietnam JVPC, Nippon Oil Conversion 1998 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
175 Raroa, 54,737 t, ex-mv Andaman Sea 09.1995 Tenryusan Maru 1980 tanker FPSO Maari, Tasman Sea New Zealand New Zealand OMV Wellington, New Zealand Conversion 2007
176 Raroa II FPSO Maari, Tasman Sea New Zealand New Zealand OMV Wellington, New Zealand Conversion 2008
177 Rubicon Intrepid FPSO Rubicon Offshore International Conversion [62] Rubicon Offshore International
178 Rubicon Vantage, 45,150 t, ex-mv Nordic Trym 2003 Jan Petrotrym 1995 Jan Primo 1989 Jul Osco Beduin 1987 tanker FPSO Rubicon Offshore International Conversion 2007 [63] Dalian Shipyard, China
179 Ruby Princess Ruby, South China Sea Vietnam Vietnam Petrovietnam Conversion 1998 Prosafe
180 Ruby II Ruby, South China Sea Vietnam Vietnam Petronas Carigali Vietnam Ltd. Conversion 2010 MISC Bhd
181 Sanha LPG FLNG Angola Angola Chevron Newbuild 2005 SBM Offshore / Cabinda Gulf Oil Company Chevron
182 Saxi-Batuque Block 15, Luanda, Angola Angola Angola ExxonMobil Conversion 2008 SBM Offshore
183 Sea Eagle FPSO EA, Gulf of Guinea Nigeria Nigeria Shell Newbuild 2003 Samsung Heavy Industries
184 SeaRose, 127,000 t length 267 m beam 46 m height 26.6 m draft 18 m FPSO White Rose, Grand Banks of Newfoundland Canada Canada Husky Energy Newbuild 2005 Samsung Heavy Industries
185 Sendje Berge FPSO Okwori Nigeria Nigeria Sinopec Conversion 2005 BW Offshore
186 SEPAT FPSO Malaysia Malaysia Petronas Carigali SDN BHD Conversion 2011 Bumi Armada Berhad
187 Serpentina Zafiro, Gulf of Guinea Equatorial
Guinea Guinea
Exxonmobil Conversion 2003 SBM Offshore
188 Skarv, 111,914 t FPSO Skarv oil field and Idun oil field, North Sea Norway Norway BP Norge Stavanger, Norway Newbuild 2010 BP
Samsung Shipbuilding & Heavy Industries Geoje, South Korea
189 Song Doc MV19 FPSO Song Doc field Vietnam Vietnam Truong Son Joint Operating Company (TSJOC) Conversion 2008 MODEC
190 Stybarrow MV16 FPSO Stybarrow field, Exmouth Sub-basin Australia Australia BHP Billiton Petroleum Newbuild 2007 MODEC
191 Terra Nova FPSO Terra Nova, Grand Banks of Newfoundland Canada Canada Petro-Canada Newbuild 1999 (2002) Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering
192 Turritela, 82,780 t, ex-Stones, ex-mv Captain X.kyriakou 2003 tanker SBM Offshore Conversion 2016, 2013 Keppel Shipyard, Singapore
193 Triton FPSO Bittern, Guillemot West, Guillemot Northwest, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Dana Petroleum[64] Newbuild 2000
194 Umuroa Tui, Tasman Sea New Zealand New Zealand Australian Worldwide Exploration Conversion 2007 APS / Prosafe Production
195 Unity, 186,194 t FSO Nigeria Nigeria Elf Petroleum Lagos, Nigeria
Total Courbevoie, France
Newbuild 2002 Hyundai Heavy Industries Ulsan, South Korea
196 Usan, 199,340 t FPSO Nigeria Nigeria Esso Exploration & Production Lagos, Nigeria
Total Courbevoie, France
Newbuild 2011 Hyundai Heavy Industries Ulsan, South Korea
197 Venture 11 FPSO Mutineer-Exeter field Australia Australia Santos Conversion 2005 MODEC
198 Vietsovpetro 02, 77,064 t, ex-Ptsc Bach Ho 2010 FSO Vung Tau field, Vietnam Vietnam Vietnam Vietsovpetro 2011 Vinashin Nasico, Haiphong, Vietnam
199 Voyageur Spirit (Sevan 300) FPSO Huntington field, North Sea United Kingdom United Kingdom Petrobras Newbuild 2007 [65] Yantai Raffels
Keppel Verolme
Nymo for Sevan Marine
200 Yunus FPSO BDR3, Mediterranean Syriah & N.T.J. Group Conversion 1998 Syriah & NTJ Group
201 Yúum K'ak'náab, 189,863 t ex-mv Bw Enterprise 19.12.2005 Folk Moon 26.01.2005 Berge Enterprise 1981 tanker FPSO Ku-Maloob-Zaap field, Gulf of Mexico Mexico Mexico PEMEX Conversion 2006 BW Offshore

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.platts.com/Oil/News/7093122.xml?src=Oilrssheadlines1
  2. ^ http://www.flexlng.com
  3. ^ http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/9ccaed4a-82ba-11e0-b97c-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1NADgzzOH
  4. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/12/03/ship-lng-record-idUSL5N0JE3HE20131203 |date=03 December 2013
  5. ^ http://www.rigzone.com/news/oil_gas/a/127313/Petronas_Cuts_First_Steel_for_FLNG_Facility#sthash.gzPQsC3d.dpuf
  6. ^ http://oedigital.com/component/k2/item/3760-petronas-kanowit-field-flng-facility-under-construction
  7. ^ "The world's first LNG Floating Storage and Regasification conversion". Skipsrevyen. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  8. ^ http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/fpso-floating-production-storage-and-offloading.asp
  9. ^ http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/fpso-floating-production-storage-and-offloading.asp
  10. ^ http://www.pipelineandgasjournal.com/bw-pioneer-fpso-begins-producing-oil-and-gas-gulf
  11. ^ http://www.sbmoffshore.com/?press-release=sbm-offshore-awarded-contracts-to-provide-worlds-deepest-disconnectable-fpso-for-shell-stones-in-gulf-of-mexico
  12. ^ "Production grows in West Africa’s largest deepwater development" - The Lamp - Volume 86 Number 3 2004 - Exxon Mobil Corporation
  13. ^ http://www.modec.com/fps/fpso_fso/projects/cantarell.html
  14. ^ http://www.eon-ruhrgas-norge.com/cps/rde/xchg/SID-3F57EEE5-5B3326E4/er-norge/hs.xsl/2414.htm
  15. ^ a b "Skarv and Idun Fields, North Sea Northern, Norway" -
  16. ^ http://www.akersolutions.com/Internet/IndustriesAndServices/OilAndGas/FieldDevelopment/default.htm
  17. ^ %22Rigzone%22
  18. ^ "Available FPU count at all-time high". Offshore. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  19. ^ Petrobras is world's largest operator of floating production platforms 15.01.2015 
  20. ^ Berge Helene 
  21. ^ Bleo Holm Bluewater 
  22. ^ FPSO Bohai Ming Zhu 
  23. ^ FPSO Bonga 
  24. ^ FPSO Brasil 
  25. ^ FPSO Bunga Kertas 
  26. ^ FPSO Capixaba 
  27. ^ FPSO Captain 
  28. ^ FSO Cendor 
  29. ^ Cidade de Anchieta 11.09.2012 
  30. ^ Cidade de Ilha Bela 25.09.2014 
  31. ^ Cidade de Itaguaí 03.07.2015 
  32. ^ FPSO Cidade de Mangaratiba leaves the yard for pre-salt operations 17.08.2014 
  33. ^ Cidade de Maricá arrive in Brazil 13.07.2015 
  34. ^ Cidade de Niteroi 26.02.2009 
  35. ^ FPSO Cidade do Rio de Janeiro MV14 09.01.2007 
  36. ^ FPSOCidade de São Mateus Accident 12.06.2015 
  37. ^ Rubicon Vessels 
  38. ^ EnQuest Producer completes sea trials 
  39. ^ FPSO Firenze, Aquila 
  40. ^ http://www.modec.com/fps/fpso_fso/projects/bijupira.html |Fluminense
  41. ^ Rubicon Vessels 
  42. ^ [1]
  43. ^ Hummingbird Spirit 
  44. ^ a b "Maersk FPSO Fleet Location" - Maersk FPSO's
  45. ^ http://corporate.exxonmobil.com/en/engineering/deepwater-drilling/technology/overview?parentId=7bb4486e-b68e-43ee-b9fa-cff1663bd80c - ExxonMobil Corporation Latest FPSO Deployment
  46. ^ http://www.saipem.com/site/home/activities/ec-offshore/major-projects.html
  47. ^ FPSO Petrojarl Cidade Rio das Ostras at Badejo Siri 
  48. ^ Teekay FPSO Petrojarl Foinaven 
  49. ^ Petrojarl I 
  50. ^ Teekay FPSO Petrojarl Knarr 
  51. ^ Teekay FPSO 
  52. ^ FLNG page 20 
  53. ^ FLNG page 21 
  54. ^ Piranema Spirit 
  55. ^ Start-up of Platform P-58 in Parque das Baleias 18.03.2014 
  56. ^ P-61 is completed and leaves Angra for Papa-Terra 02.01.2014 
  57. ^ Platform P-62 comes onstream in Roncador field 12.05.2014 
  58. ^ FPSO P-63 16.03.2015 
  59. ^ P-66 hull on its way for integration in Angra dos Reis 10.12.2014 
  60. ^ The hull of the P-76 platform 2015 
  61. ^ The hull of the P-76 platform 2015 
  62. ^ Rubicon Vessels 
  63. ^ Rubicon Vessels 
  64. ^ http://www.dana-petroleum.com/Media-centre/Press-releases/2012/Triton/
  65. ^ FPSO Voyageur Spirit 

External links[edit]