Flooding in Jakarta

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Flood in Central Jakarta, 2013

Flooding in Jakarta occurs on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea and has happened recently in 1996, 2002, 2007, 2013, and 2020. Sections of Jakarta are constantly flooded now.[1]

Jakarta geography[edit]

The area of the Jakarta Special District is 662 km2 of land area and 6,977 km2 of sea area.[2]

Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin, averaging 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level;[citation needed] 40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level,[3] while the southern parts are comparatively hilly.

Rivers flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, across the city northwards towards the Java Sea; the Ciliwung River, divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. Other rivers include the Pesanggrahan, and Sunter high sea tides.

Other contributing factors include clogged sewage pipes and waterways that service an increasing population, in addition to deforestation near rapidly urbanizing Bogor and Depok in Jakarta's hinterland.

Jakarta is an urban area with complex socio-economic problems that indirectly contribute to triggering a flood event.[4]

1960 floods[edit]

In February 1960, flooding occurred in the new suburb of Grogol. Despite the flood-proof planning of Grogol suburb, the area was flooded to knee and waist height. This was the first crisis for Governor Soemarno who was installed only days before the floods began.[5]

1996 floods[edit]

Major floods occurred in 1996[6][7] when 5,000 hectares of land were flooded.[8]

2007 floods[edit]

See also 2007 Jakarta flood

Major floods also occurred in 2007.[9] Losses from infrastructure damage and state revenue were at least 5.2 trillion rupiah (572 million US dollars) and at least 190,000 people have fallen ill due flood related illnesses. Approximately 70% of Jakarta's total area was flooded with water up to four meters deep in parts of the city.[10][11] 80 people were killed in the floods.

2013 floods[edit]

A car tries to drive through Jakarta's flooded streets, Indonesia, January 17, 2013.

On January 15, 2013, a serious flood affected downtown Jakarta, as well as several other areas surrounding the city, such as West Java and Banten, as a result of heavy rain and waterways clogged with garbage and other kinds of debris. A 30-meter-long section of Jakarta's West Flood Canal dike on Jalan Johannes Latuharhary in Menteng collapsed, which quickly caused flooding in nearby areas. Military personnel, the Jakarta public works agency, and public order officers joined forces to quickly replace the collapsed dike section with a temporary retaining wall made of rocks and sandbags. Workers finished rebuilding a section of a canal dike.[12] Flooding was reported at the presidential palace, forcing the postponement of a meeting between President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and his visiting Argentine counterpart, Cristina Fernandez.[13] There were 47 deaths being reported.[14] Evacuations were carried out in parts of Jakarta. An estimated 20,000 people were evacuated as of 17 January 2013[15][16]

2020 floods[edit]

See also 2020 Jakarta floods

Floods occurred throughout Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, and Bekasi on the early hours of January 1, 2020, due to the overnight rain which dumped nearly 15 inches of rainwater — more than 3 times the average amount.[17] The massive downpour caused the Ciliwung and Cisadane river to overflow.[18] Multiple floodgates were assigned emergency status due to the high water levels after the rainfall.[19]

At least 48 deaths had been reported, due to landslides, hypothermia, drowning, and electrocution.[20][21] Many parts of the city had been left without power, as the power was switched off for safety reasons.[22][23]

Multiple transportation networks were disrupted including light rail transit,[24] taxis,[25][26] trains,[27] toll roads,[28] and an airport.[29] Sukarno-Hatta Airport and the Mass Rapid Transit lines were operating as per normal.[30][31]

Halim Perdanakusuma Airport was closed early in the morning due to the airport runways being submerged. Air traffic was temporarily redirected to Sukarno-Hatta Airport.[29] Halim Perdanakusuma was reopened a couple of hours later.

From 6pm on January 1 until 12pm on January 2, 2020, the government temporarily waived all toll road fees in Jakarta.[32]

At many parts of the city, water levels reached 30 to 200 cm. At some places, such as Cipinang Melayu, East Jakarta, water levels peaked at 4 meters.[33] More than 19,000 residents had been evacuated to higher grounds. The government had designated schools and government buildings as temporary shelters.[34] In several areas, evacuation efforts were hampered by rushing waters and blackouts.[35][36]

According to Indonesia's weather agency, more rain with thunderstorm and heavy winds is expected in the next three to seven days, which is likely to exacerbate the current flooding situation.[37][38]

Pollution issues[edit]

In May 2011, the Jakarta Environmental Management Agency categorized all rivers in Jakarta as polluted; 71% of them were heavily polluted, 20% were partly polluted and 9% were lightly polluted.[39]


Flood canals[edit]

East Flood Canal (Banjir Kanal Timur, BKT) in eastern Jakarta was a national project which began in 2003 and late 2009 reached the Java sea and will be accomplished in 2011. It was 23.5 kilometers length which linking five rivers: Cipinang, Sunter, Buaran, Jati Kramat and Cakung. It will reduce flood and hope as a 2 kilometers rowing sport venue too.[40] To ease from flood, Jakarta Emergency Dredging Initiative (JEDI) phase-2 will make underground canal (siphon) from Ciliwung river to Cipinang river and then go through to East Flood Canal. It will lower floods at Cawang, Kampung Melayu, Bukit Duri and Kebun Baru. The length is one kilometer and is finished in 2016.[41]

Using participatory mapping for disaster preparedness in Jakarta[edit]

For managing risk effectively, it needs extensive data for making decisions on investments in preparedness, mitigation, and response. Until recently, detailed information on disaster situation (flooding) was hardly available at local level. A pilot project in Jakarta, led by the Province of Jakarta's Disaster Management Agency collected high-resolution data to inform flood preparedness and contingency. Later, the data, which was accessible by the community and the general public, was used in 2011/2012 Jakarta contingency emergency planning exercise. The risk information it produced was very useful for decision makers in preparedness, development and investment planning.[42] Petabencana.id can now be consulted and it contains a flood map.[43][44] Some additional info may be found at OpenStreetMap. It is an online, open-source platform, which relies on participatory mapping conducted by local communities, private and public actors who collect the detailed information about a given area and share it, meet the needs in disaster situation.

Continuing issues[edit]

Jakarta sinking[edit]

Besides flood from the rivers, Jakarta is also sinking about 5 to 10 centimeters each year and up to 20 centimeters in northern Jakarta mainland. From 2000 to 2050 the potential coastal flood extent is estimated to increase by 110.5 km2 due to both land subsidence and sea level rise.[45] Little did people realize that land subsidence in Jakarta is mainly caused by the overuse of groundwater.[1] At the same time the groundwater has lost its capacity to recharge due to the lack of watershed areas and overpopulation in the capital. Without any groundwater regulation in place, buildings in Jakarta are drawing water from the ground at an unprecedented rate. For households, especially those at the bottom of the pyramid, access to piped water is a luxury. Not only does the customer need to pay for the tariff, which apparently is higher than other Indonesian cities,[2] the instalment fees often burden the poor households to connect to the tap.

Even so, residents also consider piped water, and to some extent groundwater, quality in Jakarta as bad which explains why only 28 percent of Jakarta households drink piped water and groundwater compared to 95 percent in 2000.[3] It is important to note that apart from drinking, people in Jakarta still use groundwater, and to some extent piped water and wended water.[4] Such hydrological behaviour has led to the overuse of groundwater, thus contributing to the land subsidence.

To solve it, the Netherlands will give $4 million for a feasibility study to build a dike on Jakarta Bay. The ring dike will be provided with pumping system and retention area, would regulate and control seawater and use also as additional toll road. The project will be built by 2025.[46] Construction of an 8 km sea wall along the coast was officially launched on Oct. 9, 2014.[47]

[1] Onodera, S., Saito, M., Sawano, M., Hosono, T., Taniguchi, M., Shimada, J., Umezawa, Y., Lubis, R.F., Buapeng, S., Delinom, R.2008. “Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: Examples from Bangkok and Jakarta”. Science of The Total Environment. 404(2–3). 401–410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.08.003

[2] Zamzami, Irfan, and Nila Ardhianie. “An End to the Struggle? Jakarta Residents Reclaim Their Water System.” In Our Public Water Future: The Global Experience with Remunicipalisation, 40–49. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute (TNI), 2015. https://www.ft.dk/samling/20151/almdel/efk/nilag/408/1667841.pdf.

[3] Indonesia Statistical Agency. “Water Supply Statistics DKI Jakarta 2013–2015.” Indonesia Statistical Agency, July 25, 2017. https://jakarta.bps.go.id/publication/2017/07/25/afe14bedf87387ac239cebb8/statistik-air-bersih-dki-jakarta-2013-2015.

[4] Ismowati, M. “Profile of Pam Jaya and Private Partners in Clean Water Supply Jakartan (Case Study Year 1998–2012).” KnE Social Sciences, August 29, 2018, 481–93. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i10.2928.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See petabencana flood maps
  2. ^ Based on Governor Decree in 2007, No. 171. taken from Statistics DKI Jakarta Provincial Office, Jakarta in Figures, 2008, BPS, Province of DKI Jakarta
  3. ^ "The Tides: Efforts Never End to Repel an Invading Sea". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  4. ^ "Key to Jakarta's floods: Basin flood management". The Jakarta Post. 22 March 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  5. ^ Merrillees 2015, p. 17.
  6. ^ "Asian News". Asiaviews. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  7. ^ "Floods in DKI Jakarta Province, updated 19 February 2007 Emergency Situation Report No. 6". ReliefWeb. 19 February 2007.
  8. ^ "1996 Global Register of Major Flood Events". Dartmouth Flood Observatory. Dartmouth College.
  9. ^ "Asia". Bloomberg. 4 February 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  10. ^ Jakarta Flood Feb 2007 « (Geo) Information for All
  11. ^ 2007 Global Register of Major Flood Events, Dartmouth Flood Observatory, 1 May 2008
  12. ^ Siregar, Hotman (19 January 2013). "Floods Recede in Central Jakarta, as Damaged Dike Repaired". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  13. ^ Jensen, Fergus; Rieka Rahadiana (2013-01-17). "Floods paralyze Indonesian capital, heavy rains continue". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-01-17.
  14. ^ "Daftar Korban Meninggal Banjir 2013". BPBD Jakarta. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  15. ^ "Evacuations as Jakarta floods". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  16. ^ "Thousands evacuated amid Jakarta floods - Asia-Pacific". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
  17. ^ "New Year's Eve flooding kills nine, displaces thousands in Jakarta". UPI. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  18. ^ News, A. B. C. "9 dead, thousands caught in flooding in Indonesia's capital". ABC News. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  19. ^ Afifa, Laila (2020-01-01). "New Year; Jakarta Braces for Flood as Rain Pours since Evening". Tempo. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  20. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "[UPDATED] Multiple deaths reported as floods, landslides strike Greater Jakarta". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  21. ^ "9 dead after Indonesian capital hit by New Year flooding". CNA. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  22. ^ "9 dead, thousands caught in flooding in Indonesia's capital". AP NEWS. 2020-01-01. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  23. ^ Afifa, Laila (2020-01-01). "Jakarta Flooding; PLN Turns Off Electricity in 700 Areas". Tempo. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  24. ^ detikcom, Tim. "Banjir, Sejumlah Perjalanan KRL Terganggu". detiknews. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  25. ^ Liputan6.com (2020-01-01). "Pul Taksi Terendam Banjir, Manajemen Blue Bird Fokus Evakuasi dan Data Kerusakan". liputan6.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  26. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "Banjir di Pool Taksi Bluebird Kramat Jati dan Puri Indah, Mobil Terendam Sampai Atap". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  27. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "Berikut Perincian Kereta Jarak Jauh yang Terganggu akibat Banjir Jakarta". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  28. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "5 Tol yang Sempat Tergenang Banjir di Awal Tahun 2020". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  29. ^ a b Afifa, Laila (2020-01-01). "Flooding; Halim Perdanakusuma Airport Runway Closed". Tempo. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  30. ^ Liputan6.com (2020-01-01). "MRT Beroperasi Normal, LRT Setop Sementara Gara-gara Banjir di Jakarta". liputan6.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  31. ^ "Banjir Jakarta, Bandara Soekarno Hatta Beroperasi Normal". nasional. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  32. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "Banjir di Jakarta, Jalan Tol Dalam Kota Gratis Selama 18 Jam". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  33. ^ "Banjir Jakarta dan sekitarnya: Sembilan meninggal, lebih dari 19.000 warga ibu kota mengungsi". 2020-01-01. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  34. ^ "Bloomberg – Are you a robot?". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  35. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "Arus Deras Jadi Kendala Evakuasi di Cipinang Melayu". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  36. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "Listrik Mati Total di Jatimulya Bekasi, Sulitkan Proses Evakuasi". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  37. ^ "BMKG Prediksi Hujan Lebat Guyur Jakarta 3 Hari ke Depan". nasional. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  38. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "BMKG Keluarkan Peringatan Dini, Hujan Disertai Angin Kencang Landa Wilayah Ini". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  39. ^ Jakartans lament the sorry state of the capital’s rivers. The Jakarta Post, Jakarta. May 20, 2011
  40. ^ Minister: Jakarta East Flood Canal accomplished in 2011. Waspada.co.id (30 November 2010). Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  41. ^ :: Wartakotalive.com | Berita : Kali Ciliwung Disodet Archived 2012-03-26 at the Wayback Machine. Wartakota.co.id (14 April 2010). Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  42. ^ (PDF) https://www.gfdrr.org/sites/gfdrr/files/publication/Pillar_1_Using_Participatory_Mapping_for_Disaster_Preparedness_in_Jakarta_OSM.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  43. ^ Petabencana.id
  44. ^ Riskmap
  45. ^ Takagi, Hiroshi; Esteban, Miguel; Mikami, Takahito; Fujii, Daisuke (2016-09-27). "Projection of coastal floods in 2050 Jakarta". Urban Climate. Elsevier. 17: 135–145. doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2016.05.003.
  46. ^ "Dutch to study new dike for Jakarta Bay". The Jakarta Post. 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
  47. ^ Kusuma, Adriana Nina (9 October 2014). "Indonesia Holds Groundbreaking Ceremony for Giant Sea Wall". The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.

Cited works[edit]