Florence Foster Jenkins

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For the 2016 film, see Florence Foster Jenkins (film).
Florence Foster Jenkins
Florence Foster Jenkins.jpg
Background information
Birth name Nascina Florence Foster
Born (1868-07-19)July 19, 1868
Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
Died November 26, 1944(1944-11-26) (aged 76)
New York, New York
Genres Outsider, opera
Occupation(s) Singer, teacher, pianist
Years active 1912–1944

Florence Foster Jenkins (July 19, 1868 – November 26, 1944) was an American socialite and amateur operatic soprano who was known and ridiculed for her lack of rhythm, pitch, and tone, her aberrant pronunciation, and her generally poor singing ability.

Personal life[edit]

Nascina Florence Foster[1] was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Mary Jane (née Hoagland; 1851–1930) and Charles Dorrance Foster (1836–1909).[2][3][4] She had one sibling, a sister named Lillian, who died at age 8 in 1883. She dropped her first name and went by her middle name, Florence, during her formative years. Her father was a lawyer, and his family was wealthy and owned land near Back Mountain, Pennsylvania.[5][6]

Jenkins received piano lessons as a child and, after becoming a child prodigy pianist, performed all over the state of Pennsylvania, appearing in Sängerfests and even at the White House during the administration of President Rutherford B. Hayes.[2]

Upon graduating from high school, she expressed a desire to go abroad to study music, but her wealthy father refused to pay the bill, so she retaliated and eloped with Dr. Frank Thornton Jenkins (1852–1917) and they moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They were married around 1885.[4] Shortly after their marriage, Jenkins contracted syphilis from her husband and Dr. Jenkins was never mentioned again. It is not known whether they obtained a divorce or separated, but she kept his family name as her own.[2]

Jenkins earned a living in Philadelphia as a piano teacher, but after suffering an arm injury, she had no means to support herself and lived in near poverty. She was very close to her mother, Mary, who came to her rescue and the two eventually moved to New York City around 1900. It is then that she decided to become a singer.[2] In 1909, she met a British Shakespearean actor named St. Clair Bayfield, who became her manager. They lived together in a vaguely defined "common law" relationship for the rest of her life.[7]

When her father died in 1909,[4] Jenkins inherited sufficient funds to begin her long-delayed career in music.[8] She took voice lessons and became involved in the musical social circles of New York City, where she founded and funded her own club, The Verdi Club. She became a member of dozens of women's clubs – literary, historical, etc. and she became Director of Music for many of these, as well as their producer of tableaux-vivants.

The best-known photograph of Jenkins shows her wearing angelic wings. This costume was designed for a tableau-vivant she produced, based on the painting Stephen Foster and the Angel of Inspiration by Howard Chandler Christy. It was also said that in every group of tableaux-vivants that she produced for the clubs, she would always be the main character in the final tableau of the group.[2] She began giving recitals in 1912, when she was in her early 40s.[8] Her mother Mary died in New York City at the Park Central Hotel in 1930, after which Jenkins inherited additional resources to continue her singing career.[9]


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From her recordings it is apparent that Jenkins had little sense of pitch or rhythm, and was barely capable of sustaining a note. Her accompanist, Cosmé McMoon, can be heard making adjustments to compensate for her tempo variations and rhythmic mistakes.[10] Unfortunately, there was nothing McMoon could do to help conceal the glaring inaccuracy of Jenkins' intonation: the notes she sang were consistently flat and their pitch deviated from the sheet music by as much as a semitone. Her dubious diction, especially in foreign languages, is also noteworthy. To make matters worse, the technically challenging songs she performed, requiring levels of musical skill far beyond her ability and vocal range, served only to emphasise these deficiencies.

In retrospect, Jenkins's difficulties have at least partially been attributed to her suffering from syphilis, which caused progressive deterioration of her central nervous system. The ravages of her disease were compounded by side effects from poisonous mercury and arsenic treatments—the only therapy available for syphilis at the time. No effective treatment existed until the discovery of penicillin; by the time it became generally available, Jenkins' disease had progressed to the tertiary stage, which is unresponsive even to antibiotics.[2]

Despite the vocal and musical inaccuracies of her performances, which took place mostly at small salons or recital halls, Jenkins became popular for the amusement she unwittingly provided. Audience members sometimes described her technique in an "intentionally ambiguous" way that may have served to pique public curiosity; for example, "Her singing at its finest suggests the untrammeled swoop of some great bird."[11] Her audiences were by invitation only, and until her final performance at Carnegie Hall, no professional music critics ever reviewed her performances in the legitimate press. Favorable articles and bland reviews in musical publications, such as The Musical Courier, were most likely written by her friends, or herself.[2]

Jenkins' lifelong need to perform began when she was seven years old,[2] and she reportedly remained firmly convinced of her talent throughout her life. She compared herself favorably to the renowned sopranos Frieda Hempel and Luisa Tetrazzini, and dismissed the abundant audience laughter during her performances as "hoodlums ... planted by her rivals." She was aware of her detractors, but never let them stand in her way: "People may say I can't sing," she said, "but no one can ever say I didn't sing."[12]

Her recitals featured a mixture of the standard operatic repertoire by Mozart, Verdi, and Johann Strauss (all well beyond her technical ability); Lieder by Brahms; Valverde's "Clavelitos" ("Little Carnations" – a favorite encore), and songs composed by herself or accompanist Cosmé McMoon.[citation needed]

Jenkins often wore elaborate costumes that she designed for herself, sometimes appearing in wings and tinsel, and, for "Clavelitos", throwing flowers into the audience from a basket (on one occasion, she hurled the basket as well) while fluttering a fan and sporting more flowers in her hair. After at least one "Clavelitos" performance the audience demanded that she sing it again, compelling McMoon to collect the flowers from the audience for the encore.[13]

While riding in a taxi that collided with another car, Jenkins let out a scream. She then discovered that she could sing "a higher F than ever before", and sent the cab driver a box of expensive cigars.[14]

In spite of public demand, Jenkins restricted her rare performances to clubs and the Grand Ballroom of the Ritz-Carlton Hotel where she would give a recital annually in October. Attendance was limited to her loyal clubwomen and a select few others; she handled distribution of the coveted tickets herself, carefully excluding professional critics. At the age of 76 she finally yielded to public demand and performed at Carnegie Hall on October 25, 1944. Tickets for the event sold out weeks in advance and numerous celebrities attended, such as dancer and actress Marge Champion, song writer Cole Porter, composer Gian-Carlo Menotti, actress Kitty Carlisle and soprano Lily Pons with her husband, conductor André Kostelanetz (who composed a song for Jenkins to sing that night). Since this was her first "public" appearance, newspaper critics could not be prevented from attending. Their scathing, sarcastic reviews devastated Jenkins, according to Bayfield.[2]

Two days following the Carnegie Hall concert, while shopping at G. Schirmer's Music Store, Jenkins suffered a heart attack.[2] She died a month later, on November 26, 1944, at the age of 76 at her Manhattan residence, the Hotel Seymour in New York City.[4]


The only professional audio recordings of Jenkins consist of nine selections on five 78-rpm records (Melotone Recording Studio, New York City, 1941–1944). These include four coloratura arias from operas by Mozart, Delibes, Johann Strauss II, and Félicien David, and five art songs, two written for Jenkins by her accompanist, Cosmé McMoon. The material has been reissued in various combinations on three CDs:

  • The Muse Surmounted: Florence Foster Jenkins and Eleven of Her Rivals (Homophone Records) contains only one of the selections, Valse Caressante, but includes an interview with McMoon.
  • The Glory (????) of the Human Voice (RCA Victor) includes eight of the selections and features Jenkins on the cover in one of her many recital costumes, "Angel of Inspiration".
  • Murder on the High Cs (Naxos Records) contains all nine selections but lacks the McMoon interview.

In popular culture[edit]

In 1994, Wildwood Park for the Performing Arts, in Little Rock, Arkansas, premiered Precious Few, a play about Florence Foster Jenkins and the English novelist Ronald Firbank, written by Terry Sneed. In 1999, a one-woman play about Jenkins, Goddess of Song by South African playwright Charles J. Fourie and performed by Carolyn Lewis, was staged at the Coffee Lounge in Cape Town, South Africa. In 2001, Viva La Diva by Chris Ballance had a run at the Edinburgh Fringe.[15] Another play, Souvenir by Stephen Temperley, opened to mixed reviews on Broadway in November 2005 starring Judy Kaye.[16] Kaye commented that "It's hard work to sing badly well. You could sing badly badly for a while, but you'll hurt yourself if you do it for long."[17]

A fourth play about Jenkins, and the most widely produced, is Glorious! by Peter Quilter, which opened in 2005 in London's West End where it was nominated for the Olivier Award as Best New Comedy and starred Maureen Lipman.[18] Glorious! has since been translated into 27 languages and performed in more than 40 countries worldwide.[19]

The self-titled 2009 album by the Boston-based indie folk band, The Everyday Visuals, contains a track entitled "Florence Foster Jenkins" which refers to Jenkins' Carnegie Hall performance and other aspects of her life.[20] A hidden track called "Encore for Florence" concludes folk singer Mary Hampton's debut album, My Mother's Children.

Jenkins was the subject of the "Not My Job" segment of NPR's radio program Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me! on October 25, 2009. Anchorman Brian Williams, the show's special guest, was asked a series of trivia questions about Jenkins, whom he nicknamed "Flo Fo". The broadcast took place in Carnegie Hall.[21]

In 2008, Donald Collup, in collaboration with Gregor Benko, produced a comprehensive documentary about Jenkins entitled Florence Foster Jenkins: A World Of Her Own, telling her complete life story.[22]

The French feature film Marguerite, released in September 2015, is loosely inspired by the life and singing career of Jenkins. In May 2015, another feature film about her life began production in London and Liverpool. The film stars Meryl Streep as Florence and is titled Florence Foster Jenkins.[23] It premiered in London on 12 April 2016. The first full biography of Jenkins, by Darryl W. Bullock, was issued by Duckworth Overlook in April 2016.[24]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Review: Florence Foster Jenkins - (A) World of Her Own" by Jeremy Nicholas, Gramophone
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Donald Collup and Gregor Benko: Florence Foster Jenkins: A World of Her Own, DVD, 2008.
  3. ^ Oxford Reference: Jenkins, Florence Foster (née Foster, Nascina Florence) accessed January 30, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d Otto, Julie Helen. "Ancestry of Florence Foster Jenkins". William Addams Reitwiesner Genealogical Services. 
  5. ^ Opera singer's family owned land accessed March 28, 2015.
  6. ^ Foster biography accessed March 28, 2015.
  7. ^ Peters, Brooks, "Florence, The Nightingale?," June 15, 2006 (also appeared, but in slightly different format, in Opera News magazine)[page needed] Archived March 16, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b MacIntyre, F. Gwynplaine (June 23, 2004). "Happy in her work". Daily News. Archived from the original on August 10, 2004. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  9. ^ Foster family tree, wargs.com; accessed March 28, 2015.
  10. ^ Piano ma non solo, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Anagramme Ed., 2012, pp. 140–141; ISBN 978 2 35035 333 3.
  11. ^ Felton, Bruce (1980) "That's Entertainment? 6 Perfectly Wretched Performers", pp. 162–163, in The Book of Lists #2, edited by Irving Wallace, et al., London: Elm Tree Books, ISBN 0241104335.
  12. ^ "The Worst Singer in the World", psmag.com; accessed September 26, 2015.
  13. ^ Theatrum Anatomicum by Pablo Helguera, p. 40 (2009); ISBN 1-934978-16-7.
  14. ^ Carnegie Hall, the first one hundred years by Richard Schickel and Michael Walsh, p. 173 (1987) ISBN 0-8109-0773-9.
  15. ^ "Singing sensation Florence Foster Jenkins". CBC. August 8, 2008. Retrieved January 28, 2010. [dead link]
  16. ^ Elysa Gardner (November 10, 2005). "'Souvenir' squeals with diva delight". USA Today. Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
  17. ^ Green, Jesse (2004), "Singing Badly Well", The New York Times, December 5, 2004, p. AR6.
  18. ^ "Maureen Lipman on soprano Florence Foster Jenkins". The Guardian (London). November 3, 2005. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  19. ^ Charles Spencer (November 4, 2005). "The triumph of a comforting illusion". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
  20. ^ Jonathan Perry (May 12, 2009). "Visuals: from high notes to heavy subjects". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
  21. ^ "NBC News Anchor Brian Williams Plays 'Not My Job'". NPR. October 24, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Amazon.com: Florence Foster Jenkins: A World of Her Own: Donald Collup, Florence Foster Jenkins: Movies & TV". 
  23. ^ film production begins accessed May 27, 2015.
  24. ^ http://ducknet.co.uk//books/all/Florence%20Foster%20Jenkins

External links[edit]