Florence Griffith Joyner

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Florence Griffith Joyner
Florence Griffith Joyner2.jpg
Florence Griffith in 1988
Personal information
Full name Florence Delorez Griffith Joyner
Nationality American
Born (1959-12-21)December 21, 1959
Los Angeles, California
Died September 21, 1998(1998-09-21) (aged 38)
Mission Viejo, California
Height 170 cm (5 ft 7 in)
Weight 57 kg (126 lb)
Sport
Sport Running
Event(s) 100 meters, 200 meters
Club Tiger World Class Athletic Club
West Coast Athletic Club
Retired 1988

Florence Delorez Griffith Joyner[1] (December 21, 1959 – September 21, 1998), also known as Flo-Jo, was an American track and field athlete. She is considered the fastest woman of all time[2][3][4] based on the fact that the world records she set in 1988 for both the 100 m and 200 m still stand and have yet to be seriously challenged. During the late 1980s she became a popular figure in international track and field because of her record-setting performances and flashy personal style. She died in her sleep as the result of an epileptic seizure in 1998 at the age of 38. She attended California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

Early life[edit]

Griffith was born in Los Angeles, California, one of eleven children born to parents Robert and Florence Griffith.[5] The family lived in Littlerock, California before Florence Griffith moved with her children to the Jordan Downs public housing complex located in the Watts section of Los Angeles.[6][7] When Griffith was still in elementary school she joined Sugar Ray Robinson Organization, running in track meets on weekends.[7] She won Jesse Owens National Youth Games two years in a row, at ages 14 and 15.[8] Griffith ran track at Jordan High School in Los Angeles.[7] Showing an early interest in fashion, Griffith convinced the track team to wear tights with their uniforms.[8] As a senior in 1978, she finished sixth at the CIF California State Meet behind future teammates Alice Brown and Pam Marshall.[9]

Career[edit]

Griffith attended the California State University at Northridge, and she was on the track team coached by Bob Kersee.[10][11] This team also included her teammates Brown and Jeanette Bolden.[11][12][13] However, Griffith had to drop out in order to support her family, and then she took a job as a bank teller. Kersee was then able to find financial aid for Griffith and she returned to college.[14] Brown, Bolden, and Griffith qualified for the 100-meter final at the trials for the 1980 Summer Olympics (Brown winning, Griffith last in the final). Griffith also ran the 200 meters, narrowly finishing fourth, a foot out of a qualifying position.[8] However, the U.S. Government had already decided to boycott those Olympic Games mooting those results.[15] After the season Kersee became the head coach of the track team at the University of California at Los Angeles, which prompted Griffith to also transfer there, since she was academically eligible to do so.[7][11] In 1982, Griffith graduated from UCLA with her bachelor's degree in psychology.[16]

Olympic Runner[edit]

Griffith finished fourth in the 200 meter sprint at the first World Championship in Athletics in 1983. The following year she won a silver medal in the 1984 Summer Olympics. In 1985, she won the 100-meter IAAF Grand Prix Final with the time of 11.00 seconds. After the 1984 Olympic Games, she spent less time running, and she married the Olympic triple jump champion of 1984, Al Joyner, in 1987. Upon returning at the 1987 World Championships, Griffith Joyner finished second again in the 200 meter sprint. Ahead of the 1988 Olympic trials, Griffth Joyner continued to work with coach Kersee two days a week with her new husband coaching her three days a week.[17]

In 1988, she was already qualified for the trials based on the 10.96 personal record set in Köln in 1987. She set a new personal record in the 100 meters in San Diego on June 25, 1988, still nothing to indicate a world record challenging time. A week before the trials she ran a tune up race in 10.99 in Santa Monica.[18] In the first race of the quarterfinals of the U.S. Olympic Trials, she stunned her colleagues when she sprinted 100 meters in 10.49 seconds, a new world record.[a] [8] Since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognized as a world record".[19] At the same Olympic trials Griffith Joyner also set an American record at the 200-meter distance with a time of 21.77 seconds.

Following the Olympic trials, in late July of 1988 Griffith Joyner left coach Kersee saying she wanted a coach able to provide more personal attention. Griffith Joyner left UCLA for UC Irvine with her husband serving as full time coach.[17][b] With Kersee already attending the Olympics as the coach of (among others) his wife, Jackie Joyner-Kersee, this was more likely a move to get her husband Al a coach's pass to the Olympics than a slight to Kersee.

By now known to the world as "Flo-Jo", Griffith Joyner was the big favorite for the titles in the sprint events at the 1988 Summer Olympics. In the 100-meter final, she ran a wind-assisted 10.54, beating her nearest rival Evelyn Ashford by 0.30 seconds. In the 200 meter semifinal, she set the world record of 21.56 seconds and then she broke this record again in winning in the final by 0.38 seconds with her time of 21.34 seconds.[21] No other woman has beaten the 21.56, much less approached the 21.34.

At the same Olympics Griffith Joyner also ran with the 4 × 100 m relay and the 4 × 400 m relay teams. Her team won first place in the 4 × 100 m relay and second place in the 4 × 400 m relay. Their time is still the second fastest in history, following the winner of this race. This was her first internationally rated 4 × 400 m relay.

Griffith Joyner was the winner of the James E. Sullivan Award of 1988 as the top amateur athlete (male or female) in the United States. She retired from competition shortly after that.

Comeback attempt and other activities[edit]

In 1996, Griffith Joyner appeared on Charlie Rose and announced her comeback to competitive athletics, only this time to concentrate on the 400-meter run.[22] Her reason was that she had already set world marks in both the 100 m and 200 m events, with the 400 m world record being her goal. Griffith Joyner trained steadily leading up to the U.S. Olympic trials in June. However, tendonitis in her right leg ended her hopes of becoming a triple-world-record holder. Al Joyner was to also attempt a comeback, but he too was unable to compete due to an injured quadriceps muscle.[23]

Among the things she did away from the track was to design the basketball uniforms for the Indiana Pacers NBA team in 1989.[16] Griffith Joyner appeared in the soap opera, Santa Barbara in 1992, as "Terry Holloway", a photographer similar to Annie Leibovitz. Griffith Joyner was also an artist and painter. Her work has been on display as part the Art of The Olympians (AOTO). She is one of two posthumous members of AOTO,[24] the other being the founder and Olympian, Al Oerter.

Controversies[edit]

Allegations of performance-enhancing drug use[edit]

In 1988, Joaquim Cruz, the Brazilian gold medalist in the 800-meter run at the 1984 Summer Olympics, claimed that Griffith Joyner's times could only have been the result of using steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, that her physique had changed dramatically in 1988 (showing marked gains in muscle mass and definition), and that her performance had improved dramatically over a short period of time.[25] Before the 1988 track and field season, Griffith Joyner's best time in the 100-meter sprint was 10.96 seconds. In 1988, she improved that by 0.47 seconds (or 0.35 sec for the non-wind-aided time). Similarly, her best before 1988 at 200-meters was 21.96 seconds. In 1988, she improved that by 0.62 seconds to 21.34 seconds, another time that has not been approached. Prior to the Olympic games in Seoul, she prematurely cut her European tour short (she had been booed off the track by the spectators).[citation needed] Griffith Joyner attributed the change in her physique to new health programs.[26] Al Joyner replaced Bob Kersee as her coach, and he changed her training program to include more lower body strength training exercises such as squats and lunges.[27]

Darrell Robinson, a former teammate of Griffith Joyner, claimed that he sold her 10 c.c. of HGH for $2,000 in 1988. He said Joyner told him: "if you want to make $1 million, you've got to invest some thousands."[26] Robinson also claimed to receive steroids from coach Bob Kersee, and said he saw Carl Lewis inject himself with drugs he believed to be testosterone.[28] Robinson never provided any evidence for his allegations and was shunned by the athletics community, leading to the premature end of his career.

Griffith Joyner retired from competitive track and field after her Olympic triumph in 1988.[29] She was repeatedly tested during competition, and she passed all of these drug tests. Griffith Joyner made public her decision to retire from Olympic competition one week after it was announced that random out-of-competition drug testing would be instituted during the 1989 season.[30][31]

After her death in 1998, Prince Alexandre de Merode, the Chairman of the International Olympic Committee's medical commission, claimed that Joyner was singled out for extra, rigorous drug testing during the 1988 Olympic Games because of rumors of steroid use. De Merode told The New York Times that Manfred Donike, who was at that time considered to be the foremost expert on drugs and sports, failed to discover any banned substances during that testing.[32] De Merode later said:

"We performed all possible and imaginable analyses on her. We never found anything. There should not be the slightest suspicion."[33]

When administered intramuscularly, testosterone propionate takes between 11 days and 16.5 days from the last injection for complete elimination from the body, testosterone enanthate 22 days (3.14 weeks) and testosterone cypionate 44 days (6.29 weeks). [34][35][36]

Wind speed[edit]

Several sources[who?] indicate that her record-setting race at the 1988 Olympic trials was most likely wind-assisted. Although at the time of the race the wind meter at the event measured a wind speed of 0.0 meters per second (no wind), some observers who were present noted evidence of significant winds, and wind speeds of up to 7.0 m/s were measured at other times during the track meet. The previous race on the track was measured at +5.2, and while the second quarterfinal was also 0.0, the third quarterfinal was +4.9.[15][undue weight? ]

Personal life[edit]

Griffith's nickname among family was "Dee Dee."[5][7] She was briefly engaged to hurdler Greg Foster.[5] In 1987, Griffith married 1984 Olympic triple jump champion Al Joyner, who Griffith had first met at the 1980 Olympic Trials.[37][8] Through her marriage to Joyner she was related to track and field athlete Jackie Joyner-Kersee.[37] Joyner Griffith and Joyner had one daughter together, born November 15, 1990.[38][16]

Death[edit]

On September 21, 1998, Griffith Joyner died in her sleep at home in the Canyon Crest neighborhood of Mission Viejo, California, at the age of 38. The unexpected death was investigated by the sheriff-coroner's office, which announced on October 22 that the cause of death was suffocation during a severe epileptic seizure.[29] She was also found to have had a cavernous hemangioma, a congenital vascular brain abnormality that made Joyner subject to seizures.[39] According to a family attorney, she had suffered a tonic–clonic seizure in 1990, and had also been treated for seizures in 1993 and 1994.

The coroner had requested that Griffith Joyner's body specifically be tested for steroids, but was informed that there was not enough urine in her bladder and that the test could not accurately be performed on other biological samples.[29]

The city of Mission Viejo dedicated a park at the entrance to her neighborhood in her honor.[40][41]

Legacy[edit]

USA Track & Field inducted her into its Hall of Fame in 1995.[42] In 2000, the 102nd Street School in Los Angeles was renamed Florence Griffith Joyner Elementary School. Griffith Joyner had attended the school as a child.[6]

Olympic Games and trials results[edit]

Race Venue Date Round Time Wind WR
100 m Indianapolis July 16, 1988 Qualifying heat 10.60 +3.2
100 m Indianapolis July 16, 1988 Quarter-final 10.49 0.0 WR
100 m Indianapolis July 17, 1988 Semi-final 10.70 +1.6
100 m Indianapolis July 17, 1988 Final 10.61 +1.2
100 m Seoul September 24, 1988 Qualifying heat 10.88 +1.0
100 m Seoul September 24, 1988 Quarter-final 10.62 +1.0
100 m Seoul September 25, 1988 Semi-final 10.70 +2.6
100 m Seoul September 25, 1988 Final 10.54 +3.0
200 m Indianapolis July 22, 1988 Qualifying heat 21.96 +0.6
200 m Indianapolis July 22, 1988 Quarter-final 21.77 −0.1
200 m Indianapolis July 23, 1988 Semi-final 21.90 +2.4
200 m Indianapolis July 23, 1988 Final 21.85 +1.3
200 m Seoul September 28, 1988 Qualifying heat 22.51  ?
200 m Seoul September 28, 1988 Quarter-final 21.76 +0.7
200 m Seoul September 29, 1988 Semi-final 21.56 +1.7
200 m Seoul September 29, 1988 Final 21.34 +1.3 WR

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Evelyn Ashford held the previous record at the 100-meter distance with a time of 10.71 seconds.
  2. ^ Griffith Joyner's next fastest wind-legal time at 100-meters is 10.61 seconds, which would also be the unbroken world record.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Whitaker, Matthew C. (2011). Icons of Black America: Breaking Barriers and Crossing Boundaries, Volume 1 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 520. ISBN 0-313-37642-5. 
  2. ^ "FloJo: World's Fastest Woman". CNN. 
  3. ^ "World's fastest woman Carmelita Jeter seeks Olympic gold". USA Today. June 22, 2011. 
  4. ^ Florence Griffith Joyner: Fastest Woman on Earth. Legacy.com. December 21, 2010.
  5. ^ a b c "Flashy Florence Griffith Joyner Will Be the One to Watch—and Clock—in the Women's Sprints : People.com". www.people.com. 29 August 1988. Retrieved 2016-07-22. 
  6. ^ a b BRIGGS, JOHNATHON E. (2000-01-15). "School Renamed for Late Track Star Griffith Joyner". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Childs, Joy (2012-08-10). "The mother behind the Olympian reveals the spirit that was Flo Jo". lawattstimes.com. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Schwartz, Kris (1998-07-16). "ESPN Classic - FloJo sets 100 record at 1988 Olympic Trials". espn.go.com. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  9. ^ "California State Meet Results – 1915 to present". prepcaltrack.com. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  10. ^ HARVEY, RANDY (1988-07-29). "Griffith-Joyner Leaves Kersee's Club; She'll Be Coached Solely by Husband". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2016-07-21. 
  11. ^ a b c BENNETT, BILL. "FOND MEMORIES OF GRIFFITH JOYNER". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved 2016-07-21. 
  12. ^ http://www.pasadenasportshalloffame.org/alice-brown.html
  13. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/1987-08-30/sports/sp-4971_1_quarterfinals
  14. ^ Florence Griffith Joyner – Olympic Dreams – Kersee, Angeles, Olympics, and Coach. Sports.jrank.org. Retrieved on May 11, 2014.
  15. ^ a b Hymans, R. (2008) The History of the United States Olympic Trials – Track & Field. USA Track & Field. usatf.org
  16. ^ a b c Schwartz, Kris. "FloJo Made Speed Fashionable". ESPN.com. Retrieved June 24, 2011. 
  17. ^ a b HARVEY, RANDY (1988-07-29). "Griffith-Joyner Leaves Kersee's Club; She'll Be Coached Solely by Husband". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  18. ^ http://www.alltime-athletics.com/w_100ok.htm
  19. ^ Linthorne, Nick (March 2003). "Wind Assistance". Brunel University. Retrieved August 25, 2008. 
  20. ^ Sully, Kevin (24 March 2014). "The Wind Read Zero: An oral history of Florence Griffith-Joyner’s 100-meter world record". Daily Relay. Retrieved 27 July 2016. 
  21. ^ a b Florence Griffith Joyner. sports-reference.com
  22. ^ "Flo Jo may abort comeback". The San Francisco Chronicle. April 21, 1997. 
  23. ^ Atlanta Out for Joyners. Nytimes.com (June 4, 1996). Retrieved on May 11, 2014.
  24. ^ "Art of the Olympians | Florence Griffith-Joyner". artoftheolympians.org. Retrieved 2015-12-22. 
  25. ^ "O doping está no auge" (in Portuguese). Veja Online. August 16, 2000. 
  26. ^ a b Speed, glamour, doubt will be Flo-Jo's legacy, Reuters, September 23, 1998
  27. ^ Dream Chaser, Tom Friend, ESPN.com
  28. ^ "Ex-teammate: Flo-jo, Lewis Used Drugs". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. 
  29. ^ a b c Anderson, Kristina Rebelo. "The Uneasy Death Of Florence Griffith Joyner". salon.com. 
  30. ^ Suspicion surrounds Flo-Jo's death. BBC News (September 23, 1998). Retrieved on May 11, 2014.
  31. ^ TAC Board Approves Random Drug Testing. Articles.latimes.com (March 13, 1989). Retrieved on May 11, 2014.
  32. ^ PLUS: TRACK AND FIELD; Official Defends Griffith Joyner. Nytimes.com (September 24, 1998). Retrieved on May 11, 2014.
  33. ^ Montague, James (August 10, 2012) Saving Flo Jo: Taking back a legacy. CNN
  34. ^ Weinbauer GF, Jackwerth B, Yoon YD, Behre HM, Yeung CH, Nieschlag E (1990). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of testosterone enanthate and dihydrotestosterone enanthate in non-human primates". Acta Endocrinologica 122 (4): 432–42. PMID 2333732. 
  35. ^ Yassin AA, Haffejee M (2007). "Testosterone depot injection in male hypogonadism: a critical appraisal". Clinical Interventions in Aging 2 (4): 577–90. PMC 2686335. PMID 18225458. 
  36. ^ https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/testosterone Testosterone
  37. ^ a b HARVEY, RANDY (1988-09-14). "OLYMPICS '88: A PREVIEW : THE FIRST FAMILY : Joyner and Kersee Got a Jump in Their Personal Relationship". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2016-07-18. 
  38. ^ Penner, Mike (22 September 1998). "From the Archives: Track Olympian Florence Griffith Joyner Dies at 38". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016-07-18. 
  39. ^ "Seizure was brought on by a congenital defect in Griffith Joyner's brain". BBC. October 23, 1998. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  40. ^ Florence Joyner Olympiad Park. Google.com. Retrieved on June 30, 2014.
  41. ^ "(22) Florence Joyner Olympiad Park - CITY OF MISSION VIEJO". 
  42. ^ "USATF - Hall of Fame". www.usatf.org. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  43. ^ Track & Field all-time performances. Alltime-athletics.com. Retrieved on May 11, 2014.

External links[edit]


Records
Preceded by
United States Evelyn Ashford
Women's 100 m world record holder
July 16, 1988 – present
Incumbent
Preceded by
East Germany Marita Koch
Women's 200 m world record holder
September 29, 1988 – present
Incumbent
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
West Germany Steffi Graf
United Press International
Athlete of the Year

1988
Succeeded by
West Germany Steffi Graf
Preceded by
United States Jackie Joyner-Kersee
Women's Track & Field Athlete of the Year
1988
Succeeded by
Cuba Ana Fidelia Quirot
Preceded by
Canada Ben Johnson
L'Équipe Champion of Champions
1988
Succeeded by
United States Greg LeMond
Sporting positions
Preceded by
East Germany Silke Möller
Women's 200 m best year performance
1988
Succeeded by
United States Dawn Sowell