Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr.

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Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr.
Florenz Ziegfeld in 1928
Born March 21, 1867/1869
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Died July 22, 1932 (aged 63 or 65)
Hollywood, California, U.S.
Spouse(s) Billie Burke (married 1914–1932)
Partner(s) Anna Held (1897–1913)

Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. (March 21, 1867/1869 – July 22, 1932), popularly known as Flo Ziegfeld, was an American Broadway impresario, notable for his series of theatrical revues, the Ziegfeld Follies (1907–1931), inspired by the Folies Bergère of Paris. He also produced the musical Show Boat. He was known as the "glorifier of the American girl".[1] Flo Ziegfeld is a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame.[2][3]


Florenz Ziegfeld (1932)
Anna Held (1897)
Poster for The Sandow Trocadero Vaudevilles, produced by Ziegfeld (1894)

Florenz Ziegfeld was born in Chicago, Illinois, on March 21, 1867; some sources, including his obituary, give the year of birth as 1869. His mother, Rosalie (née de Hez), who was born in Belgium, was the grandniece of General Count Étienne Maurice Gérard. His father, Florenz Ziegfeld, Sr., was a German immigrant whose father was the mayor of Jever in Friesland. Ziegfeld was baptized in his mother's Roman Catholic church. His father was Lutheran.[4]

As a child Ziegfeld witnessed first-hand the Chicago fire of 1871. His father ran the Chicago Musical College and later opened a nightclub, the Trocadero, to obtain business from the 1893 World's Fair.[5] To help his father's nightclub succeed, Ziegfeld hired and managed the strongman, Eugen Sandow.[5][6]

His promotion of Anna Held, a Polish-French theatre artist Ziegfeld met in London in 1896, brought about her meteoric rise to national fame.[7][8] It was Held who first suggested an American imitation of the Parisian Follies to Ziegfeld.[5][9] Her success in a series of his Broadway shows, especially The Parisian Model (1906), was a major reason for his starting a series of lavish revues in 1907.[10]

Ziegfeld's stage spectaculars, known as the Ziegfeld Follies, began with Follies of 1907, which opened on July 7, 1907,[11] and were produced annually until 1931.[12] These extravaganzas, with elaborate costumes and sets, featured beauties chosen personally by Ziegfeld in production numbers choreographed to the works of prominent composers such as Irving Berlin, George Gershwin and Jerome Kern.[1]

The Follies featured many performers who, though well known from previous work in other theatrical genres, achieved unique financial success and publicity with Ziegfeld. Included among these are Nora Bayes, Fanny Brice, Ruth Etting, W. C. Fields, Eddie Cantor, Marilyn Miller, Will Rogers, Bert Williams and Ann Pennington.[12]

Ziegfeld married Held in 1897, but she divorced him in 1913, according to her obituary in The New York Times dated August 13, 1918.[8] However, according to Eve Golden, Held and Ziegfeld had never actually married, but had an "informal" wedding in 1897, and had lived together long enough to establish a common-law marriage. Held's divorce from Ziegfeld became final on January 9, 1913. Held had submitted testimony about Ziegfeld's relationship with another woman.[13] The unnamed party in this romantic triangle was showgirl Lillian Lorraine. Ziegfeld had discovered Lorraine, an entertainer of limited talent but charismatic stage presence and beauty, in 1907 when she was a 15-year-old performer in a Shubert production. Ziegfeld spent years promoting her career, transforming her into one of the most popular attractions in his Follies[14] and establishing her in an apartment two floors above the residence he shared with Held. He remained in love with Lorraine for the rest of his life.[15]

In 1914, Ziegfeld married actress Billie Burke.[5][10] They had one child, Patricia Ziegfeld Stephenson (1916–2008). The family lived on his estate in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, and in Palm Beach, Florida.[16]

Ziegfeld Theatre and Show Boat[edit]

At a cost of $2.5 million, he built the 1600-seat Ziegfeld Theatre on the west side of Sixth Avenue between 54th and 55th Streets. Designed by Joseph Urban and Thomas W. Lamb, the auditorium was egg-shaped with the stage at the narrow end. A huge medieval-style mural, The Joy of Life, covered the walls and ceiling.[17] To finance the construction, Ziegfeld borrowed from William Randolph Hearst,[18] who took control of the theater after Ziegfeld's death.

The Ziegfeld Theatre opened in February 1927 with his production of Rio Rita, which ran for nearly 500 performances. This was followed by Show Boat,[10] a great hit with a run of 572 performances.[19][5]

Ziegfeld lost much of his money in the stock market crash. In May 1932 he staged a revival of Show Boat that ran for six months—a hit, by Depression standards.[20] That same year, he brought his Follies stars to CBS Radio with The Ziegfeld Follies of the Air.[21]


Ziegfeld died in Hollywood, California on July 22, 1932. The cause was pleurisy, related to a previous lung infection.[1] He had been in Los Angeles only a few days after moving from a New Mexico sanitarium.[1] His death left Burke with substantial debts, driving her toward film acting to settle them.[18] He is interred in Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla, New York.

Broadway theatre productions[edit]

Poster promoting theatre performer Anna Held (c. 1898)
Poster for The Turtle (1898), featuring Sadie Martinot
Poster for Mam'selle Napoleon (1903)
Poster for Ziegfeld Follies of 1912
Date Title Notes
1896 Parlor Match, AA Parlor Match American debut of Anna Held[8][22]
1898 French Maid, TheThe French Maid
1898 Turtle, TheThe Turtle
1899 Papa's Wife
1899 Mlle. Fifi
1899 Manicure, TheThe Manicure
1901 Little Duchess, TheThe Little Duchess
1903 Red Feather, TheThe Red Feather
1903 Mam'selle Napoleon
1904 Higgledy-Piggledy
1905 Higgledy-Piggledy
1906 Parisian Model, TheThe Parisian Model
1907 Follies of 1907, TheThe Follies of 1907
1908 Parisian Model, TheThe Parisian Model
1908 Soul Kiss, TheThe Soul Kiss
1908 Follies of 1908, TheThe Follies of 1908
1908 Miss Innocence
1909 Follies of 1909, TheThe Follies of 1909
1910 Follies of 1910, TheThe Follies of 1910
1911 Ziegfeld Follies of 1911
1912 Over the River
1912 Winsome Widow, AA Winsome Widow
1912 Ziegfeld Follies of 1912
1913 Ziegfeld Follies of 1913
1914 Ziegfeld Follies of 1914
1915 Ziegfeld Follies of 1915
1916 Ziegfeld Follies of 1916
1916 Century Girl, TheThe Century Girl
1917 Ziegfeld Follies of 1917
1917 Rescuing Angel, TheThe Rescuing Angel
1917 Miss 1917
1918 Ziegfeld Follies of 1918
1918 By Pigeon Post
1919 Ziegfeld Midnight Frolic
1919 Caesar's Wife
1920 Ziegfeld Girls of 1920
1920 Ziegfeld Follies of 1920
1920 Sally
1921 Ziegfeld 9 O'Clock Frolic
1921 Ziegfeld Follies of 1921
1921 Intimate Strangers, TheThe Intimate Strangers
1921 Ziegfeld Midnight Frolic
1922 Ziegfeld Follies of 1922
1922 Rose Briar
1923 Sally
1923 Ziegfeld Follies of 1923
1923 Kid Boots
1924 Ziegfeld Follies of 1924
1924 Annie Dear
1925 Louis the 14th
1926 Ziegfeld's Revue 'No Foolin'
1926 Betsy
1927 Rio Rita
1927 Show Boat
1928 Rosalie
1928 Three Musketeers, TheThe Three Musketeers
1928 Whoopee!
1928 Ziegfeld Midnight Frolic
1929 Show Girl
1929 Bitter Sweet
1930 Simple Simon
1930 Smiles
1931 Ziegfeld Follies of 1931
1932 Hot-Cha!
1932 Show Boat


Poster for Whoopee! (1930)

Screen versions of three of Ziegfeld's hit stage musicals were produced in the early sound film era: Sally (1929), starring Marilyn Miller;[23] Rio Rita (1929) starring Bebe Daniels and John Boles;[24] and Whoopee! (1930) starring Eddie Cantor.[25] All were filmed in Technicolor and closely followed the original stage productions, although Whoopee! featured an almost entirely new score with only three of the songs from the stage used. Whoopee! was made under Ziegfeld's personal supervision, with Ziegfeld as a producer with Samuel Goldwyn.[26]

Show Boat was filmed three times. The first version, a part-talkie released in 1929 while the stage show was still playing, is more closely based on the source novel than the stage play. It kept only one song from the stage musical, "Ol' Man River".[27] Nevertheless, Ziegfeld appeared in a sound prologue made to be shown before the actual film.

Two more film versions of Show Boat were made after Ziegfeld's death which were more faithful to the stage musical. The acclaimed 1936 film version featured many who had appeared in the stage show, including Helen Morgan and Irene Dunne.[28] The 1951 Technicolor film, features a more abbreviated plot but includes almost all of the original songs. It stars Kathryn Grayson, Ava Gardner, and Howard Keel as Magnolia, Julie and Ravenal, respectively.[citation needed]

Cultural references[edit]

William Powell as Ziegfeld in The Great Ziegfeld (1936)

A semi-biographical film, The Great Ziegfeld, was produced in 1936, and won the "Outstanding Production" (now "Best Picture") Oscar for 1936.[29][30] A film recreating the Follies with an all-star cast, Ziegfeld Follies, was produced in 1946. Both were made by MGM and featured William Powell as Ziegfeld.[30]

A three-hour made-for-television film, Ziegfeld: The Man and His Women, starring Paul Shenar as Ziegfeld, Samantha Eggar as Billie Burke and Barbara Parkins as Anna Held, was produced by Columbia Pictures and shown on NBC in 1978.[30][31]

Further reading[edit]

  • Carter, Randolph, Ziegfeld, the Time of His Life, New and rev. ed., London, Bernard Press, 1988. ISBN 0-9513557-0-8
  • Redniss, Lauren, Century Girl: 100 Years in the Life of Doris Eaton Travis, Last Living Star of the Ziegfeld Follies, New York, Harper Collins, 2006, ISBN 978-0-06-085333-4.


  1. ^ a b c d "Florenz Ziegfeld Dies in Hollywood After Long Illness". New York Times. July 23, 1932. Retrieved 2009-02-19. Florenz Ziegfeld, musical comedy producer, died tonight at a hospital here. Death came at 10:31 P.M., after an unexpected setback that developed only tonight. Only Dr. Marcus Radwin, attending physician, and a nurse were in the room when the producer died. 
  2. ^ "Who's in the Theatre Hall of Fame". www.playbill.com. June 12, 1996. 
  3. ^ "Theater Hall of Fame members". 
  4. ^ Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. bio, google.com; accessed December 27, 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e Kenrick, John. "Florenz Ziegfeld:A Biography", Musicals101; accessed January 13, 2011
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Eve Golden (reviewed by Margaret Van Dagens). "Book review, Anna Held And The Birth Of Ziegfeld's Broadway, New York Times, May 14, 2000.
  8. ^ a b c "Anna Held Dies After Brave Fight". The New York Times. August 13, 1918. Retrieved 2016-02-13. 
  9. ^ Cambridge Guide to the American Theatre, (New York: Cambridge UP, 1995) p. 511
  10. ^ a b c "Florenz Ziegfeld biography", pbs.org, accessed January 13, 2011.
  11. ^ Vlastnik, Frank; Bloom, Ken. "Ziegfeld Follies of 1919" Broadway Musicals: The 101 Greatest Shows of All Time, Black Dog Publishing, 2010; ISBN 1-57912-849-1, p. 332
  12. ^ a b Green, Stanley. "Florenz Ziegfeld" Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre, Da Capo Press, 1980; ISBN 0-306-80113-2, pp. 463-64
  13. ^ Golden, Eve "Chapter: The Unchastened Woman". Anna Held and the Birth of Ziegfeld's Broadway, University Press of Kentucky, 2000, ISBN 0-8131-2153-1, pp. 160-61
  14. ^ Hanson, Nils, Lillian Lorraine, The Life and Times of a Ziegfeld Diva, MacFarland & Company Publishers, 2011, pp. 18-19
  15. ^ Hanson, Nils, "Lillian Lorraine, The Life and Times of a Ziegfeld Diva, MacFarland & Co. Publishers, 2011, p. 63
  16. ^ "Patricia Ziegfeld Stephenson, Daughter of Legendary Broadway Impresario". Jazz News. 2008-04-25. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  17. ^ Innes, C.D. "Chapter: Stage and Screen", Designing modern America: Broadway to Main Street, Yale University Press, 2005; ISBN 0-300-10804-4, pp. 60-62.
  18. ^ a b Hayter-Menzies, Grant. "Chapter 18. The Great Ziegfeld" Mrs. Ziegfeld: The Public and Private Lives of Billie Burke, McFarland, 2009, ISBN 0-7864-3800-2, pp. 114, 159
  19. ^ Green, Stanley. "Chapter:Jerome Kern" The World of Musical Comedy (4ed.), Da Capo Press, 1984; ISBN 0-306-80207-4, p. 62
  20. ^ Jones, John Bush. "The Depression Hits Broadway" Our Musicals, Ourselves:A Social History of the American Musical Theater, UPNE, 2003, ISBN 0-87451-904-7, p. 82
  21. ^ Dunning, John.On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio, New York: Oxford University Press (1998); ISBN 0-19-507678-8
  22. ^ Kenrick, John. Ziegfeld's Broadway Productions" Musicals101, accessed January 13, 2011
  23. ^ "Details: Sally (1929)". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-01-13. 
  24. ^ "'Rio Rita' Overview, Review, Cast, Production Credits, Awards" allmovie.com, accessed January 13, 2011
  25. ^ "NY Times: Whoopee!". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-01-13. 
  26. ^ Bradley, Edwin M. "'Whoopee!'; Chapter 7, 1929-1939, 'Rio Rita'" The First Hollywood Musicals: A Critical Filmography of 171, McFarland, 2004, ISBN 0-7864-2029-4, pp. 114-15; 173-75
  27. ^ "'Show Boat', 1929, Overview, Cast, Production Credits allmovie.com, accessed January 13, 2011
  28. ^ "'Show Boat', 1936, Overview, Review, Cast, Production Credits, Awards" allmovie.com, accessed January 13, 2011
  29. ^ "'The Great Ziegfeld' Overview, Review, Cast, Production Credits, Awards" allmovie.com, accessed January 13, 2011
  30. ^ a b c Vogel, Michelle. "Chapter: Rags to Riches" Olive Thomas: The Life and Death of a Silent Film Beauty, McFarland, 2007; ISBN 0-7864-2908-9, p. 23
  31. ^ Berard, Jeanette M.; Corwin, Norman; Englund, Klaudia. "Specials" Television Series and Specials Scripts, McFarland, 2009; ISBN 0-7864-3348-5, p. 425

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