Florida Senate

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Florida Senate
2022–2024 Florida Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Term limits
2–3 terms (8 years)[a]
FoundedMay 26, 1845
Preceded byLegislative Council of the Territory of Florida
Kathleen Passidomo (R)
since November 22, 2022
President pro tempore
Dennis Baxley (R)
since November 22, 2022
Ben Albritton (R)
since November 14, 2022
Minority Leader
Lauren Book (D)
since April 28, 2021
Political groups
  •   Republican (28)


Length of term
4 years[a]
AuthorityArticle III, Constitution of Florida
Salary$29,697.00/year + per diem (Subsistence & Travel)[1]
Last election
November 8, 2022
(40 seats)
Next election
November 5, 2024
(20 seats)
RedistrictingLegislative control
In God We Trust
Meeting place
Senate Chamber
Florida Capitol
Tallahassee, Florida
Official website
  1. ^ a b Every 10 years after redistricting, 20 senators are elected to 2 year terms.

The Florida Senate is the upper house of the Florida Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Florida, the Florida House of Representatives being the lower house. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution of Florida, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted.[2] The Senate is composed of 40 members, each elected from a single-member district with a population of approximately 540,000 residents. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures, provided by the federal decennial census. Senators' terms begin immediately upon their election. The Senate Chamber is located in the State Capitol building.

Following the November 2022 elections, Republicans hold a supermajority in the chamber with 28 seats; Democrats are in the minority with 12 seats.[3]


Article III, of the Florida Constitution, defines the terms for state legislators. The Constitution requires state senators from odd-numbered districts to be elected in the years that end in numbers of which are multiples of four. Senators from even-numbered districts are required to be elected in even-numbered years the numbers of which are not multiples of four.

To reflect the results of the U.S. census and the redrawing of district boundaries, all seats are up for election in redistricting years, with some terms truncated as a result. Thus, senators in odd-numbered districts were elected to two-year terms in 2022 (following the 2020 Census), and senators in odd-numbered districts will be elected to two-year terms in 2032 (following the 2030 census).

Legislators take office immediately upon election.

Term limits[edit]

In a referendum on November 3, 1992, 77% of Florida voters backed Amendment 9, the Florida Term Limits Amendment, which amended the Florida State Constitution, to enact eight-year term limits on federal and state officials. Under the Amendment, former members could be elected again after a two-year break.[4] In 1995, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in U.S. Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton that states could not enact congressional term limits, but ruled that the state-level term limits could remain.[5]


Florida legislators must be at least twenty-one years old, an elector and resident of their district, and must have resided in Florida for at least two years prior to election.[2]

Legislative session[edit]

Coat of arms of the Florida Senate, adopted by the Florida Senate in 1972

Each year during which the Legislature meets constitutes a new legislative session.

Committee weeks[edit]

Legislators start committee activity in September of the year prior to the regular legislative session. Because Florida has a part-time legislature, this is necessary to allow legislators time to work their bills through the committee process, prior to the regular session.[6]

Regular legislative session[edit]

The Florida Legislature meets in a 60-day regular legislative session each year. Regular sessions in odd-numbered years must begin on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March. Under the State Constitution, the Legislature can begin even-numbered year regular sessions at a time of its choosing.[7]

Prior to 1991, regular sessions began in April. Senate Joint Resolution 380 (1989) proposed to the voters a constitutional amendment (approved November 1990) that shifted the starting date of regular sessions from April to February. Subsequently, Senate Joint Resolution 2606 (1994) proposed to the voters a constitutional amendment (approved November 1994) shifting the start date to March, where it remains. The reason for the "first Tuesday after the first Monday" requirement stems back to the time when sessions began in April. Sessions could start any day from April 2 through April 8, but never on April 1 -- April Fool's Day. In recent years, the Legislature has opted to start in January in order to allow lawmakers to be home with their families during school spring breaks, and to give more time ahead of the legislative elections in the Fall.[8]

Organizational session[edit]

On the fourteenth day following each general election, the Legislature meets for an organizational session to organize and select officers.

Special session[edit]

Special legislative sessions may be called by the governor, by a joint proclamation of the Senate president and House speaker, or by a three-fifths vote of all legislators. During a special session, the Legislature may only address legislative business that is within the purpose or purposes stated in the proclamation calling the session.[9]

Powers and process[edit]

The Florida Senate is authorized by the Florida Constitution to create and amend the laws of the U.S. state of Florida, subject to the Governor's power to veto legislation. To do so, Legislators propose legislation in the forms of bills drafted by a nonpartisan, professional staff. Successful legislation must undergo committee review, three readings on the floor of each house, with appropriate voting majorities, as required, and either be signed into law by the Governor or enacted through a veto override approved by two-thirds of the membership of each legislative house.[10]

Its statutes, called "chapter laws" or generically as "slip laws" when printed separately, are compiled into the Laws of Florida and are called "session laws".[11] The Florida Statutes are the codified statutory laws of the state.[11]

In 2009, legislators filed 2,138 bills for consideration. On average, the Legislature has passed about 300 bills into law annually.[12]

In 2013, the legislature filed about 2000 bills. About 1000 of these are "member bills." The remainder are bills by committees responsible for certain functions, such as budget. In 2016, about 15% of the bills were passed.[13] In 2017, 1,885 lobbyists registered to represent 3,724 entities.[13]

The Senate also has the power to propose Amendments to the Florida Constitution. Additionally, the Senate has the exclusive power to try officials impeached by the House, and to confirm some executive appointments.


The Senate is headed by the Senate President. The Senate President controls the assignment of committees and leadership positions, along with control of the agenda in their chamber. The Senate President, along with the Speaker of the House and Governor, control most of the agenda of state business in Florida.


Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Republican Democratic Vacant
End of 2018–20 legislature 23 17 40 0
Start of previous (2020–22) legislature 24 16 40 0
End of previous legislature 23 39 1
Start of current (2022–24) legislature 28 12 40 0
Latest voting share 70% 30%

Members, 2022–2024[edit]

District Name Party Residence Counties represented First elected[14] Term up
1 Doug Broxson Rep Midway Escambia, Santa Rosa, part of Okaloosa 2016 2024
2 Jay Trumbull Rep Panama City Bay, Calhoun, Holmes, Jackson, Walton Washington, part of Okaloosa 2022 2026
3 Corey Simon Rep Tallahassee Dixie, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Hamilton, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Suwannee, Taylor, Wakulla 2022 2024
4 Clay Yarborough Rep Jacksonville Nassau, part of Duval 2022 2026
5 Tracie Davis Dem Jacksonville Part of Duval 2022 2024
6 Jennifer Bradley Rep Fleming Island Baker, Bradford, Clay, Columbia, Gilchrist, Union, part of Alachua 2020 2026
7 Travis Hutson Rep St. Augustine Flagler, Putnam, St. Johns, part of Volusia 2015* 2024
8 Tom A. Wright Rep New Smyrna Beach Parts of Brevard and Volusia 2018 2026
9 Keith Perry Rep Gainesville Alachua, Putnam, part of Marion 2016 2024
10 Jason Brodeur Rep Sanford Seminole, part of Orange 2020 2026
11 Blaise Ingoglia Rep Spring Hill Citrus, Hernando, Sumter, part of Pasco 2022 2024
12 Colleen Burton Rep Lakeland Part of Polk 2022 2026
13 Dennis Baxley Rep Eustis Lake, part of Orange 2016 2024
14 Jay Collins Rep Tampa Part of Hillsborough 2022 2026
15 Geraldine Thompson Dem Orlando Part of Orange 2022,


16 Darryl Rouson Dem St. Petersburg Parts of Hillsborough and Pinellas 2016 2026
17 Linda Stewart Dem Orlando Part of Orange 2016 2024
18 Nick DiCeglie Rep Indian Rocks Beach Part of Pinellas 2022 2026
19 Debbie Mayfield Rep Melbourne Part of Brevard 2016 2024
20 Jim Boyd Rep Bradenton Parts of Hillsborough and Manatee 2020 2026
21 Ed Hooper Rep Clearwater Parts of Pasco and Pinellas 2018 2024
22 Joe Gruters Rep Sarasota Sarasota, part of Manatee 2018 2026
23 Danny Burgess Rep Zephyrhills Parts of Hillsborough and Pasco 2020 2024
24 Bobby Powell Dem Riviera Beach Part of Palm Beach 2016 2026
25 Victor M. Torres Jr. Dem Orlando Osceola, part of Orange 2016 2024
26 Lori Berman Dem Lantana Part of Palm Beach 2018* 2026
27 Ben Albritton Rep Wauchula Charlotte, DeSoto, Hardee, parts of Lee and Polk 2018 2024
28 Kathleen Passidomo Rep Naples Collier, Hendry, part of Lee 2016 2026
29 Erin Grall Rep Vero Beach Glades, Highlands, Indian River, Okeechobee, part of St. Lucie 2022 2024
30 Tina Polsky Dem Boca Raton Parts of Broward and Palm Beach 2020 2026
31 Gayle Harrell Rep Stuart Martin, parts of Palm Beach and St. Lucie 2018 2024
32 Rosalind Osgood Dem Fort Lauderdale Part of Broward 2022* 2026
33 Jonathan Martin Rep Fort Myers Part of Lee 2022 2024
34 Shevrin Jones Dem West Park Part of Miami-Dade 2020 2026
35 Lauren Book Dem Plantation Part of Broward 2016 2024
36 Ileana Garcia Rep Miami Part of Miami-Dade 2020 2026
37 Jason Pizzo Dem North Miami Beach Parts of Broward and Miami-Dade 2018 2024
38 Alexis Calatayud Rep Miami Part of Miami-Dade 2022 2026
39 Bryan Avila Rep Hialeah Part of Miami-Dade 2022 2024
40 Ana Maria Rodriguez Rep Doral Monroe, part of Miami-Dade 2020 2026

*Elected in a special election.

District map[edit]

Districts and party composition of the Florida Senate after the 2022 elections
  Democratic Party
  Republican Party

Past composition of the Senate[edit]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "The 2017 Florida Statutes F.S. 11.13 Compensation of members". Florida Legislature.
  2. ^ a b "Florida Statutes". Florida Legislature. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  3. ^ "Senators". Florida Senate.
  4. ^ "Vote Yes On Amendment No. 9 To Begin Limiting Political Terms". Sun-Sentinel. October 27, 1992. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  5. ^ Kevin Derby (February 11, 2016). "Florida Backs Article V Convention for Constitutional Amendment on Congressional Term Limits". Sunshine State News.
  6. ^ "Editorial:Advice to Legislature:Pursue limited agenda". Florida Today.
  7. ^ "CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA". Florida Legislature.
  8. ^ Buzzacco-Foerster, Jenna (February 18, 2016). "Proposal to move 2018 session to January heads House floor". Florida Politics. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  9. ^ "The Florida Constitution". Florida Legislature.
  10. ^ "The Florida Senate Handbook" (PDF). Florida Senate.
  11. ^ a b "Statutes & Constitution: Online Sunshine". Florida Legislature. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  12. ^ Flemming, Paul (March 8, 2009). Capital Ideas: Lawmakers face 2,138 proposals. Florida Today.
  13. ^ a b Cotterell, Bill (March 7, 2017). "Legislative session by the numbers". Florida Today. Melbourne,Florida. pp. 5A.
  14. ^ And previous terms of service, if any.

External links[edit]