Floridian (train)

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Floridian
Floridian at Winter Park.jpg
The Floridian at Winter Park in 1973.
Overview
Service typeInter-city rail
StatusDiscontinued
LocaleEastern United States
PredecessorSouth Wind
First serviceNovember 14, 1971
Last serviceOctober 9, 1979
Former operator(s)Amtrak
Route
StartChicago, Illinois
Stops32
EndSt. Petersburg, Florida
Miami, Florida
Distance travelled1,597 miles (2,570 km) (Miami)
1,481 miles (2,383 km) (St. Petersburg)
Average journey time38 hours 40 minutes (Miami)
38 hours 33 minutes (St. Petersburg)
Service frequencyDaily
Train number(s)56, 57
On-board services
Class(es)Sleeping cars and reserved coach
Catering facilitiesDining car and on-board cafe
Observation facilitiesDome coach
Technical
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Track owner(s)Louisville and Nashville Railroad
Seaboard Coast Line Railroad
Route map
Dist.
Station
0 mi
Chicago
Illinois
Indiana
118 mi
190 km
Lafayette
221 mi
356 km
Bloomington
Indiana
Kentucky
330 mi
531 km
Louisville
438 mi
705 km
Bowling Green
Kentucky
Tennessee
511 mi
822 km
Nashville
Tennessee
Alabama
629 mi
1012 km
Decatur
713 mi
1147 km
Birmingham
810 mi
1304 km
Montgomery
928 mi
1493 km
Dothan
Alabama
Georgia
1020 mi
1642 km
Thomasville
1062 mi
1709 km
Valdosta
1122 mi
1806 km
Waycross
Georgia
Florida
1193 mi
1920 km
Jacksonville
1303 mi
2097 km
DeLand
1319 mi
2123 km
Sanford
1336 mi
2150 km
Winter Park
1341 mi
2158 km
Orlando
1359 mi
2187 km
Kissimmee
1402 mi
2256 km
Lakeland
1433 mi
2306 km
Tampa
1456 mi
2343 km
Clearwater
1480 mi
2382 km
St. Petersburg
1251 mi
2013 km
Waldo
1297 mi
2087 km
Ocala
1323 mi
2129 km
Wildwood
1388 mi
2234 km
Winter Haven
1429 mi
2300 km
Sebring
1531 mi
2464 km
West Palm Beach
1549 mi
2493 km
Delray Beach
1560 mi
2511 km
Deerfield Beach
1574 mi
2533 km
Fort Lauderdale
1581 mi
2544 km
Hollywood
1601 mi
2577 km
Miami

The Floridian was a train operated by Amtrak from 1971 to 1979 that ran from Chicago and–via two sections south of JacksonvilleMiami and St. Petersburg, Florida. Its route mainly followed that of several former Louisville & Nashville Railroad (L&N) passenger trains, including the Humming Bird (Cincinnati—Louisville—New Orleans). Originating in Chicago, the train served Lafayette and Bloomington, Indiana; Louisville and Bowling Green, Kentucky; Nashville, Tennessee; Decatur, Birmingham, Montgomery and Dothan, Alabama; and Thomasville, Valdosta and Waycross, Georgia.

The Floridian was notorious for lackluster on-time performance, owing to poor track conditions and the poor condition of the equipment it inherited from railroads previously operating on the route. The train used the lines of L&N (in Indiana, over the former Monon Railroad, which merged into the L&N shortly before the formation of Amtrak), and Seaboard Coast Line. All are now part of CSX Transportation; some parts of the former route have since been abandoned by CSX.

Amtrak discontinued the Floridian in October 1979, leaving Louisville and Nashville without passenger train service, two of the largest such cities in the nation to have this distinction. (Louisville briefly regained Amtrak service with the Kentucky Cardinal, which operated 1999–2003.)

History[edit]

Pre-Amtrak[edit]

The Floridian as conceived by Amtrak was a successor of the Pennsylvania Railroad's (PRR) South Wind, which operated over PRR track from Chicago to Louisville via Logansport and Indianapolis, Indiana; then L&N from Louisville to Montgomery, Alabama; the Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) from Montgomery via Waycross to Jacksonville; and then either the Florida East Coast Railway (FEC) to Miami or the Atlantic Coast Line to St. Petersburg.[1]:79–80

Amtrak[edit]

Amtrak restored the South Wind as a through daily Chicago-Miami train. However, the train was rerouted away from Logansport to the James Whitcomb Riley route via Indianapolis, changing its northern terminus to Chicago's Central Station (owned by Illinois Central Railroad [IC]), which it shared with Amtrak's Panama Limited (the renamed City of New Orleans and not the original all-Pullman flagship) until that facility was vacated later in favor of consolidating all services at Chicago's Union Station. The Floridian began using Union Station on January 23, 1972.[1]:82

The southbound St. Petersburg section of the Floridian at Clearwater in 1979

Amtrak also began serving the west coast of Florida by splitting the now-daily South Wind into St. Petersburg and Miami sections. The train split at Auburndale, with one section continuing to Miami and another going to St. Petersburg via Tampa. On November 14, the South Wind was reconfigured as the Floridian. The St. Petersburg and Miami sections were retained. but the split now occurred in Jacksonville, with the St. Petersburg section serving Orlando and Tampa and the Miami section serving Winter Haven. These two legs crossed each other near Lakeland, Florida.

On paper, the new Floridian should have been a success. It ran through several major Midwestern and Southern cities (Chicago, Louisville, Nashville, Birmingham) en route to Florida, and its predecessor had existed for over three decades. However, it was fraught with problems. It had to contend with deteriorating Penn Central (PC) track in Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky, which resulted in occasional use of MoPac (former Chicago & Eastern Illinois) and L&N (former Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville: Monon) routes north of Louisville. In January 1977, the Floridian was cancelled for two weeks due to severe winter weather in Chicago.[2] Two other long-distance Penn Central trains retained by Amtrak, the National Limited (successor to another PRR mainstay, the Spirit of St. Louis) and the James Whitcomb Riley, were plagued by similar problems.

During Amtrak's tenure, it continued to utilize E-units from many railroads before replacing them with the SDP40Fs which began arriving in the mid 1970s. Unfortunately, these engines had a tendency to derail, especially on rickety PC trackage. The train suffered abominable delays and frequent derailments, including one at 10 mph. The consists remained steam-heated.

The Floridian was briefly combined with the Louisville—Sanford run of Auto-Train. The success with the original Lorton—Sanford Auto-Train did not replicate itself on the Louisville-Sanford run, in part due to the rampant delays on the Floridian, and this train was discontinued before Auto-Train itself finally succumbed to financial difficulties in the early 1980s. As part of this move Amtrak stopped serving Union Station in Louisville on November 1, 1976, instead using Auto-Train's station near Louisville International Airport. This continued until the Floridian's discontinuance.[1]:221

In 1979, the United States Department of Transportation compiled a report that recommended the reduction of services on several routes that did not meet a metric for cost coverage. Per this report, the Carter administration required all Amtrak routes to meet a minimum cost/farebox ratio or face discontinuance. Unfortunately, the aforementioned track issues and delays resulted in a steep decline in ridership for the Floridian. It made its last run on October 9, 1979 and was shuttered along with the National Limited, North Coast Hiawatha, Lone Star, and Champion, thus rolling back some of the key parts of the Amtrak system and alleviating some of the losses it had incurred since its May 1, 1971 founding.

This DOT report also recommended the discontinuance of the Chicago—Oakland (San Francisco) San Francisco Zephyr—which, as the California Zephyr, has become one of Amtrak's most popular trains.

Proposed revival[edit]

There has been no concrete effort to re-establish direct Chicago-Miami service, either on the route of the South Wind/Floridian or on that of its partners the City of Miami and Dixie Flagler. During the early 2000s, Amtrak extended the Kentucky Cardinal to a re-opened Louisville Union Station, then discontinued the train again.

While there have been no proposals to restore Amtrak service to Nashville, there have been repeated calls from residents.[3] However, in 2007 Tennessee state officials said resumption of service was unlikely. Besides a lack of federal funding, they claimed that Nashville, despite its large size, was not large enough to support intercity rail. "It would be wonderful to say I can be in Memphis and jump on a train to Nashville, but the volume of people who would do that isn't anywhere close to what the cost would be to provide the service," said Ed Cole, chief of environment and planning with the Tennessee Department of Transportation.[3] Ross Capon, executive director of the National Association of Railroad Passengers, said rail trips would catch on if routes were expanded, but conceded that it would be nearly impossible to resume Amtrak service to Nashville without a substantial investment from the state.[3]

Motive power[edit]

In the diesel era, the South Wind was originally powered by PRR engines. Later, when a second train set was added, the train was typically headed by the E-units of the PRR on one set, and ACL on the other set. Though the train used the L&N for a significant portion of its run, a run-through agreement between the PRR and ACL provided that L&N units were only used in emergencies.

Soon after the Central of Georgia (CofG) took delivery of E8s 811 and 812, they were sent to Chicago and repainted in IC colors, returning to the CofG only on diesel run-throughs of IC power. They were used on the IC system. As a result, the IC supplied power to the City of Miami from Chicago to Miami and in the mid-1960s on the Seminole between Chicago and Columbus, Georgia. These engines were returned to the CofG after Amtrak came into being, but were retired from service.

The Dixie Flagler was originally steam powered with each railroad supplying their own power. Some had specifically designated streamlined engines.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sanders, Craig (2006). Amtrak in the Heartland. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34705-3.
  2. ^ "Amtrak Floridian Back In Service". Retrieved 2013-11-22.
  3. ^ a b c Howard, Kate (July 2, 2007). "Fans of rail want Amtrak here; Nashville not ready to support train service, state says". The Tennessean. Retrieved October 30, 2012.

External links[edit]