Dental floss

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Dental floss is a cord of thin filaments used to remove food and dental plaque from between teeth in areas a toothbrush is unable to reach.[1] As the build-up of plaque in interproximal areas is the primary cause of dental disease, such as gingivitis and dental caries, the use of floss is commonly recommended in order to prevent these conditions from developing.[2] Despite the availability of a number of interdental cleaning aids, dental floss has received the most attention, although it can be challenging to use as it requires a high level of dexterity, resulting in low compliance levels.[3] It has been widely accepted that the use of floss has a favourable effect on plaque removal and disease prevention, and the American Dental Association reports that up to 80% of plaque can be eliminated with this method.[3] However, several reviews have failed to find any clear benefit over toothbrushing alone.[3]


Dental floss

Levi Spear Parmly, a dentist from New Orleans, is credited with inventing the first form of dental floss.[4] In 1819, he recommended running a waxen silk thread "through the interstices of the teeth, between their necks and the arches of the gum, to dislodge that irritating matter which no brush can remove and which is the real source of disease."[5][6] He considered this the most important part of oral care.[4] Floss was not commercially available until 1882, when the Codman and Shurtleft company started producing unwaxed silk floss.[7] In 1898, the Johnson & Johnson Corporation received the first patent for dental floss that was made from the same silk material used by doctors for silk stitches.[7]

One of the earliest depictions of the use of dental floss in literary fiction is found in James Joyce's famous novel Ulysses (serialized 1918–1920), but the adoption of floss was low before World War II. Physician Charles C. Bass developed nylon floss during World War II.[7] Nylon floss was found to be better than silk because of its greater abrasion resistance and because it could be produced in great lengths and at various sizes.[7]


A picture demonstrating the use of floss to remove dental plaque between the teeth

It is recommended that flossing should be carried out once a day before or after brushing to allow the fluoride from the toothpaste to reach between the teeth.[8] The floss is commonly supplied in plastic dispensers that contain 10 to 100 meters of floss. After pulling out approximately 40 cm of floss, it is pulled against a small protected blade in the dispenser to sever it. The floss is then strung on a fork-like instrument or held between the fingers with about 1-2 cm of floss between each finger. The floss is guided between each tooth and gently curved against the side of the tooth in a 'C' shape and under the gumline. This will remove particles of food stuck between teeth and dental plaque that adhere to such dental surfaces. This process is usually then repeated on adjacent and subsequent teeth. With the right technique, flossing is a very effective method to remove plaque from both between the teeth and below the gum line.[3] It is advised to floss at least once a day.[9]

Types of floss[edit]

A variety of dental flosses are commonly available. Floss is available in many forms including waxed, unwaxed monofilaments and multifilaments. Dental floss that is made of coated monofilaments slides easily between teeth, does not fray and is generally higher in cost than its uncoated counterparts. Compared to a feature of multifilament floss, where the separation of its fibers occurs when used. The most important variable when selecting dental floss is the thickness. Waxed and unwaxed floss are available in varying widths. Studies have shown that there is no difference in the effectiveness of waxed and unwaxed dental floss,[10] but some waxed types of dental floss are said to contain antibacterial agents and/or sodium fluoride. As mentioned previously, there is no floss that is superior over other floss and factors such as the size of spaces between teeth and patient preference must be considered when deciding the type of floss most suited to the individual. Dental tape is another type of floss product which has a wider and flatter design compared to conventional floss. Dental tape is recommended for individuals that have a larger area of tooth surface to clean.[10]

The ability of different types of dental floss to remove dental plaque from between the teeth does not vary significantly,[11] meaning the very cheapest type of floss has a similar impact on oral hygiene as the most expensive.

Factors to be considered when choosing the right floss or whether the use of floss as an interdental cleaning device is appropriate may be based on:[10]

  • The tightness of the contact area: determines the width of floss
  • The contour of the gingival tissue
  • The roughness of the interproximal surface
  • The client's manual dexterity and preference: to determine if supplemental device is required
F-shaped and Y-shaped dental floss wands

Specialized plastic wands, or floss picks, have been produced to hold the floss. These may be attached to or separate from a floss dispenser. While wands do not pinch fingers like regular floss can, using a wand may be awkward and can also make it difficult to floss at all the angles possible with regular floss. These types of flossers also run the risk of missing the area under the gum line that needs to be flossed. On the other hand, the enhanced reach of a wand can make flossing the back teeth easier.

Dental floss is the most frequently recommended cleaning aid for teeth sides with a normal gingiva contour in which the spaces between teeth are tight and small.[10] The dental term ‘embrasure space’ describes the size of the triangular-shaped space immediately under the contact point of two teeth.[10] The size of the embrasure space is useful in selecting the most appropriate interdental cleaning aid. There are three interproximal embrasure types or classes as described below:[10]

The classification of the amount of gum that fills the spaces between the teeth
  • Type I – the gums fills embrasure space completely
  • Type II – the gums partially fills embrasure space
  • Type III – the gums do not fill embrasure space

The table below describes the types of interdental non-powered self-care products available.[10]

Interdental Nonpowered Self-Care Products Description Indications Contraindications and limitations Common problems experienced during misuse of product The number of times it can be used/duration of use
Waxed floss Traditional string floss, Nylon waxed Monofilament floss also available coated in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Does not fray Type I embrasures, Floss cleans between the gum and tooth Type II and III embrasures Floss cuts, Floss clefts, Circulation to fingers may cut off from wrapping floss too tight, Inability to reach back teeth due to manual dexterity problems One time use. Dispose after use
Unwaxed floss Traditional string floss, Unwaxed, multifilaments Type I embrasures, Floss cleans between the gum and tooth Type II and III embrasures See waxed floss One time use. Dispose after use
Dental tape Waxed floss that has a wider and flatter design to conventional floss Type I embrasures, Floss cleans between the gum and tooth that may have large tooth surface area Type II and III embrasures See waxed floss One time use. Dispose after use
Tufted/braided dental floss/ Superfloss Regular diameter floss, wider tufted portion looks like yarn. Tip of product also resembles a threader Type II and III embrasures. Under pontics of fixed partial dentures Type I embrasures Trauma from forcing threader into tissues. Yarnlike portion/fibers may catch on appliances or dental work (which may cause gum irritation/problem) One time use. Dispose after use
Floss holder Handle with two prongs in Y or F Shape Type I embrasures. Recommended for individuals that lack manual dexterity, who are physically challenged, or who have a strong gag reflex. Floss holders may assist caregivers Type II and III embrasures Unable to maintain tension of floss against tooth and fully wrap around tooth side. Need to set a fulcrum/finger rest (e.g. cheek, chin) to avoid trauma to gums and floss cuts Can be used a number of times, however floss is to be changed after each use
Floss threader A nylon loop designed to resemble a needle with large opening to thread floss. Tip of floss threader inserted and pulled through the space between two teeth to allow cleaning of the teeth sides Type I embrasures: tight contacts between teeth, floss between and under abutment teeth and pontics of fixed prosthesis (e.g. fixed bridges and dental implants), under orthodontic appliances such as wires and lingual bar, under bars for implants Type II and III embrasures Trauma to gums from flossing threader into tissues Can be used a number of times, however floss is to be changed after each use
Threader-tip floss A length of floss with an attached threader tip. Type I embrasures, Floss cleans between the gum and tooth Type II and III embrasures See waxed floss One time use. Dispose after use

The table below describes the different types of Interdental powered self-care products available.[10]

Powered flosser
Interdental Powered Self-Care Products Description Indications Contraindications and limitations Common problems experienced during misuse of product
Power flossers Bow type tip and Single filament nylon tip Type I embrasures: Individuals with physical challenges. Individuals that cannot master traditional string floss. Individual preference. Type II and III embrasures. Tight contacts between teeth or crowded teeth Floss cuts or clefts with floss holder designs. Unable to maintain tension or wrap floss completely around tooth side.


The American Dental Association has stated that flossing in combination with tooth brushing can help prevent gum disease[12] and halitosis.[13] A 2012 review of trials concluded that flossing in addition to tooth brushing reduces gingivitis compared to tooth brushing alone. In this review, researchers found "some evidence from twelve studies that flossing in addition to tooth brushing reduces gingivitis compared to tooth brushing alone" but only discovered "weak, very unreliable evidence from 10 studies that flossing plus tooth brushing may be associated with a small reduction in plaque at 1 and 3 months."[14]

A 2008 systematic review of 11 studies concluded that adjunctive flossing was no more effective than tooth brushing alone in reducing plaque or gingivitis.[3] The authors concluded that "the dental professional should determine, on an individual patient basis, whether high-quality flossing is an achievable goal."[3] The review also states that "routine instruction of flossing in gingivitis patients as helpful adjunct therapy is not supported by scientific evidence".[3] Two studies found no effect of floss among dental students.[3] One review reported that professional flossing of children reduced dental caries risk, but self-flossing did not.[15]

Incorrect usage[edit]

Although flossing is commonly used as a means of disrupting the oral biofilm between the teeth and therefore preventing gingival disease (such as gingivitis or periodontitis), its effectiveness is determined by the client's preference, technique and motivation to floss daily.[16]

Flossing is considered to be a more difficult method of interdental cleaning than using an interdental brush.[16] Interdental brushes are said to be preferred due to their one-handed method of use and time efficiency compared to flossing.[16]

A groove in the gingival margin, known as a floss cleft, can form after repeatedly using floss incorrectly along the mesial and distal surfaces of the tooth.[17]

Flossing immediately after the placement of amalgam fillings can also result in an amalgam tattoo.[18]

Floss for Orthodontic Appliances[edit]

It is widely acknowledged in dental literature that orthodontic appliances, such as brackets, wires, and bands, as an outcome of their greater surface area, can harbour greater accumulations of plaque with more virulent changes in bacterial composition, which can ultimately cause a reduction in periodontal health as indicated by increased gingival recession, bleeding on probing, and plaque retention measurements.[19]Furthermore, fixed appliances makes plaque control more challenging and restricts the natural cleaning action of the tongue, lips, and cheek to remove food and bacterial debris from tooth surfaces, and also creates new plaque stagnation areas that stimulate the colonisation of pathogenic bacteria.[20]It is the general consensus among dental academia that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment maintain a high level of plaque control through not only conscientious toothbrushing, but also proximal surface cleaning via interdental aids, with dental floss being the most recommended by dental professionals.[19]As toothbrushing alone is ineffective at removing plaque between tooth surfaces when bonded appliances are in place, clinical studies have demonstrated that dental floss, when used correctly, leads to substantial improvements in proximal gingival health.[19] Although it is clear that orthodontic patients who utilise floss enjoy better gingival health and less plaque retention relative to those who do not, flossing is not always entirely embraced as it can be difficult and more time-consuming, which is shown to discourage a lot of patients from performing this task regularly to prevent dental disease.[19]

Floss threader[edit]

Floss threader

A floss threader is loop of fiber that is shaped in order to produce better handling characteristics. It is (similar to fishing line) used to thread floss into small, hard to reach sites around teeth. [21] Threaders are sometimes required to floss with dental braces, fix retainers, and bridge.

Floss pick[edit]

F-Shaped Floss Pick
'Y' shaped floss pick
Different types of floss picks

A floss pick is a disposable oral hygiene device generally made of plastic and dental floss. The instrument is composed of two prongs extending from a thin plastic body of high-impact polystyrene material. A single piece of floss runs between the two prongs. The body of the floss pick generally tapers at its end in the shape of a toothpick. There are two types of angled floss picks in the oral care industry, the 'Y'-shaped angle and the 'F'-shaped angle floss pick. At the base of the arch where the 'Y' begins to branch there is a handle for gripping and maneuvering before it tapers off into a pick.

Floss picks are manufactured in a variety of shapes, colors and sizes for adults and children. The floss can be coated in fluoride, flavor or wax.[22]

History of floss pick[edit]

In 1888, B.T. Mason wrapped a fibrous material around a toothpick and dubbed it the 'combination tooth pick.'[23] In 1916, J.P. De L'eau invented a dental floss holder between two vertical poles.[24] In 1935, F.H. Doner invented what today's consumer knows as the 'Y'-shaped angled dental appliance.[25] In 1963, James B. Kirby invented a tooth-cleaning device that resembles an archaic version of today's F-shaped floss pick.[26]

In 1972, an inventor named Richard L. Wells found a way to attach floss to a single pick end.[27] In the same year, another inventor named Harry Selig Katz came up with a method of making a disposable dental floss tooth pick.[28] In the end of 1980s floss picks became mass marketed in various versions.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "How to Floss". Flossing Techniques-Flossing Teeth Effectively. Colgate. 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  2. ^ Bauroth K, Charles C H, Mankodi S M, Simmons B S, Zhao Q, & Kumar L D. (2003). The efficacy of an essential oil antiseptic mouthrinse vs. dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis. Journal of American Dental Association, 134, 359-365.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Berchier CE, Slot DE, Haps S, van der Weijden GA (2008). "The efficacy of dental floss in addition to a toothbrush on plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review.". International Journal of Dental Hygiene 6: 265–279. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5037.2008.00336.x. PMID 19138178. 
  4. ^ a b Sanoudos M, Christen AG (1999). "Levi Spear Parmly: the apostle of dental hygiene". Journal of the History of Dentistry 47 (1): 3–6. PMID 10686903. 
  5. ^ Christen AG (1995). "Sumter Smith Arnim, DDS, PhD (1904-1990): a pioneer in preventive dentistry". Journal of Dental Research 74 (10): 1630–5. doi:10.1177/00220345950740100201. PMID 7499584. 
  6. ^ Parmly LS (1819). A Practical Guide to the Management of the Teeth; Comprising a Discovery of the Origin of Caries, or Decay of the Teeth. Philadelphia, PA: Collins & Croft. p. 72. 
  7. ^ a b c d Kruszelnicki, KS (30 March 2001). "Dental Floss 1". ABC Science. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  8. ^ American Dental Association, "Floss and Other Interdental Cleaners". Accessed 12 April 2010.
  9. ^ "Flossing & Brushing". Canadian Dental Association. 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Darby M, Walsh M. Dental Hygiene Theory and Practice. 3rd Ed. Saunders Elsevier; 2010. p.402-410
  11. ^ Heasman P (editor) (2008). Restorative dentistry, paediatric dentistry and orthodontics (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 37. ISBN 9780443068959. 
  12. ^ American Dental Association, Accessed 28 November 2009. What does floss do? Archived February 9, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ American Dental Association, "Bad Breath (Halitosis)". Accessed 28 November 2009. Archived March 6, 2008.
  14. ^ Sambunjak D, Nickerson JW, Poklepovic T, Johnson TM, Imai P, Tugwell P, Worthington HV. (2011). "Flossing for the management of periodontal diseases and dental caries in adults". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008829.pub2. PMID 22161438. 
  15. ^ Hujoel PP, Cunha-Cruz J, Banting DW, Loesche WJ (April 2006). "Dental flossing and interproximal caries: a systematic review.". Journal of Dental Research 85 (4): 298–305. doi:10.1177/154405910608500404. PMID 16567548. 
  16. ^ a b c Imal P., Yu X., MacDonald D., (2012). "Comparison of interdental brush to dental floss for reduction of clinical parameters of periodontal disease: A systematic review.". Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene 46: 63–78. 
  17. ^ Hallmon W, Waldrop T, Houston G, Hawkins B. (August 1986). Flossing Clefts: Clinical and Histological Observations. Journal of Periodontology. American Academy of Periodontology 57(8):501-504. Doi= 10.1902/jop.1986.57.8.501. Access date 19-04-2015.
  18. ^ Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CA, Bouquot JE. (2002). Oral & maxillofacial pathology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. pp. 269–272. ISBN 0721690033.
  19. ^ a b c d Zanatta Fabricio MC, Rosing Cassiano, . Association between dental floss use and gingival conditions in orthodontic patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthpedics. 2011;140(6):812-21.
  20. ^ Srivastava Kamna TT, Khanna Rohit, Sachan Kiran,. Risk factors and management of white spot lesions in orthodontics. Journal of Orthodontic Science. 2013;2(2):43-9.
  21. ^ Johnson & Johnson (27 December 1977). "Dental floss threader with locking means (Patent US 4064883)". Google Patents. Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  22. ^ "Floss and Other Interdental Cleaners". American Dental Association. 
  23. ^ "Patent US407362 - Combination tooth-pick - Google Patents". Retrieved 2014-04-13. 
  24. ^ "Dental Floss Holder". U.S. Patent. 
  25. ^ "Patent US2076449 - Dental instrument - Google Patents". Retrieved 2014-04-13. 
  26. ^ "Patent US3106216 - Tooth cleaning device - Google Patents". Retrieved 2014-04-13. 
  27. ^ "Patent US3775849 - Dental handpiece attachment - Google Patents". Retrieved 2014-04-13. 
  28. ^ "Patent US3926201 - Method of making a disposable dental floss tooth pick - Google Patents". Retrieved 2014-04-13.