Flower mantis

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The flower mantises include the orchid mantis, Hymenopus coronatus, which mimics a rainforest orchid of southeast Asia to lure its prey, pollinator insects.[1]

Flower mantises are those species of praying mantis that mimic flowers.[2] Their coloration is an example of aggressive mimicry, a form of camouflage in which a predator's colours and patterns lure prey.[3] Most species of flower mantis are in the family Hymenopodidae. Their behaviour varies, but typically involves climbing a plant, and then staying still until a prey insect comes within range. Many species of flower mantis are popular as pets.

The orchid mantis, Hymenopus coronatus, of southeast Asia mimics an orchid flower. It remains motionless on the plant until prey arrive; the same camouflage also protects it from predators.[4] In his 1940 book Adaptive Coloration in Animals, Hugh Cott quotes an account by Nelson Annandale, saying that the mantis hunts on the flowers of the "Straits Rhododendron", Melastoma polyanthum. The nymph has what Cott calls "Special Alluring Coloration" (aggressive mimicry), where the animal itself is the "decoy". The insect is pink and white, with flattened limbs with "that semi-opalescent, semi-crystalline appearance that is caused in flower-petals by a purely structural arrangement of liquid globules or empty cells". The mantis climbs up the twigs of the plant and stands imitating a flower and waits for her prey patiently. It then sways from side to side, and soon various small flies land on and around it, attracted by the small black spot on the end of its abdomen which resembles a fly. When a larger dipteran fly, as big as a house fly, landed nearby, the mantis at once seized and ate it.[5][6] More recently (2015), the orchid mantis's coloration has been shown to be an effective mimic of tropical flowers; and it has been demonstrated to attract pollinators (as if it were a flower) and then to catch them.[7]

Example species[edit]

The flower mantises include the following species, many of which are popularly kept as pets:

Flower mantises
Species Common names Image Distribution Notes
Acromantis formosana Taiwan flower mantis[8] Acromantis japonica IMG 4805.JPG Taiwan Nymphs are dark brown, flanged and spined, highly cryptic on dead leaves. Adults have green wings.
Blepharopsis mendica Small devil's flower mantis[9]
Devil's flower mantis
Thistle mantis[10]
Egyptian flower mantis
Arab mantis[11]
Devil flower mantis.jpg North Africa, Canary Islands Deimatic display with head and thorax rotated to one side.
Chloroharpax modesta Nigerian flower mantis[12] NigerianFlowerMantis.JPG West Africa Adult female has ocellated eyespots on wings. Aggressively hunts prey larger than itself.
Creobroter gemmatus and other species in genus
Creobroter
(Flower mantises) Gemmatus.jpg South and Southeast Asia Fly strongly on long wings. Eyespots on forewings, varying colours. Deimatic display of bright hindwings is flashed to startle predators.
Gongylus gongylodes Wandering violin mantis
Ornate mantis
Indian rose mantis[13]
DruryV1P050AA pict 2.jpg South Asia Up to 11 cm; males can fly.
Hymenopus coronatus Orchid mantis[4]
Walking flower mantis[14]
Insect camouflage PP08338.png Southeast Asia Hunts flies on "Straits Rhododendron", Melastoma polyanthum.
Idolomantis diabolica [Giant] devil's flower mantis[15][16] Idolomantis.diabolicum.1.jpg Central and East Africa Large insect, females as much as 13 cm. Brightly coloured deimatic display in red, white, blue, purple and black.
Parymenopus davisoni Yellow flower mantis,[17]
Davison's mantis
Parymenopus davisoni drawings by James Wood-Mason.jpg Southeast Asia A slender yellow mantis, the female with three dark spots on the wings.
Pseudoharpax virescens Gambian spotted-eye flower mantis[18] 9060119 orig.jpg East, Central and West Africa Adult female has eye spots on abdomen.
Pseudocreobotra wahlbergii Spiny flower mantis
Bulls-eye mantis
#9 Mantis[19]
Pseudocreobotra wahlbergii 03.jpg South and East Africa Effective aggressive mimic of flower; can handle prey much larger than itself. Deimatic display with spread wings to show off "number 9" eyespots. Variable coloration.
Pseudocreobotra ocellata Spiny flower mantis
Spiny flower praying mantis
African ocellated mantis[20][21]
Pseudocreobotra ocellata nymph.jpg West, Central and Southern Africa Like P. wahlbergii.
Theopropus elegans Banded flower mantis
Asian boxer mantis[22]
Theopropus elegans TPopp.jpg Southeast Asia White stripe on forewings. Colours can vary.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Levine, Timothy R. (2014). Encyclopedia of Deception. SAGE Publications. p. 675. ISBN 978-1-4833-8898-4. In aggressive mimicry, the predator is 'a wolf in sheep's clothing'. Mimicry is used to appear harmless or even attractive to lure its prey. 
  2. ^ [1] www.environmentalgraffiti.com: 15 Incredible Flower Praying Mantis Pictures
  3. ^ Wickler, 1968.
  4. ^ a b Gullan and Cranston, 2010. p 370.
  5. ^ Cott, 1940. pp392-393.
  6. ^ Annandale, Nelson (1900). "Notes on the Habits and natural Surroundings of Insects made during the 'Skeat Expedition' to the Malay Peninsula, 1899–1900". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 837–868. 
  7. ^ Choi, Charles Q. (30 November 2013). "Found! First Known Predator To Lure Prey By Mimicking Flowers". LiveScience. Retrieved 2 July 2015. the color of the orchid mantis was indistinguishable from 13 species of wild flowers in the areas the predator lived. ... The orchid mantis is unique in that the mantis itself is the attractive stimulus. 
  8. ^ USA Mantis: Acromantis formosana
  9. ^ Keeping Insects: Blepharopsis mendica
  10. ^ Insectstore, mantis caresheets: Blepharopsis mendica
  11. ^ Dannesdjur: image gallery: Blepharopsis mendica Archived 2012-06-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ USA Mantis: photos of Chloroharpax modesta
  13. ^ Cott, 1940. p336.
  14. ^ Dorai, Francis (ed.) (2011). Singapore at Random. Editions Didier Millet. p. 18. 
  15. ^ Insect Store: Idolomantis diabolica
  16. ^ Reptileforums: Idolomantis diabolica
  17. ^ Reocities.com: Parhymenopus davisoni
  18. ^ Keeping Insects: Pseudoharpax virescens
  19. ^ MantisKingdom: Caresheet of Pseudocreobotra wahlbergii
  20. ^ Exotic Pets: Spiny Flower Mantis
  21. ^ PetBugs.com: Caresheet on P. ocellata
  22. ^ USA Mantis logs: Theopropus elegans

Bibliography[edit]