Fluminense FC

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Fluminense
Fluminense fc logo.svg
Full nameFluminense Football Club
Nickname(s)Tricolor
Flu
Fluzão (Big Flu)
Nense
Pó de Arroz (Rice Powder)
Time de Guerreiros (Team of Warriors)
Máquina Tricolor (Tricolor Machine)
Founded21 July 1902; 118 years ago (1902-07-21)
StadiumMaracanã
Capacity78,639[1]
PresidentMário Bittencourt
Head coachRoger Machado
LeagueCampeonato Brasileiro Série A
Campeonato Carioca
2020
2020
Série A, 5th
Carioca, 2nd
WebsiteClub website
Current season

Fluminense Football Club (Brazilian Portuguese: [flumiˈnẽsi ˈfutʃibow klɐb]), known simply as Fluminense, is a Brazilian sports club best known for its professional football team that competes in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the first tier of Brazilian football and the Campeonato Carioca, the state league of Rio de Janeiro. The club is based in the neighbourhood of Laranjeiras, in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

The club was founded on 21 July 1902 and Oscar Cox was its first elected president[citation needed]. Fluminense have since been crowned national champions four times, most recently in the 2012 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the team have also won the 2007 Copa do Brasil, the 1999 Campeonato Brasileiro Série C and the 1952 edition of Copa Rio (or Copa Rio Internacional). Its best international performances are a second place at the 2008 Copa Libertadores and a second place at the 2009 Copa Sudamericana. In 1949, Fluminense became the first football club to receive the Olympic Cup, awarded annually by the International Olympic Committee to an institution or association with a record of merit and integrity in actively developing the Olympic Movement.

Fluminense is a demonym for people indigenous to the state of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil. Although football was its original endeavour, the club is today an umbrella organisation for several teams in more than 16 different sport activities.[citation needed]

Fluminense's traditional home kit consists of garnet, white and green vertical striped shirts, white shorts and white socks, an outfit which has been in use since 1920.[citation needed] Umbro is the current kit manufacturer.

The club holds several long-standing rivalries with other clubs, most notably with Flamengo (Clássico Fla-Flu), as well as with Botafogo (Clássico Vovô) and Vasco da Gama (Clássico dos Gigantes).

The club was the birthplace of the Brazil national football team, where the canarinhos have played their first ever match, scored their first ever goal and lifted their first ever trophy.[citation needed] It has contributed the fifth-most players to the national team among all Brazilian clubs.[2]

History[edit]

Fluminense Football Club was founded on 21 July 1902 in the neighbourhood of Flamengo in the city of Rio de Janeiro by a group of young football enthusiasts led by Oscar Cox, a Brazilian of English descent whom had come into contact with the sport whilst studying in Europe.[3]

Oscar Cox, founder of Fluminense

The first official match was played against now defunct Rio Football Club, and Fluminense won 8–0.[4] The club's first title came in 1906, when Fluminense won the Campeonato Carioca.[4]


In 1911, disagreement between Fluminense players led to the formation of Flamengo's football team.[4] The so-called Fla-Flu derby is considered one of the biggest in the history of Brazilian football.[5] Three years later, in Fluminense's stadium, the Brazil national football team debuted, against touring English club Exeter City.[4] It was also there that they won their debut title, in 1919.[6]

By 1922, Fluminense had 4,000 members, a stadium for 25,000 people, and facilities that impressed clubs in Europe.[7]

The team that won its first Campeonato Carioca, in 1906
Preguinho, a Fluminense notable player

The following years saw an expansion of the club's hegemony in Rio. Fluminense would remain unsurpassed in terms of state championships until 2009.[8] International acclaim came in 1949 with the awarding of the Olympic Cup, and was further fostered in 1952 with Fluminense's World-wide honour, the Copa Rio. The club established itself regionally with victory in two Torneio Rio-São Paulo cups in 1957 and 1960.[4] National honors followed in 1970, 1984, 2010 and 2012 with Taça de Prata and Série A cups, respectively,[4] also taking the Cup in Brazil in 2007 and the Brasileirão Série C in 1999.

From the 1950s, with the creation of the Rio-São Paulo Tournament, the forerunner of what eventually would become the national championship, Fluminense established itself regionally by winning the tournament title in the years of 1957 and 1960.

Fluminense FC – team in 1960.

From the 1960s, the first national championships began to be played in Brazil. Fluminense's first national title came in 1970; at that time, Brazil had the best players in world football, and all of them played in Brazilian clubs. Although its squad was not counted among the main contenders of the season in Brazil, Fluminense won the Brazilian championship and surpassed the great strengths of the time in Santos, Palmeiras and Cruzeiro.

Stained glass windows in Fluminense's headquarters

In the 1970s, Fluminense signed several famous players like Roberto Rivellino. This time, called "maquina tricolor", they won the state championship in the years of 1975 and 1976. In the national championship, Fluminense lost in the semifinal matches to Internacional in 1975 and Corinthians in 1976.

Fluminense again became Brazilian champions in 1984. This time, they won the state Championship in the years of 1983, 1984 and 1985 with players like Romerito, Ricardo Gomes, Deley, and the "Casal Vinte": Assis and Washington.

At the end of the 1980s, Copa do Brasil was created, inspired by the Cup tournaments played in European countries. Fluminense reached the final of the Copa do Brasil for the first time in 1992, but lost to Internacional de Porto Alegre.

A disastrous campaign led to the club's relegation from Brasileirão Série A in 1996. A set of off-field political manoeuvres, however, not performed by Fluminense, allowed Fluminense to remain in Brazil's top domestic league,[9] only to be relegated the next year.[10] Completely out of control the club was relegated from Série B to Série C in 1998.[11] In 1999, Fluminense won the Série C championship and were to be promoted to Série B when they were invited to take part in Copa João Havelange,[12] a championship that replaced the traditional Série A in 2000. In 2001, it was decided that all clubs which took part in Copa João Havelange's so-called Blue Group should be kept in Série A.[13]

In 2002, 2005 and 2012, Fluminense won the Campeonato Carioca again. In 2005 Fluminense reached the final of the Copa do Brasil again, but lost to Paulista Futebol Clube.

In 2007, Fluminense won the Copa do Brasil, after beating Figueirense in the final, and was admitted to the Copa Libertadores again after 23 years.[4][14] The club's campaign saw them reach the final and included remarkable matches against Arsenal de Sarandí, São Paulo and Boca Juniors.[15][16][17] Fluminense lost the final to LDU Quito in a penalty shootout.[18]

After signing 27 players and going through 5 different managers in 2009, Fluminense found themselves struggling to avoid another relegation from Série A.[19] With less than one-third of the championship left, the mathematical probability of the club's relegation was 98%.[20] At this point, manager Cuca decided to dispense with some of the more experienced players and gave Fluminense's youngsters a chance.[21] That, along with Fred's recovery from a serious injury and substantial support from the fans, allowed not only a sensational escape from relegation, but also placed Fluminense in the final of the Copa Sudamericana.[22][23] For the second year in a row, the club contested a continental cup. In a repeat of the previous year's Copa Libertadores, Fluminense lost the final to LDU Quito.[24]

The Flu players before playing the 2008 Copa Libertadores final match

In 2010, Fluminense won the Brazilian championship for the third time in their history, marking their third national championship after 1970 and 1984. It was also the fourth title for coach Muricy Ramalho in a decade: Ramalho had won the title three times in a row with São Paulo from 2006 to 2008. Darío Conca was named the Brazilian Championship's Player of the Season, while Fred and Washington were decisive players in Fluminense's winning campaign.

On 23 May 2012, Fluminense lost the semifinal qualification match to Boca Juniors from Argentina, for the continental club football cup, Copa Libertadores.[25] Later that year, on 11 November, they won their fourth Brazilian championship after defeating the near-relegated Palmeiras 3–2.[26] Fluminense won the Série A for the fourth time on 11 November 2012.[27]

In December 2013, a draw with Bahia in the last round of the 2013 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A had Fluminense mathematically relegated to Série B. However, irregular lineups by Portuguesa and Fluminense's main rivals Flamengo in their matches against Grêmio and Cruzeiro respectively caused both teams to lose 4 points after a trial in STJD (Brazil's governing football jury). That allowed Fluminense to stay in Série A, with Portuguesa being relegated instead and Flamengo ending the championship as the last non-relegated club.

Performance[edit]

Rio-São Paulo Tournament in the Fluminense Trophy Room
Ball used in the first ever match of the Brazi national team at Fluminense
Fluminense shirt (2017-19)

Fluminense have taken part in 47 of the 49 official Serie A championships organized in Brazil since 1971.[28]

Year Position Participants Year Position Participants
1971 16 20 1981 11 44
1972 14 26 1982 5 44
1973 23 40 1983 18 44
1974 24 40 1984 1 41
1975 3 42 1985 22 44
1976 4 54 1986 6 48
1977 26 62 1987 7 16
1978 22 74 1988 3 24
1979 52 94 1989 15 22
1980 11 44 1990 15 20
Year Position Participants Year Position Participants
1991 4 20 2001 3 28
1992 14 20 2002 4 26
1993 28 32 2003 19 24
1994 15 24 2004 9 24
1995 4 24 2005 5 22
1996 23Decrease 24 2006 15 20
1997 25Decrease 26 2007 4 20
1998 Série B Decrease 2008 14 20
1999 Série C Increase 2009 16 20
2000 3 25 2010 1 20
Year Position Participants Year Position Participants
2011 3 20 2018 12 20
2012 1 20 2019 14 20
2013 15 20
2014 6 20
2015 13 20
2016 13 20
2017 14 20

Records[edit]

Fluminense fans display a luminous mosaic in Maracanã.
Fans of Fluminense at the Maracanã

Highest attendances – Maracanã[29][edit]

  • 1. Fluminense 9–1 Flamengo, 1963 194,603 ¹
  • 2. Fluminense 3–2 Flamengo, 1969 171,599
  • 3. Fluminense 1–0 Botafogo, 1971 160,000
  • 4. Fluminense 0–0 Flamengo, 1976 155,116
  • 5. Fluminense 1–0 Flamengo, 1984 153,520
  • 6. Fluminense 1–1 Corinthians, 1976 146,043

¹: 177,656 paying, a record for persons present at Maracanã stadium.

Highest average attendance at public competition for Fluminense[edit]

  • Largest average attendance in the Copa Libertadores (RJ): 52,801 (49,011 paying, 2008)
  • Largest average attendance in the Copa Sudamericana (RJ): 29,357 (27,318 paying, 2009)
  • Largest average attendance in international tournaments (RJ): 48,797 (37,541 paying, Copa Rio, 1952)
  • Largest average attendance in national championships (RJ): 43,541 paying (1976)
  • Largest average attendance in the Tournament Roberto Gomes Pedrosa (RJ): 40,408 paying (1970)
  • Largest average attendance in the Brazil Cup (RJ): 27,123 paying (2007)
  • Largest average attendance in the Rio-São Paulo Tournament (RJ): 33,018 paying (1960)
  • Largest average attendance in the state championship: 47,814 paying (1969, all stages)
  • Largest average attendance in the state championship in the Maracana Stadium: 93,560 paying (1969, 10 matches)

Support[edit]

Fluminense supporters in 2017

The supporters of Fluminense Football Club are usually related to the upper classes of Rio de Janeiro.[30] However, the popularity of the club reaches beyond the city limits. Recent polls have estimated the number of supporters to be between 1.3% and 3.7% of the Brazilian population.[31] Considering a population of 185 million people,[32] that would account for numbers between 2.73 and 6.84 million.

The best attendance ever observed in a match of Fluminense was registered on 15 December 1963 in a rally against Flamengo. On that day, an impressive number of 194,000 people showed up at Maracanã stadium.[33] This occasion remains as the stadium's record for a match between clubs.[34]

Notable supporters of Fluminense include composers Cartola and Chico Buarque,[35][36] FIFA president of honor João Havelange,[5] musician Ivan Lins,[37] poet and actor Mário Lago,[38] journalist and songwriter Nelson Motta,[39] dramatist, journalist and writer Nelson Rodrigues,[39] 1970 FIFA World Cup winner Gérson, Paris Saint-Germain central defender Thiago Silva, Left-back legend Marcelo, former Minister of Culture Gilberto Gil, Silvio Santos, the owner of SBT, the second largest Brazilian television network,[40] and the Academy Award nominee Fernanda Montenegro.[41]

Honours[edit]

Some of the trophies won by Fluminense, exhibited at the club: (left): Campeonato Brasileiro Série A and Copa Brasil; (right) Copa Rio 1952
1999 Brasileirão Série C.
2016 Primeira Liga

National[edit]

Regional[edit]

Worldwide[edit]


State[edit]

Fluminense main derbies[edit]

  • Fla-Flu, also called Derby of Crowds ('Clássico das Multidões'),[42] played with Flamengo;
  • Giants' Derby ('Clássico dos Gigantes'); played with Vasco da Gama;
  • Grandpa Derby ('Clássico Vovô'), played with Botafogo. The name comes from being the two oldest practicing football clubs among the great clubs of Rio de Janeiro, and this is also the oldest classic in Brazil, because its first game was on October 22, 1905, friendly that the Fluminense won by 6–0.

According to the fluzao.info site, the average paying public at the principal classics of Fluminense played in the Estádio do Maracanã is 60,107 against Flamengo, 43,735 against Vasco, 34,359 against Botafogo, 25,127 against America and 22,527 against Bangu (1950-2010). These statistics could be about 20% higher, given the issues of the distribution of gratuities at Maracanã.[43]

Corinthians vs Fluminense, interstate derby

The derby against Corinthians is perhaps the most representative among the various confrontations with big Brazilian clubs played by Fluminense, given the fact that these clubs often intersect at decisive moments in their seasons.[44]

Statistics[edit]

Fluminense idols honored by the club (1902-2002)
Records.[45]

Players with most appearances[edit]

Name Matches
1st Brazil Castilho 699
2nd Brazil Pinheiro 603
3rd Brazil Telê Santana 556
4th Brazil Altair 549
5th Brazil Escurinho 490
6th Brazil Rubens Galaxe 462
7th Brazil Denílson 433
8th Brazil Gum 414
9th Brazil Assis (Defender) 424
10th Brazil Waldo 403

Top goalscorers[edit]

Waldo in Maracanã.
Name Goals Years
1st Brazil Waldo 319 1954–61
2nd Brazil Orlando Pingo de Ouro 188 1945–55
3rd Brazil Fred 172 2009–16
4th Brazil Hércules 165 1935–42
5th Brazil Telê Santana 164 1950–61
6th England Welfare 163 1913–23
7th Argentina Russo 149 1933–44
8th Brazil Preguinho 128 1925–39
9th Brazil Washington 124 1983–89
10th Brazil Magno Alves 121 1998–2002 / 2015-2016

Coaches with most games[edit]

Coaches featured in the Club Trophy Room
Name Matches
1st Brazil Zezé Moreira 467
2nd Brazil Abel Braga 329
3rd Uruguay Ondino Viera 300
4th Brazil Renato Gaúcho 202
5th Brazil Tim 166
6th Brazil Nelsinho Rosa 156
7th Brazil Carlos Alberto Parreira 146
8th Brazil Sylvio Pirillo 138
9th Brazil Luís Vinhaes 137
10th Brazil Paulo Emílio 126

Sponsors[edit]

Companies that Fluminense Football Club currently has sponsorship deals with include:

Players[edit]

Current squad[edit]

As of 9 April 2021[46]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK Brazil BRA Marcos Felipe
2 DF Brazil BRA Samuel Xavier
3 DF Brazil BRA Matheus Ferraz
4 DF Brazil BRA Luccas Claro
5 MF Brazil BRA Yuri
6 DF Brazil BRA Egídio
7 FW Brazil BRA Lucca
8 MF Brazil BRA Wellington
9 FW Brazil BRA Fred (captain)
10 MF Brazil BRA Ganso
11 FW Portugal POR Marcos Paulo
12 GK Brazil BRA João Lopes
13 DF Brazil BRA Frazan
14 DF Brazil BRA Danilo Barcelos
15 MF Uruguay URU Michel Araújo
No. Pos. Nation Player
16 FW Peru PER Fernando Pacheco
20 MF Brazil BRA Yago Felipe
21 DF Brazil BRA Igor Julião
25 MF Brazil BRA Hudson (on loan from São Paulo)
27 GK Brazil BRA Muriel
30 MF Brazil BRA Miguel
31 DF Brazil BRA Calegari
33 DF Brazil BRA Nino
34 FW Brazil BRA Luiz Henrique
35 MF Brazil BRA André
38 MF Brazil BRA Martinelli
40 DF Brazil BRA Luan
70 FW Brazil BRA Caio Paulista (on loan from Tombense)
77 MF Brazil BRA Nenê (vice-captain)
DF Brazil BRA Manoel

Reserve team[edit]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
22 GK Brazil BRA Pedro Rangel
23 FW Brazil BRA John Kennedy
26 DF Brazil BRA Raí Lopes
28 FW Brazil BRA Samuel
29 FW Brazil BRA Alexandre Jesus
32 DF Brazil BRA Dani Bolt
36 MF Brazil BRA Caio Vinícius
No. Pos. Nation Player
37 FW Brazil BRA Kayky
39 FW Brazil BRA Gabriel Teixeira
41 MF Brazil BRA Mateus Nascimento
42 DF Brazil BRA Rafael Ribeiro (on loan from Náutico)
44 DF Brazil BRA Higor
50 DF Brazil BRA Reginaldo
MF Brazil BRA Metinho

Out on loan[edit]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
GK Brazil BRA Rodolfo (on loan at Oeste until 23 May 2021)
DF Brazil BRA Mascarenhas (on loan at Vitória de Guimarães until 30 June 2021)
DF Brazil BRA Marlon Xavier (on loan at Trabzonspor until 30 June 2021)
DF Brazil BRA Wisney (on loan at Boavista until 23 May 2021)
No. Pos. Nation Player
FW Brazil BRA Pablo Dyego (on loan at Atlético Goianiense until 31 December 2021)
FW Brazil BRA Lucas Barcellos (on loan at Confiança until 31 December 2021)
FW Brazil BRA Robinho (on loan at Bashundhara Kings until 30 June 2021)

First-team staff[edit]

As of 14 April 2021
Position Name Nationality
Head coach Roger Machado  Brazilian
Assistant coaches Marcão  Brazilian
Aílton Ferraz  Brazilian
Edevaldo de Freitas  Brazilian
Roberto Ribas  Brazilian
James Freitas  Brazilian
Technical assistant Marco Salgado  Brazilian
Fitness coaches Marcos Seixas  Brazilian
Marcelo Chirol  Brazilian
Gabriel Pinho  Brazilian
Jefferson Souza  Brazilian
Flávio Vignoli  Brazilian
Goalkeeper coaches André Carvalho  Brazilian
João Carlos Gonçalves  Brazilian
Josmiro de Góes  Brazilian

Head coaches[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://secure.rio2016.com/maracana/o-novo-estadio-do-maracana-tera-capacidade-para-78639-espectadores[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ RSSSF Brasil - Jogadores cedidos por clube na história da Seleção Brasileira (in Portuguese) - Retrieved 15 September 2018
  3. ^ "How football conquered Brazil". 18 May 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Fluminense – Forever Flu". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  5. ^ a b "Passion, carnival and crazy goals". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). 13 July 2001. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  6. ^ "Southamerican Championship 1919". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  7. ^ Mason, Tony (1995). Passion of the people? Football in South America. Verso. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-86091-403-7. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  8. ^ "Fla consolida supremacia com seis títulos na década". Jornal O Dia (in Portuguese). 4 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  9. ^ "Santos and sinners". When Saturday Comes (WSC). February 2003. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  10. ^ "Brazil 1997 Championship". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  11. ^ "Brazil 1998 Championship - Second Level (Série B)". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  12. ^ "Brazil 1999 Third Level (Série C)". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  13. ^ "Brazil 2001 Championship". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  14. ^ "Fluminense volta à Libertadores após 23 anos". UOL Esporte (in Portuguese). 6 June 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  15. ^ "Flu massacra Arsenal em noite de gala". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 5 March 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  16. ^ "Flu leva a melhor no Maraca e está na semifinal da Taça Libertadores". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 21 May 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  17. ^ Leach, Conrad (6 June 2008). "Flu flay Boca as Brazilians fly into final". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  18. ^ Duarte, Fernando (4 July 2008). "Fluminense in mourning after Maracana party turns to tears". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  19. ^ "Balcão de negócios e alta rotatividade ajudam a explicar desespero do Flu". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 5 October 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  20. ^ "Degola mais próxima: Fluminense tem 98% de chances de rebaixamento". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 9 October 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  21. ^ "Por xeque-mate contra queda, Cuca celebra troca de peças no Tricolor". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 4 November 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  22. ^ "Fred saves the day for Flu". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  23. ^ "A média de público final do Campeonato Brasileiro 2009". O Globo (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  24. ^ "Fluminense luta até o fim, mas título fica novamente com a LDU, verdadeiro algoz". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 3 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  25. ^ "Fluminense está eliminado da Libertadores". Bagarai.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  26. ^ Danilo Lavieri, Danilo; Rodrigues, Renan (11 November 2012). "Fluminense vence com gols de Fred, vira tetra brasileiro e deixa Palmeiras a um jogo da queda". UOL Esportes (in Portuguese). Presidente Prudente. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  27. ^ "Fluminense crowned champions". Goal.com. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  28. ^ "RECORDS OF FLUMINENSE IN MAJOR COMPETITIONS" (in Portuguese). Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  29. ^ "OS MAIORES PÚBLICOS DO FLUMINENSE FOOTBALL CLUB NA HISTÓRIA (ACIMA DE 90.000)". Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  30. ^ "Perfil dos torcedores do Rio". Jornal O Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  31. ^ "Brazilian Clubs with Most Fans". RSSSF Brazil. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
  32. ^ "Contagem da População 2007" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 21 December 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  33. ^ "Best attendances in matches of Fluminense". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  34. ^ "Best Attendances in Brazil" (in Portuguese). Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  35. ^ "Brasil está em débito com Cartola". O Estado de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). 27 December 2000. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  36. ^ Hunt, Jemima (18 July 2004). "The lionised king of Rio". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  37. ^ "Tricolor Skylab se desespera com show na mesma hora da final em Quito". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 25 June 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  38. ^ "MST e Fluminense presentes na última homenagem a Mário Lago". Jornal do Brasil Online (in Portuguese). 31 May 2002. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  39. ^ a b Motta, Nelson; Gueiros, Pedro (2004). Fluminense: a breve e gloriosa história de uma máquina de jogar bola (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Geração Editorial. pp. 1–9. ISBN 978-85-00-01574-8. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  40. ^ "Fluminense homenageia grandes torcedores". Terra (in Portuguese). 17 December 2001. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  41. ^ "Fernanda Montenegro leva os netos ao Engenhão". Extra (in Portuguese). 11 December 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  42. ^ Livro “Fla-Flu... E as Multidões Despertaram”, de Nélson Rodrigues e Mário Filho (Edição Europa, 1987).
  43. ^ "Estatísticas Fluminense". Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  44. ^ GloboEsporte.com (10 July 2012). "Corinthians é visto como o maior rival no futebol nacional, diz pesquisa (apontando as principais rivalidades para cada clube, não a importância dos clássicos)". GloboEsporte.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  45. ^ Lance! newspaper - Em meio à críticas e quase barração, Gum chega a 350 jogos pelo Tricolor - in portuguese.
  46. ^ "Elenco". Fluminense's official professional roster. Retrieved 2 February 2018.

External links[edit]