|Preferred IUPAC name
|Systematic IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||166.223 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||116 to 117 °C (241 to 243 °F; 389 to 390 K)|
|Boiling point||295 °C (563 °F; 568 K)|
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||152 °C (306 °F; 425 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|16000 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Fluorene //, or 9H-fluorene is an organic compound with the formula (C6H4)2CH2. It forms white crystals that exhibit a characteristic, aromatic odor similar to that of naphthalene. It has a violet fluorescence, hence its name. For commercial purposes it is obtained from coal tar. It is insoluble in water and soluble in many organic solvents. Although sometimes classified as a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, the five-membered ring has no aromatic properties. Fluorene is mildly acidic.
Synthesis, structure, and reactivity
Although fluorene is obtained from coal tar, it can also be prepared by dehydrogenation of diphenylmethane. Alternatively, it can be prepared by the reduction of fluorenone with zinc. The fluorene molecule is nearly planar, although each of the two benzene rings is coplanar with the central carbon 9.
The C9-H sites of the fluorene ring are weakly acidic (pKa = 22.6 in DMSO.) Deprotonation gives the stable fluorenyl anion, nominally C13H9−, which is aromatic and has an intense orange colour. The anion is a nucleophile. Electrophiles react with it by adding to the 9-position. The purification of fluorene exploits its acidity and the low solubility of its sodium derivative in hydrocarbon solvents.
Fluorene is a precursor to other fluorene compounds; the parent species has few applications. Fluorene-9-carboxylic acid is a precursor to pharmaceuticals. Oxidation of fluorene gives fluorenone, which is nitrated to give commercially useful derivatives. 9-Fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (Fmoc chloride) is used to introduce the 9-fluorenylmethyl carbamate (Fmoc) protecting group on amines in peptide synthesis.
Polyfluorene polymers (where carbon 7 of one unit is linked to carbon 2 of the next one, displacing two hydrogens) are electrically conductive and electroluminescent, and have been much investigated as a luminophore in organic light-emitting diodes.
Fluorene dyes are well developed. Most are prepared by condensation of the active methylene group with carbonyls. 2-Aminofluorene, 3,6-bis-(dimethylamino)fluorene, and 2,7-diiodofluorene are precursors to dyes.
- Merck Index, 11th Edition, 4081
- Griesbaum, Karl; Behr, Arno; Biedenkapp, Dieter; Voges, Heinz-Werner; Garbe, Dorothea; Paetz, Christian; Collin, Gerd; Mayer, Dieter; Höke (2000). "Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_227.
- Fittig, Rud. (1873), "Ueber einen neuen Kohlenwasserstoff aus dem Diphenylenketon" Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. volume 6, p. 187.doi:10.1002/cber.18730060169
- D. M. Burns, John Iball (1954), Molecular Structure of Fluorene Nature volume 173, p. 635. doi:10.1038/173635a0
- Gerkin, R. E.; Lundstedt, A. P.; Reppart, W. J. (1984). "Structure of fluorene, C13H10, at 159 K". Acta Crystallographica Section C Crystal Structure Communications. 40 (11): 1892–1894. doi:10.1107/S0108270184009963.
- F. G. Bordwell (1988). "Equilibrium acidities in dimethyl sulfoxide solution". Acc. Chem. Res. 21 (12): 456–463. doi:10.1021/ar00156a004.
- G. W. Scherf; R. K. Brown (1960). "Potassium Derivatives of Fluorene as Intermediates in the Preparation of C9-substituted Fluorenes. I. The Preparation of 9-fluorenyl Potassium and the Infrared Spectra of Fluorene and Some C9-substituted Fluorenes". Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 38: 697. doi:10.1139/v60-100..
- Ewen, J. A.; Jones, R. L.; Razavi, A.; Ferrara, J. D. (1988). "Syndiospecific Propylene Polymerizations with Group IVB Metallocenes". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 110 (18): 6255–6256. doi:10.1021/ja00226a056. PMID 22148816.
- Kurdyukova, I. V.; Ishchenko, A. A. (2012). "Organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives". Russian Chemical Reviews. 81 (3): 258–290. Bibcode:2012RuCRv..81..258K. doi:10.1070/RC2012v081n03ABEH004211.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Fluorene in the National Institute of Standards and Technology database.