Fluorescein (medical use)

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Fluorescein
Fluorescin in dropper.jpg
Fluorescein drops being put in the eye before examination
Clinical data
PronunciationFLURE-a-seen
Routes of
administration
topical (eye drops), intravenous, by mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC20H10Na2O5
3D model (JSmol)

Fluorescein is used to help in the diagnosis of a number of eye problems.[1] When applied as a drop or within a strip of paper to the surface of the eye it is used to help detect eye injuries such as foreign bodies and corneal abrasions.[2][3] When given by mouth or injection into a vein it is used to help evaluate the blood vessels in the back of the eye during fluorescein angiography.[1]

When applied to the surface of the eye side effects may include a brief period of blurry vision and discoloration of contact lenses of the soft type.[4][1] When used by mouth or injection side effects may include headache, nausea, and a change to the color of the skin for a brief period of time.[1] Allergic reactions may rarely occur.[1] Fluorescein is a dye which is taken up by damaged cornea such that the area appears green under cobalt blue light.[1] There is also a version that comes premixed with lidocaine.[2]

Fluorescein was first made in 1871.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 12.25 USD per 5 ml bottle.[7] In the United Kingdom a single dose costs the NHS about 0.43 pounds.[2] It is also not very expensive in the United States.[3]

Other animals[edit]

It is also sometimes administered to pets in multi-pet environments to determine which pet needs behavioral modification.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Duvall, Brian; Kershner, Robert M. (2006). Ophthalmic Medications and Pharmacology. SLACK Incorporated. p. 29. ISBN 9781556427503. Archived from the original on 2017-01-18.
  2. ^ a b c British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. pp. 769, 772. ISBN 9780857111562.
  3. ^ a b Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 416. ISBN 9781284057560.
  4. ^ WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. 314. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  5. ^ Bartlett, Jimmy D.; Jaanus, Siret D. (2008). Clinical Ocular Pharmacology. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 283. ISBN 0750675764. Archived from the original on 2017-01-18.
  6. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  7. ^ "Fluorescein". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.