Fluorescence biomodulation

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Fluorescence biomodulation is a form of photobiomodulation, which utilizes fluorescence energy to induce multiple transduction pathways that can modulate biological processes through the activation of photoacceptors found within many different cell and tissue types. According to Magalhães and Yoshimura, photoacceptors are molecules that do not explicitly specialize in light absorption but possess the ability to do so in the presence of light which in turn can enhance their functioning.[1]

To generate fluorescence, specialized light absorbing molecules (chromophores) are employed to translate light energy into a high-energy emission of fluorescence through a mechanism known as stokes shift.[2] Fluorescence biomodulation differs from photobiomodulation in that it employs fluorescence as a photo vehicle to induce biomodulation. Fluorescence, as generated by chromophores, is displayed as a broad spectral distribution of wavelengths and/or frequencies which can be controlled to penetrate tissues to various degrees.[3] Tailoring fluorescence biomodulation allows compatibility between the specific emissions of fluorescence and the unique light absorbing characteristics of different cell and tissue types in the body.[4] Shorter wavelengths (<600 nm) within the visible spectrum cannot penetrate deep into tissue and are localized within the epidermis or dermis.[5][6] Conversely, longer wavelengths (>600 nm) within the visible spectrum penetrate further up into the hypodermis.[5][6]


  1. ^ Gupta, Gaurav. "Low-level laser therapy for body contouring and fat reduction". In Hamblin, Michael; de Sousa, Pires; Victor, Marcelo; Agrawal, Tanupriya (eds.). Handbook of low-level laser therapy. Singapore. p. 87. ISBN 9789814669610. OCLC 960707689.
  2. ^ Valeur, Bernard; Berberan-Santos, Mário Nuno (2013). Molecular Fluorescence : principles and applications (2nd ed.). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 569. ISBN 9783527650002. OCLC 841171485.
  3. ^ Wilhelm, Klaus-Peter; Elsner, Peter; Berardesca, Enzo; Maibach, Howard (2007). Bioengineering of the skin : skin imaging and analysis (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9781420005516. OCLC 99997125.
  4. ^ Regan, James; Parrish, John (1982). "Optical Properties of Human Skin". The Science of Photomedicine. Springer US. pp. 147–194. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-8312-3_6. ISBN 9781468483123. OCLC 840289734.
  5. ^ a b Churmakov, D. Y.; Meglinski, I. V.; Piletsky, S. A.; Greenhalgh, D. A. (2003). "Analysis of skin tissues spatial fluorescence distribution by the Monte Carlo simulation". Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 36 (14): 1722. arXiv:physics/0401109. Bibcode:2003JPhD...36.1722C. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/36/14/311.
  6. ^ a b Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Asheesh; Sadasivam, Magesh; Vecchio, Daniela; Pam, Zeev; Pam, Nadav; Hamblin, Michael R (2013). "Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring". Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. 32 (1): 41–52. PMC 4126803. PMID 24049929.